Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research
Subscribe to JSPPR
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 5659FAD66087

Vol.8(9), pp. 93-102 , September 2017
DOI: 10.5897/JSPPR2017.0247
ISSN: 2141-6567


Management of insect pests of stored sorghum using botanicals in Nigerian traditional stores

Suleiman M.
  • Suleiman M.
  • Department of Zoology and Wildlife Conservation, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Rugumamu C. P.
  • Rugumamu C. P.
  • Department of Crop Sciences and Beekeeping Technology, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar

 Received: 06 July 2017  Accepted: 29 August 2017  Published: 30 September 2017

Copyright © 2017 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0

Sorghum is a security crop widely grown in arid and semi-arid ecologies. Nigeria produces 30 to 40% of Africa’s sorghum. Sorghum in Nigeria is mostly produced and stored by rural farmers at the farm/village level after harvest. The prominent storage structures existing in rural areas in northern Nigeria are the mud rhumbus, thatched rhumbus and underground pits. During storage, different species of insect pests such as Sitophilus granarius (L.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Trogoderma granarium (Ev.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.) and Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) were observed to cause serious damage to sorghum. The insect pests were reported to cause up to 13.12% weight loss of threshed sorghum and 8.34% weight loss to the unthreshed sorghum. Citrus sinensis L., Euphorbia balsamifera L., Lawsonia inermis L., Leptidania hastata L., Cymbopogon nardus and Ocimum basilicum are some of the plant species tested in the laboratory against S. zeamais and T. castaneum in sorghum. This paper aims to review some of the available literature on the management of insect pests of stored sorghum in Nigerian on-farm traditional granaries using some botanicals as a contribution to the components of integrated pest management (IPM).

Key words: Botanicals, insect pests, management, sorghum, traditional storage.

Abate T, Huis AV, Ampofo JKO (2000). Pest management strategies in traditional agriculture: An African prospective. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 45:63-65.


Abbas AB, Ndunguru G, Mamiro P, Alenkhe B, Mlingi N, Bekunda M (2014). Post-harvest food losses in a maize-based farming system of semi-arid savannah area of Tanzania. J. Stored Prod Res. 57:49-57.


Adedire CO (2001). Biology, Ecology and Control of Insect Pests of Stored Cereal Grains. In: Ofuya TI and Lale NES (eds.). Pests of Stored Cereals and Pulses in Nigeria. Dave Collins Publications, Akure, Nigeria. pp. 59-94.


Adejumo BA, Raji AO (2007). Technical appraisal of grain storage systems in the Nigerian sudan savannah. Agricultural Engineering International: The International Commission on Agricultural Engineering (CIGR). J. Sci. Res Dev. Invited Overview IX(11):1-12.


Adetunji MO (2007). Economics of maize storage techniques by farmers of Kwara State, Nigeria. Pak. J. Soc. Sci. 4(3):442-450.


Akunne CE, Chima GN, Ononye BU, Okafor KP (2015). Comparative efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus and Psidium guajava powders as poison against Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) in stored maize grains. Open Sci. J. Biosci. Bioengr. 2(4):41-44.


Anankware PJ, Fatunbi AO, Afreh-Nuamah K, Obeng-Ofori D, Ansah AF (2012). Efficacy of mullti-layer hermetic storage bag for biorational management of primary beetle pests of stored maize. Acad. J. Entomol. 5(1):47-53.


Atanda AS, Agoda S, Ihionu GC, Usanga AE (2016). Protection of grains and cereals-A Review. App. Sci. Report. 13(2):96-106.


Baidoo PK, Mochiah MB, Owusu-Akyaw M (2010). Levels of infestation of three different portions of the maize cobs by the weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky). J. Sci. Technol. 30(3):21-26.


Beshir TSD (2011). Susceptibility of stored sorghum grains in Renk area to infestation by the Khapra beetle and the Lesser grain borer. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Khartoum, Sudan. 105p.


Boxall RA (1998). Grains post-harvest loss assessment in Ethiopia: Final report. [Working Paper]. University of Greenwich Natural Resources Institute. 33p.


Boxall RA, Gebre-Tsadik M, Jayaraj K, Ramam CP, Patternaik BB, Hodges RJ (2004). Sorghum. In: Hodges R, Farrell G (eds.). Crop Post-Harvest: Science and Technology. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2:128-144.


Calvin D (1990). Sawtoothed and Merchant Grain Beetle. Department of Entomology Entomological Notes, Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences. 



Canadian Grain Commission (CGC) (2013a). Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier). Canadian Grain Commission.



Canadian Grain Commission (CGC) (2013b). Rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens). Canadian Grain Commission. 



Chapman RF (2009). The Insects Structure and Function (4th edition). Cambridge University Press. New York. 770p.


Chattha SH, Lee TS, Mirani BN, Hasfalina CM (2014). Effects of storage methods, storage duration and different geographical locations on quality of stored wheat (Triticum aestivum) in sindh, Pakistan. J. Biodiv. Env. Sci. 5(4):378-392.


DAF (2016). Insect Pests of Stored Grain. Department of Agriculture and Food. 



Dwivedi SC, Kumar R (1998). Evaluation of Cassia occidentalis leaf extract on development and damage caused by Trogoderma granarium, Khabra beetle. J. Ecotoxicol. Env. Mon. 8:55-58.


Edeldouk E, Akpabio E, Eyo J, Ekpe E (2012). Bio-insecticidal potentials of testa powder of melon, Citrullus vulgaris Schrad for reducing infestation of maize grains by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. J. Bio. Agric. Healthcare 2(8):13-17.


FAO (1994). Grain storage techniques. Evaluation and trends in developing countries. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Agricultural Bulletin No. 109.


FAO (1999). Sorghum: Post-harvest operations. Natural Resources Institute, Food Security Department. INPhO - Post-harvest Compendium. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 33p.


FAO (2011). Rural structures in the tropics: Design and development. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 500pp.


FAO (2013). Food and agricultural commodities production. FAOSTAT. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 



Gilman GA, Boxall RA (1974). Storage of food grains in traditional underground pits. Trop. Stored Prod. Infor. 29:6-9.


Gilse PH (1964). The insect infestation of sorghum stored in granaries in Northern Nigeria. Bull. Entomol. Res. 55(3):573-588.


Goftishu M, Belete K (2014). Susceptibility of sorghum varieties to the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Afr. J. Agric. Res. 9(31):2419-2426.


Golob P, Birkinshow LA, Starthers TE, Meyer AN, Belmain SR, Farrell G, Hodges RJ (2002). Pest management. In: Golob P, Farrell G, Orchard JE (eds.) Crop Post-Harvest: Science and Technology, Volume 1. Blackwell Science Ltd. 566p.


Haines CP (1991). Insects and Arachnids of Tropical Stored Products: Their Biology and Identification. 2nd edition. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, Kent, Uk. 246p.


Halstead DGH (1980). A revision of the genus Oryzaephilus Ganglbauer, including descriptions of related genera (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 69(4):271- 374.


Hashem MY, Ahmed SS, El-Mohandes MA, Gharib MA (2012). Susceptibility of different life stages of Saw-toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) on modified atmospheres enriched with carbon dioxide. J. Stored Prod. Res. 48:46-51.


Hill DS (1997). The Economic Importance of Insects. Chapman and Hall, 395p.


Ileke KD, Oni MO (2011). Toxicity of some plant powders to maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) [Coleoptera: Curculionidae] on stored wheat grains (Triticum aestivum). Afr. J. Agric. Res. 6(13):3043-3048.


Johnson D (2014). Insect Pests of Stored Grains: Angoumois Grain Moth. University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Food and Environment. 



Karthikeyan C, Veeraragavathatham D, Karpagam D, Firdouse SA (2009). Traditional storage practices. Indian J. Trad. Know. 8(4):564-568.


Kavallieratos NG, Athanassiour CG, Arthur FH, Throne JE (2012). Lesser grain borers, Rhyzopertha dominica select rough rice kernels with cracked hulls for reproduction. J. Insect Sci. 12(38):1-7.


Khaliq A, Nawas A, Ahmad NH, Sagheer M (2014). Assessment of insecticidal potential of medicinal plant extracts for control of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Basic Res. J. Agric. Sci. Rev. 3(11):100-104.


Khashaveh A, Ziaee M, Safaralizadeh MH, Lorestani FA (2009). Control of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) with spinosad dose formulation in different seedoils. Park. J. Agric For. 33:203-209.


Koehler PG (2015). Rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). IFAS Extension. University of Florida. 2p. 



Kolterman D, Thiessen EJ, Wells E (2000). Kansas on-farm postharvest chemical use. Kansas Agricultural Statistics, 4p.


Mada DA, Mahai S, Adamu IG, Girei MM (2014). Toxicity study on pesticide of cereal, legume and oil seed with regard to storage structures of Ganye, southern Adamawa State – Nigeria. Int. J. Engr. Res. Dev. 10(3):33-39.


Mahai S, Jamala GY, Mada DA, Medugu IA (2015). Assessment of sorghum storage methods in Madagali and Ganye areas of Adamawa State, Nigeria. The Int. J. Engr. Sci. 4(10):01-06.


Mailafiya DM (2003). The performance of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) on different sorghum varieties grown in Ghana. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Ghana. 109p.


Mailafiya DM, Dauda Z, Degri MM, Kabir BGJ, Maina YT (2014a). An appraisal of insect pests associated with cereal grains traded in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Int. Letts. Nat. Sci. 14:76-83.


Mailafiya DM, Maina TY, Degri MM, Gadzama UN (2014b). Traders' perception of food grain storage and pest management in Dalwa market, Borno State, Nigeria. J. Agric. Crop Res. 2(4):62-70.


Mason LJ (2003). Grain Insect Fact Sheet E-228-W: Sawtoothed Grain Beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). Purdue University, Department of Entomology. 



Musa AK, Dike MC (2009). Life cycle, morphometrics and damage assessment of the Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermstidae) on stored groundnuts. J. Agric. Sci. 54(2):135-142.


Musa AK, Dike MC, Amatobi CI, Onu I (2007). Laboratory evaluation of some botanicals for the control of Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) on stored groundnuts. JORMAR 4(1-2):56-62.


Muzemu S, Chitamba J, Mutetwa B (2013). Evaluation of Eucalyptus tereticornis, Tagetes minuta and Carica papaya as stored maize grain protectants against Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Agric. For. Fish. 2(5):196-201.


Naseem MT, Khan RR (2011). Comparison of repellency of essential oils against red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J. Stored Prod. Postharvest Res. 2(7):131-134.


Nukenine EN (2010). Stored product protection in Africa: Past, present and future. 10th Working Conf. Stored Prod. Protection 425:26-41.


Odeyemi OO (2001). Biology, Ecology and Control of Insect Pests of Stored Processed Cereals and Pulses. In: Ofuya TI and Lale NES (eds.). Pests of Stored Cereals and Pulses in Nigeria. pp. 95-112. Dave Collins Publications, Akure, Nigeria.


Okonkwo EU (1998). Bibliography, A bibliography of plant materials used for controlling insect pests of stored products in Nigeria. Rev. Agric. Entomol. 30p.


Okrikata E, Oruonye ED (2012). Issues surrounding the use of plant-derived pesticides (Botanicals) in pest management in Nigeria. Int. J. Sci. Nat. 3(3):487-490.


Oni MO, Ogungbite OC, Bello FO (2016). Biotoxic efficacy of two horticultural plants against infestation of Sitophilus oryzae on stored maize. Leonardo J. Sci. 28:109-122.


Onolemhemhen PO, Olebor JU, Umeri C (2011). The efficacy of Xylopia aethiopica and Piper guineense seeds powder on Sitophilus oryzae mortality. J. Agric. Soc. Res. 11(2):161-167.


Pricket AJ, Muggletun J, Llewellin JA (1990). Insecticide resistance in populations of Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cryptolestes ferrugineus from grain stores in England and Wales. Brighton Crop Protection Conference - Pests and Diseases 3:1189-1194.


Rahman MA, Taleb MA, Biswas MM (2003). Evaluation of botanical product as grain protectant against grain weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.) on wheat. Asian J. Plant Sci. 2(6):501-504.


Rajashekar Y, Bakthavatsalam N, Shivanandappa T (2012). Botanicals as grain protectants. Psychology 2012:1-13.


Rampho ET (2005). Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. 


Rees D (2007). Insects of Stored Grain A Pocket Reference. 2nd Edition. CSIRO Publishing. Australia. 81p.


Robinson WH (2005). Urban Insects and Arachnids. A Handbook of Urban Entomology. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK. 472p.


Rotimi J, Evboumwan CO (2012). Deterrent effects of citrus peel oils on oviposition and adult emergence of cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F) (Coleoptera: Bruhidae). Adv. App. Sci. Res. 3(6):3545-3550.


Rugumamu CP (2012). A technique for assessment of intrinsic resistance of maize varieties for the control of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Tanzania J. Nat. App. Sci. 3(1):481-488.


Rugumamu CP (2014). Potency of traditional insecticide materials against stored bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Tanzania. HURIA J. 16:126-139.


Rugumamu CP (2015). Insecticidal activity of botanical pesticides on Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored green gram, Vigna radiate (L). Int. J. Agric. Res. 4(1):013-020.


Simonyan KJ, El-Okene AM, Yiljep YD (2007). Some physical properties of Samaru Sorghum 17 grains. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal Manuscript FP 07008. Vol. IX. August, 2007.


Sori W (2014). Effect of selected botanicals and local seed storage practices on maize insect pests and health of maize seeds in Jimma zone. Singapore J. Sci. Res. 4(2):19-28.


Sterling RL, Meixel GD, Dunkel F, Fairhurst C (1983). Underground storage of food. Undeeground Space. 7:257-262.


Suleiman M (2014). Efficacy of Some Spices as Sorghum Grain Protectants against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky [Coleoptera: Curculionidae]. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 9(9):841-845.


Suleiman M, Ibrahim ND, Majeed Q (2012). Control of Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch) [Coleoptera: Curculionidae] on Sorghum Using Some Plant Powders. Int. J. Agric. For. 2(1):53-57.


Suleiman M, Majeed Q, Aiki IP (2013). Efficacy of four plant powders against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky [Coleoptera: Curculionidae] on sorghum grains. Int. J. App. Res. Technol. 2(6):130-138.


Suresh S, White NDG, Jayas DS, Hulasare RB (2001). Mortality resulting from interactions between the red flour beetle and the rusty grain beetle. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Manitoba 57:11-18.


Surtees G (1965). Laboratory studies on dispersion behaviour of adult beetles in grain. X. Reaction of saw-toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) to isolated pockets of damp and mouldy wheat. J. App. Ecol. 2(1):71-80.


Tilahun FE, Daniel DH (2016). Effect of neem leaf and seed powders against adult maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) mortality. Int. J. Agric. Res. 11:90-94.


Tiroesele B, Thomas K, Seketeme S (2015). Control of cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) using natural plant products. Insects 6(1):77-84.


USAID (2011). Staple Crops Storage Handbook. The United States Agency for International Development/East Africa Regional Office. 152p.


USDA (2014). Nigeria grain and feed annual, Annual report 2014. United States Department of Agriculture, 16p.


Utono IM (2013a). Assessment of grain loss due to insect pest during storage for small-scale farmers of Kebbi. IOSR J. Agric. Vet. Sci. 3(5):38-50.


Utono IM (2013b). A novel approach to control stored sorghum beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in small-scale farmers' storerooms in Kebbi – Nigeria. PhD Theses. The University of Greewich, United Kingdom 318p.


van Emden HF (2013). Handbook of Agricultural Entomology. Wiley-Blackwell, A John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Publication. 312p.


Wakil W, Riasat T, Ghazanfar MU, Kwon YJ, Shaheen FA (2011). Aptness of Beauveria bassiana and enhanced diatomaceous earth (DEBBM) for control of Rhyzopertha dominica F. Entomological Research. 41(6):233-241.


Weaver DK, Petroff AR (2004). Sored grain. Rusty grain beetle. High Plains IPM Guide. A cooperative effort of the University of Wyoming, University of Nebraska, Colorado State University and Montana State University. 4p.


APA Suleiman, M., & Rugumamu, C. P. (2017). Management of insect pests of stored sorghum using botanicals in Nigerian traditional stores. Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research, 8(9), 93-102.
Chicago Suleiman M., and Rugumamu C. P.. "Management of insect pests of stored sorghum using botanicals in Nigerian traditional stores." Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research 8, no. 9 (2017): 93-102.
MLA Suleiman M., and Rugumamu C. P.. "Management of insect pests of stored sorghum using botanicals in Nigerian traditional stores." Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research 8.9 (2017): 93-102.
DOI 10.5897/JSPPR2017.0247

Subscription Form