Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health
Subscribe to JVMAH
Full Name*
Email Address*

Article Number - 1021EAD55557

Vol.10(2), pp. 45-54 , February 2018
ISSN: 2141-2529

 Total Views: 0
 Downloaded: 0

Full Length Research Paper

Assessment of dairy farmers’ hygienic milking practices and awareness on cattle milk-borne zoonoses in Bishoftu, Ethiopia

Lencho Getechew Kebede
  • Lencho Getechew Kebede
  • School of Veterinary Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Seblewongel Ayichew Megerrsa
  • Seblewongel Ayichew Megerrsa
  • School of Veterinary Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar

 Received: 08 June 2017  Accepted: 12 September 2017  Published: 28 February 2018

Copyright © 2018 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bishoftu town, Ethiopia, from November, 2016 to April, 2017, to assess smallholder urban dairy farmers’ milk hygiene practices and awareness on cattle milk-borne zoonoses. Data were collected from a total of 100 randomly selected dairy farmers using structured questionnaire. The results of the study showed that all respondents practiced hand milking, with twice (90%), once (8%) and thrice (2%) milking frequency per day. Most of the respondents (86%) cleaned their barn before milking and 98% used treated pipe water supply for farm activities. Plastic containers were commonly used for storage and transportation of milk. About 26 and 28% of the farmers used individual and common towel for wiping udder after washing, respectively. Most of the farmers (98%) did not practice post-milking dipping of teats. In all the farmers interviewed, respondents’ awareness levels of milk-borne zoonoses were 38.89, 33.33, 19.84, 6.35 and 1.6% for tuberculosis, mastitis, anthrax, brucellosis and salmonellosis, respectively. Based on the findings of this study, farmers’ awareness level on cattle milk-born zoonoses was low except for tuberculosis and mastitis. In conclusion, there was little awareness about milk borne diseases and some farmers adhered to some dairy hygiene practices. Therefore, it is imperative to strengthen farmers’ awareness, extension services and training programs for smallholders in dairy industry on milking hygiene practices and post-harvest handling of milk, to minimize the likely losses due to rejection of spoiled milk and milk-borne dangers which may occur due to consumption of contaminated milk.

Key words: Bishoftu, farmers’ awareness, milk-borne zoonoses, milking hygiene.


CSA, Central Statistics Authority; CAC, Codex Alimentarius Commission; FSA, Food Standards Agency; NMSA, National Meteorological Services Agency; IMPS, improving productivity and market success; ILCA,             International Livestock Centre for Africa; SPSS, Statistical Package for Social Sciences.

Ashenafi M, Beyene F (1994). Microbial load, microflora, and keeping quality of raw and pasteurized milk from a dairy Farm. Bull. Anim. Health Prod. Afr. 42:55-59.


Azage T (2004). Urban livestock production and gender in Addis Ababa, urban agriculture Magazine number 12. Proc. 14th Annual Conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal production (ESAP). September 5-7, 2006. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Barros LSS, Sóglia SLO, Ferreira MJ, Rodrigues MJ, Branco MPC (2011). Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and Candida species in crude milk. J. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 3:206-212.


Bartlett JE, Kotrlik JW, Higgins CC (2001). Organizational Research: Determining Appropriate Sample Size in Survey Research. Inform. Technol. Learn. Perform. J. 19(1):43.


Belay D, Yisehak K, Geert PJ, Janssens C (2012). Survey of major diseases affecting dairy cattle in Jimma town, Oromia, Ethiopia. Glob. Vet. 8:62-66.


Benta D, Abtamu T (2011). Study on Prevalence of Mastitis and its Associated Risk Factors in Lactating Dairy Cows in Batu and its Environs, Ethiopia. Glob. Vet. 7(6): 632-637.


Bereda A, Yilma Z, Nurfeta A (2012). Hygienic and microbial quality of raw whole cow's milk produced in Ezha district of the Gurage zone, Southern Ethiopia. Wudpecker J. Agri. Res. 1(11):459-465.


Bereda A, Yilma Z, Nurfeta A (2014). Dairy Production System and Constraints in Ezha Districts of the Gurage Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Glob. Vet. 12(2):181-186.


Bertu WJ, Depar M, Gusi AM, Ngulukun SS, Leo S, Jwander LD (2010). Prevalence of brucella antibodies in marketed milk in Jos and environs. Afr. J. Food Sci. 4(2): 062-064.


Bruktawit S (2016). Physicochemical properties and microbial quality of cow milk collected from selected subcity of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. pp.65-78.


Central Statistics Authority (CSA) (2014). Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Central Statistics Authority, Agricultural sample survey.Vol. II. Report on livestock and livestock characteristics. Statistical Bulletin. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


De Buyser ML, Dufour B, Maire M, Lafarge V(2001). Implication of milk and milk products in food-borne diseases in France and in different industrialized countries. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 67(1):1-17.


DeGraaf T, Romero Zuniga, Cabalellero M, Dwinger RH (1997). Microbiological quality aspects of cow's milk at a smallholder cooperative in Turrialba, Costa Rica. Revue d'Élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux 50(1):57-64.


Duguma B, Geert PJ (2015). Assessment of Dairy Farmers' Hygienic Milking Practices and Awareness of Cattle and Milk-Borne Zoonoses in Jimma, Ethiopia. Food Sci. Quality Manag. 45.


Ekuttan CE (2005). Biological and chemical health risks associated with smallholder dairy production in Dagoretti Division. Nairobi, Kenya (Unpublished MSc Thesis, Department of Community Health, University of Nairobi, Kenya).


Getachew F (2003). A review of small scale dairy sector in Ethiopia. FAO prevention of food losses programme. Milk and milk products. Post-harvest losses and food safety in Sub-Saharan Africa and Near East.


Girma S, Zewde G, Tafess K, Jibat T (2012). Assessment of awareness on food borne zoonoses and its relation with veterinary public health services in and around Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. J. Public Health Epidemiol. 4(2):48-51.


Godefay B, Molla B (2000). Bacteriological quality of raw milk from four dairy farms and milk collection center in and around Addis Ababa. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 113(7-8):276-278.


International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA) (1990). Annual Report and Programme Highlights. ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ISSN 1014-9015.


Improving Productivity and Market Success (IPMS) (2005). Ethiopian Farmers Project Working Paper 9, ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. P 62.


Jergefa T, Kelay B, Bekana M, Teshale S, Gustafson H, Kindahl H (2009). Epidemiological study of bovine brucellosis in three agro-ecological areas of central Oromiya, Ethiopia. Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics) 28(3):933-943.


Kedija H, Azage T, Mohammed YK, Berhanu G (2008). Traditional cow and camel milk production and marketing in agropastoral and mixed crop–livestock systems: The case of Mieso District, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. IPMS (Improving Productivity and Market Success) of Ethiopian Farmers Project Working Paper 13. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. pp. 56:1-3.


Milligo V, Ouedraogo GA, Agenas S, Svennersten-Sijaunja K (2008). Survey on dairy cattle milk production and milk quality problems in peri-urban areas in Burkina Faso. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 3:215-224.


Munyeme M, Muma JB, Munang'andu HM, Kankya C, Skjerve E, Tryland M (2010). Cattle owners' awareness of bovine tuberculosis in high and low prevalence settings of the wildlife-livestock interface areas of Zambia. BMC Vet. Res. 6:21.


Quinn PJ, Carter ME, Markey B, Carter GR (2002). Actinobacillus species. In Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease.


Sintayehu Y, Beyene F, Tegegne A, Gebremedhin B (2008). Dairy production, processing and marketing systems of Shashemene – Dilla area, South Ethiopia.


Stanly FT (2012). Smallholder dairy farming in northern Malawi: husbandry practices, constraints and prevalence of major production and zoonotic diseases. (Unpublished PhD Thesis). Institute of Animal Breeding and Husbandry, ChristianAlberchtes-Universtaete zu Kiel, Germany. P 89.


Taylor LH, Ltham SM, Wopolhouse ME (2000). Risk factors for human disease emergence. Transactions of Royal London Society of Biological Sciences 356:983-989.


Teshager A, Duguma B, Tolemariam T (2013). Socioeconomic and Farm Characteristics of Smallholder Cattle Producers in Ilu Aba Bora Zone of Oromia Regional State, South Western Ethiopia. Glob. Vet. 10(5):607-613.


World Health Organization (WHO) (2009). Annual report. Zoonoses and veterinary public health. Brucellosis (WHO Document Production Services, Geneva, Switzerland).


Yitaye A, Wurziger M, Azage T, Zollitsch W (2007). Urban and peri-urban farming system and utilization of the natural resources in the north Ethiopian highlands: In proceedings of Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, 9-11 October 2007, University of Gottingen, Germany.


Yitaye A, Zollitsch W, Wurzinger M, Azage T (2008). Characterization and analysis of the urban and peri-urban dairy production systems in the North western Ethiopian highlands. A thesis submitted to BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria for the award of Doctor Rerum anturalium technicarum (Doctor of Natural and Technical Sciences), Vienna, October 2008.


Zelalem Y (2003): Sanitary conditions and microbial qualities of dairy products in urban and peri-urban dairy shed of the central Ethiopia. DEA. Lyon, France.


Zelalem Y (2009). Microbial Properties of Ethiopian Marketed Milk and Milk Products and Associated Critical Points of Contamination: An Epidemiological Perspective, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. pp. 298-322.


Zelalem Y, Faye B (2006). Handling and microbial load of cow's milk and irgo-fermented milk collected from different shops and producers in central highlands of Ethiopia. Ethiop. J. Anim. Prod. 6(2):67-82.


Zinsstag J, Schelling E, Roth F, Bonfoh B, de Savigny D, Tanner M (2007). Human benefits of animal interventions for zoonosis control. Emerging Infect. Dis. 13(4):527.



APA Kebede, L. G., & Megerrsa, S. A. (2018). Assessment of dairy farmers’ hygienic milking practices and awareness on cattle milk-borne zoonoses in Bishoftu, Ethiopia. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, 10(2), 45-54.
Chicago Lencho Getechew Kebede and Seblewongel Ayichew Megerrsa. "Assessment of dairy farmers’ hygienic milking practices and awareness on cattle milk-borne zoonoses in Bishoftu, Ethiopia." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health 10, no. 2 (2018): 45-54.
MLA Lencho Getechew Kebede and Seblewongel Ayichew Megerrsa. "Assessment of dairy farmers’ hygienic milking practices and awareness on cattle milk-borne zoonoses in Bishoftu, Ethiopia." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health 10.2 (2018): 45-54.

Subscription Form