Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology
Subscribe to JPVB
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - F4708A847025


Vol.6(9), pp. 142-150 , September 2014
DOI: 10.5897/JPVB12.010
ISSN: 2141-2510



Full Length Research Paper

Biodiversity and ecology of Culicidae and Simuliidae probable vectors of infectious diseases in villages of the Sanaga mid valley, Cameroon: Influence of the Sanaga River



Kuete Thomas*
  • Kuete Thomas*
  • Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Cameroon.
  • Google Scholar
Nkoa Therese
  • Nkoa Therese
  • Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Cameroon.
  • Google Scholar
Tassen Fabien
  • Tassen Fabien
  • Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon.
  • Google Scholar
Baleguel Nkot Pierre
  • Baleguel Nkot Pierre
  • Yaounde Initiative Foundation, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
  • Google Scholar
Same-Ekobo Albert
  • Same-Ekobo Albert
  • Laboratory of Parasitology, Yaoundé University Hospital Centre, Cameroon.
  • Google Scholar







 Received: 06 April 2012  Accepted: 25 August 2014  Published: 30 September 2014

Copyright © 2014 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0


Most riverine villages of the Sanaga river are known endemic for vector-borne diseases. Two cross sectional surveys were set during two seasons in villages of the Sanaga mid valley to identify main Simuliids and mosquitoes genus and species, their specific biotopes and fluctuations of their abundance with respect to distance from the river banks and seasons. The study villages are located close to 5 and 35 km from the Sanaga river edges. Both larva and adult stages were assessed using known methods. All adults Simuliids, larvae and nymphs were identified as Simulium damnosum. Larvae and nymphs were collected only in the river stream and adults near the banks, farms and near households. Adults and larvae abundance was greater in the rainy season whereas nymphs were more abundant in the dry season. Endophilic mosquitoes harvested were Anopheles and Culex. Their abundance was greater in villages close to the river. Species and resting densities varied with distance from the river edges. Culicidae larvae collected belonged to Aedes, Anopheles and Culex. Fourteen species were identified, 3 of Anopheles, 5 of Aedes and 6 of Culex. Some species showed broad specificity to biotopes. This study indicates that mosquito fauna is more diversified at larval stage in the Sanaga mid valley; some having broad specificity to breading sites. The Sanaga river harbours most of the species found in the water bodies. Indoor adult mosquitoes are less diversified indicating that most of the mosquito found at larval stage may breed mostly outdoor. Simulium larvae and pupae breed specifically in the falls and rapids of the Sanaga stream. Both sexes of adult Simulium are found near the river, whereas only females are found near households and in farms. Adults Simulium density decreases with the distance from the river with two picks of abundance in the day.

 

Key words: Biodiversity, Culicidae, Simuliidae, Sanaga River.

Adja AM, N'Goran KE, Kengne P, Koudou GB, Toure M, Koffi AA, Tia E, Fontenille D, Chandre F (2006). Transmission vectorielle du paludisme en savane arboisée à Gansé en Côte d'Ivoire. Med. Trop. 66:449-455.
 
Antonio-Nkondjo C, Kerah CH, Simard F, Ambene AP, Chouaibou M, Tchuinkam T, Fontenille D (2006). Complexity of the malaria vectorial System in Cameroon: contribution of secondary vectors to malaria transmission. J. Med. Entomol. 43(6):1215-1221.
Crossref
 
Awono-Ambene P, Kengne P, Simard F, Antonio-Nkondjio C, Fontenille D (2004). Description and bionomics of Anopheles (Cellia) ovengensis (Diptera: Culicidae), a new malaria vector species of the Anopheles nili group from south Cameroon. J. Med. Entomol. 41(4):561-568.
Crossref
 
Bellec C, Hebrard G (1983). Les heures d'activité de vol des adultes du complexe Simulium damnosum en secteur pré-forestier de Côte d'Ivoire. Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M., Sér. Entomol. Méd. Parasitol. 21(4):261-278.
 
Carnevale P, Le Goff G, Toto JC, Robert V (1992). Anopheles nili as the main vector of human malaria in villages in southern Cameroon. Med. Vet. Entomol. 6:135-138.
Crossref
 
Cattand P, Desjeux P, Guzmán MG, Jannin J, Kroeger A, Medici A, Musgrove P, Nathan MB, Shaw A, Schofield CJ (2006). Tropical Diseases Lacking Adequate Control Measures: Dengue, Leishmaniasis, and African Trypanosomiasis. In: Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, Alleyne G, Claeson M, Evans DB, Jha P, Mills A, Musgrove P (eds.), Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. Washington (DC): World Bank; 2006. P 23.
 
Elouard JM, Gibon FM (1985). Compétition interspécifique entre les stades préimaginaux de quelques espèces de simulies Ouest-Africaines. Bull. Ecol. 16(3):223-229.
 
Fontenille D, Lochouarn L (1999). The complexity of the malaria vectorial system in Africa. Parasitologia 41(1-3):267-271.
 
Fontenille D, Toto JC (2001). Aedes (Stegomia) albopictus (skuse), a potential new dengue vector in southern Cameroon. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7(6):1066-1067.
Crossref
 
Freeman P, De Meillon B (1953). Simuliidae of the Ethiopian region. British Museum, London, 224p.
 
Gazin P, Le Goff G, Ambassa P, Mulder L, Loue P, Carnevale P (1989). Etude du paludisme à Edéa et Mbebe : 1-Premiers résultats. Yaoundé: OCEAC 680/SEM.
 
Gillies MT, Coetzee M (1987). A supplement to the Anophelinae of Africa, South of the Sahara. S. African Institute for Medical Research, 55:1-143.
 
Gillies MT, De Meillon B (1968). The Anophelinae of Africa South of the Sahara. Publication of the South African Institute for Medical Research, 13(54).
 
Hougard JM, Mbentengam R, Lochouarn L, Escaffre H, Darriet F, Barbazan P, Quillévéré D (1993). Lutte contre Culex quinquefasciatus par Bacillus sphaericus : résultats d'une campagne pilote dans une grande agglomération urbaine d'Afrique équatoriale. Bull. World Health Organ. 71(3-4):367-375.
PubMed
 
Huang YM (2004). The subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Afrotropical Region with keys to the species (Diptera: Culicidae). Magnolia press Aucklang, New Zealand. 82:78-82.
 
Jupp PG (1996). Mosquitoes of southern Africa: Culicinae and Toxorhynchitinae. Hartebeespoort (South Africa): Ekolgilde publishers. p. 155.
 
Larivière M, Abonnenc E (1958). Les gîtes larvaires de Culicidae dans la Presqu'île du Cap Vert. Waterhouse. pp. 334-356.
 
Le Goff G, Carnevale P, Vincent R (1997). Low dispersion of Anopheline malaria vectors in the African equatorial forest. Parasite 35:187-189.
 
Le Goff G, Robert V, Gazin P, Carnevale P (1990). Prospections entomologiques de la faune culicidienne dans le bassin de la Sanaga: 1. Premiers résultats. Yaoundé: OCEAC. P 4.
 
Le Goff G, Toto JC, Carnevale P (1994). Evaluation entomologique de l'effet insectifuge du DMP sur trois vecteurs du paludisme au Sud-Cameroun. Bull. Liais. Doc. OCEAC, 27(3):126-129.
 
Mouchet J (1962). Influence des fleuves sur la biologie d'Anopheles gambiae pendant la saison sèche dans le Sud-Cameroun. Bull. Soc. de Pathol. Exot. 55(6):1163-1171.
 
Mouchet J (1971). Surveys of potential yellow fever vectors in Gabon and Tchad. WHO/VBC/71.279.
 
Opoku AA (2006). The ecology and biting activity of black flies (Simuliidae) and the prevalence of onchocerciasis in an agricultural community in Ghana. W. Afr. J. Appl. Ecol. 9:51-59.
 
Ostfeld RS, Keesing F (2000). The function of biodiversity in the ecology of vector-borne zoonotic diseases. Can. J. Zool. 78:251-254.
Crossref
 
Philippon B (1977). Rapport de mission à Song-Loulou (République Unie du Cameroun). N° 460/ 77/ O.R.S.T.O.M/ Bouaké.
 
Rageau J, Adam JP (1952). Culicinae du Cameroun. Ann. Parasit. 27(6):610-635.
 
Rageau J, Adam JP (1953). Note complémentaire sur les Culicinae du Cameroun. Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. 28(5-6):412-424.
PubMed
 
Rickenbach A, Eouzan JP, Ferrara L, Bailly-choumara H (1976a). Données nouvelles sur la présence et la répartition des Toxorhynchinae et Culicinae (Diptera, Culicidae) au Cameroun 1. Genres Toxorhynchites, Malaya, Hodgesia, Uranotaenia, Aedeomyia, Culiseta, Orthopodomyia, Ficalbia, Mansonia et Aedes. cah. O.R.S.T.O.M., sér. Entomol. Méd. Parasitol. 14(1):61-68.
 
Rickenbach A, Eouzan JP, Ferrara L, Bailly-choumara H (1976b). Données nouvelles sur la présence et la répartition des Toxorhynchinae et Culicinae (Diptera, Culicidae) au Cameroun 2- Genres Eretmapodites et Culex. Cah. ORSTOM, Sér. Entomol. Méd. Parasitol. 14(2):93-100.
 
Robert V, Gazin P, Ouédraogo V, Carnevale P (1986). Le paludisme urbain à Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)- 1. Etude entomologique de la transmission. Cah. ORSTOM, Ser. Entomol. Med. Parasitol. 24(2):121-128.
 
Rodhain F (1999). Les maladies à vecteurs. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris. P 127.
 
Rodhain F, Perez C (1985). Précis d'entomologie médicale et vétérinaire. Maloine s.a. éditeur, Paris. p. 458.
 
Same-Ekobo A (1997). Santé Climat et environnement au Cameroun. Edition Jutely-Sciences. P 329.
 
Service MW (1976). Contribution to the knowledge of the mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of Gabon. Cah. ORSTOM, Sér. Entomol. Méd. Parasitol. 14(3):259-263.
 
Subra R (1973). Etudes écologiques sur Culex pipiens fatigans Wiedemann, 1828 (Diptera, Culicidae) dans une zone urbaine de savane soudanienne Ouest-Africaine: dynamique des populations imaginales. Cah. ORSTOM, Sér. Entomol. Méd. Parasitol. 11(2):79-100.
 
Traore-Lamizana M, Lemasson JJ (1987). Participation à une étude de faisabilité d'une campagne de lutte contre l'onchocercose dans une région du bassin du Logone. Répartition des espèces du complexe Simulium damnosum dans la zone Camerounaise du projet. Cah. ORSTOM, Sér. Entomol. Méd. Parasitol. 25(34):171-186.
 
Traore-Lamizana M, Somiari S, Mafuyai H, Vajime C, Post R (2001). Sex chromosome variation and cytotaxonomy of the onchocerciasis vector Simulium squamosum in Cameroon and Nigeria. Med. Vet. Entomol. 15(2):219-223.
Crossref

 


APA Kuete, T., Nkoa, T., Tassen, F., Baleguel, N. P. & Same-Ekobo, A. (2014). Biodiversity and ecology of Culicidae and Simuliidae probable vectors of infectious diseases in villages of the Sanaga mid valley, Cameroon: Influence of the Sanaga River. Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology, 6(9), 142-150.
Chicago Kuete Thomas, Nkoa Therese, Tassen Fabien, Baleguel Nkot Pierre and Same-Ekobo Albert,. "Biodiversity and ecology of Culicidae and Simuliidae probable vectors of infectious diseases in villages of the Sanaga mid valley, Cameroon: Influence of the Sanaga River." Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology 6, no. 9 (2014): 142-150.
MLA Kuete Thomas, et al. "Biodiversity and ecology of Culicidae and Simuliidae probable vectors of infectious diseases in villages of the Sanaga mid valley, Cameroon: Influence of the Sanaga River." Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology 6.9 (2014): 142-150.
   
DOI 10.5897/JPVB12.010
URL http://academicjournals.org/journal/JPVB/article-abstract/F4708A847025

Subscription Form