African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12254

AJB Articles

Morphological and proteomic analyses of Zea mays in response to water stress

May 2020

Water stress affects plant growth and development, leading to agricultural crop losses in maize cultivation. It also threatens food security in economical crops such as maize, one of the major crops produced worldwide. Transcriptomic studies associated with morphological assessments have been widely conducted on the mechanisms of crop development and stress response; however, data on maize is still very much limited....

Author(s): Precious Thobile Lukhele, Lerato Thamaga, Oziniel Ruzvidzo and Tshegofatso Bridget Dikobe  

Morphological and molecular characterisation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz) isolates obtained from Dioscorea rotundata (Poir)

May 2020

Anthracnose disease is a major constraint to yam production in tropical West Africa and anywhere the crop is cultivated. This study determined the cultural characteristics and growth rates of mycelia and also characterised 6 isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal agent of the yam anthracnose disease, obtained from Dioscorea rotundata leaves, vines and setts in the Tolon District of Ghana. The cultural...

Author(s): Joseph Kwowura Kwodaga, Elias Nortaa Kunedeb Sowley and Benjamin Kongyeli Badii  

Evaluation of different methods for total RNA extraction from Thaumastocoris peregrinus

May 2020

Thaumastocoris peregrinus is a pest that damages eucalyptus plantations. Recently in Brazil, there are few studies related to its control. With the advancement of molecular biology, several techniques can assist in the discovery of an effective and sustainable control. The different techniques of analysis of gene expression start with the extraction of the total RNA from the material for genomic analysis, hence it is...

Author(s): Tarcisio Tomás Cabral de Sousa, Any Caroliny Pinto Rodrigues, Ariadne Marques, Felipe Gomes Moreira, Renata Couto Avila, Janaína Fernandes Gonçalves, Farley Souza Ribeiro Menezes and Marcelo Luiz de Laia

HPTLC fingerprint profiles and UPLC-MS identification of potential antioxidant fractions and compounds from Ambrosia maritima L. and Ammi majus L.

May 2020

This study aimed to develop HPTLC fingerprint profile and identification of antioxidant molecules from active extract and fractions of Ambrosia maritima and Ammi majus using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS). The antioxidant activity evaluated by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) method and HPTLC fingerprinting were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with...

Author(s): Nazik Salih Mohamed, Mona Salih Mohamed, Ramzi Ahmed Mothana, Wadah Jamal Osman and Hassan Subky Khalid  

Diallel analysis for the inheritance study of phytic acid along with morpho-yield traits in bread wheat

May 2020

In the kernels of wheat, a macro molecule called phytic acid acts as an inhibitor of nutrients. Phytic acid in high concentration is undesirable as it hinders the absoption of other molecules. Regression analysis, the model of additive-dominance and Hotelling’s t2 test were adequate for biological yield, grains spike-1 and phytic acid, while partially adequate results were found for grain yield and 1000-grain...

Author(s): Ijaz Ahmad, Fida Mohammad, Sultan Akber Jadoon, Aurang Zeb, Fazal Munsif and Wiqar Ahmad  

Improving peanut protein quality: Expression of a synthetic storage protein

May 2020

Peanut is an affordable legume used in most households. It represents one of the most important protein supplies worldwide. However, peanut proteins are deficient in several essential amino acids (EAA), like most plant proteins; whereas plants are the main source of dietary proteins consumed by humans and livestock. This could lead to protein malnutrition in areas where people diet relies on one or two staple foods....

Author(s): N’Nan Affoué Sylvie DIBY, Koffi N’Da KONAN, Anthony Okello ANANGA, and Hortense DODO,  

Bio-appraisal of three strains of lactobacillus based probiotics on the growth traits and semen characteristics of local toms

May 2020

The effect of three strains of Lactobacillus based probiotics on the growth performance and semen quality of toms was conducted in a thirty-four week study. Eighty day-old (d 1) poults were randomly divided into 4 groups, replicated twice with 10 birds per replicate and assigned to four treatments; T1 (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp Bulgaricus), T2 (Lactobacillus acidophilus), T3 (Lactobacillus sporogens) and T4...

Author(s): Dim C. E., Ekere S. O., Ugwuoke J. I., Ndofor-Foleng H. M. and Onyimonyi A. E.  

Genetic variation via SSR polymorphic information content and ecological distribution of Nigerian sesame

April 2020

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) of the family Pedaliaceae is an important and old oil crop that is cultivated mainly in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa for several economic values. Several molecular markers have been employed to study the genetic diversity of this important crop. The study focused on the genetic diversity through polymorphism information content (PIC) by the use of Simple Sequence...

Author(s): Olusola Thomas ODUOYE, Opeyemi Ayokunnu OLUWASANYA, Oluwabukola Omowumi ARIKAWE, Abiodun SUNDAY, Omowumi Abidemi AYEKUN and Oyejide Suara OYENPEMI  

Lipase and esterase activities of lactic acid bacteria isolated from different biotopes

April 2020

The lipolytic and esterase activities of fifteen strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from different biotopes of Algeria and Mauritania were tested on MRS medium supplemented with lipidic substrates. Five of them showed maximum activity in the presence of tributyrin; the activity is therefore a tributyrin esterase. These strains were identified by MALDI-TOF in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus durans. The study...

Author(s): Amina DELLALI, Halima ZADI KARAM and Nour-Eddine KARAM  

Genetic diversity for immature pod traits in Ethiopian cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] landrace collections

April 2020

This study was undertaken to evaluate the extent and pattern of genetic diversity for immature pod traits in Ethiopia cowpea landrace collections. Eighty one landraces and improved cultivars were tested in a 9 x 9 simple lattice design. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant (P<0.01) or significant (p<0.05) differences among the genotypes for all traits. The first four principal components were able to...

Author(s): Selamawit Ketema Ashinie, Bizuayehu Tesfaye, Gemechu Keneni Wakeyo and Berhanu Amsalu Fenta  

Algae: Potential biotechnological source in the Arabian Gulf

April 2020

Arabian Gulf is characterized by being nutrient-rich, which contributes to the biodiversity of marine macro- and microalgae. Marine algae are a potentially prolific source of many valuable products that may represent useful leads in developing the quality of human life. The studies on the bioactivity of marine algae in the Arabian Gulf region are very recent; thus, there are not many studies on this field. This review...

Author(s): Sakinah Hussain Al-Haddad  

Estimates of genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for agronomic and yield traits in soybean (Glycine max L.)

April 2020

A study with 20 soybean genotypes was conducted in 2015 and 2016 to determine the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for some agronomic and yield traits in some soybean genotypes for selection criteria in a breeding programme. The field experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant variation among...

Author(s): Jandong, E. A., Uguru, M. I. and Okechukwu, E. C.  

Effects of Ambrosia maritima (Damsissa) ethanolic extract on phenylhydrazine hydrochloride-induced anaemia in rabbits (Lepus cuniculus)

April 2020

This work was performed to evaluate the anti-anaemic activity of the ethanolic extract of Ambrosia maritima (Damsissa) in phenylhydrazine hydrochloride (PHZ)-induced anaemia in rabbits. Twenty-five adult rabbits of different sexes were equally divided into 5 groups. The induction of anaemia was performed by subcutaneous administration of PHZ at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight and maintained a dose of 15 mg/kg body...

Author(s): Marwa H. A. Alhassan, Osama H. A. Ali, Wadah J. A. Osman, Khadiga M. Osman, Mona S. Mohamed, Ahmed O. Alamin and Ramzi A. Mothana  

Descriptive sensory evaluation of “gari” produced from fermentation of cassava using some selected Rhizopus species

April 2020

Two local varieties of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) pulps named “okoiyawo” and “odongbo” were fermented with pure Rhizopus oligosporus, R. nigricans and R. oryzae. The products were subsequently processed in to “gari” (a roasted fermented cassava meal), the form in which it is popularly consumed in Nigeria. The selected process variables are cassava varieties, starter culture...

Author(s): Osunbade, O. A. and Adejuyitan J. A.

Evaluation of the physical properties of leathers tanned with Plectranthus barbatus Andrews extracts

March 2020

This study was designed to assess the potential use of Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, a plant growing locally in Kenya as a vegetable tanning agent. The aim was a deliberate attempt to adopt green chemistry and provide cheap locally available eco-friendly tanning materials. Anova statistical test (α<0.05) was used to compare the physical properties of leather tanned with three kinds of liquors made from the...

Author(s): Dennis Kimaiga Obiero, Jackson Nyarong̛i Ombui, Arthur Steven Onyuka and Alvin Asava Sasia  

MiR-124 involvement of apoptosis, immunity and regulator of diseases

March 2020

Most microRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding, conserved RNA molecules in vertebrates, and their roles are similar and very important. MiRNAs usually have tissue-specific expression, and abnormal levels of miRNAs have been associated with diseases and have been used as disease biomarkers. MiRNAs are widely involved in biological processes by regulating target mRNAs. MiR-124 is one of the best studied miRNAs in organisms. By...

Author(s): Hong-Yan Sun, You-Hua Huang, Zong-He Yu and Qi-Wei Qin  

Association of probiotic potential of strains of Pichia kudriavzevii isolated from “ogi” with the number of open reading frame (ORF) in the nucleotide sequences

March 2020

In this study, a total of 9 morphologically and biochemically different yeast species were isolated from Nigerian fermented food product, ‘ogi’. These yeast species were screened for probiotic properties such as antibacterial activities, acid and bile tolerance. Six species out of the yeast isolates that survived pH 2 were grown in 0.3% bile salts which were monitored by spectrophotometer for 5 h. Three...

Author(s): Tolulope P. Alakeji and Julius K. Oloke  

Immobilization of the Carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) extract on SiO2-TiO2 aiming the determination of the herbicide Simazine

February 2020

Pesticides are identified as hazardous contaminants due to high toxicity and persistence in the environment. In this context, it is necessary to monitor these pollutants in the environment in situ, with the use of low cost analytical techniques and of quick response. Biosensors are presented as a complementary analytical tool to more complex techniques, such as chromatography. The present work aims to develop, in a...

Author(s): Francisca das Chagas Sobral Silva Mihos, Emerson Schwingel Ribeiro, Maria Helena Wohlers Morelli Cardoso, Lucia Helena Pinto Bastos, Lívia Maria da Costa Silva and Andréa Medeiros Salgado  

Isolation of ursolic acid from the leaves of Ocimum lamiifolium collected from Addis Ababa Area, Ethiopia

February 2020

Ocimum lamiifolium is a well known medicinal plant in Ethiopia. Fresh leaves of the plant are squeezed and sniffed to treat colds and coughs and as an eye rinse for eye infections, while crushed leaves are used to arrest nose bleeding. In this study phytochemical investigation on the methanol extracts of this plant collected from Addis Ketema subcity, Addis Ababa. A triterpene, namely ursolic acid, was isolated using...

Author(s): Girma Birhanu  

Morpho-molecular screening of wheat genotypes for heat tolerance

February 2020

Wheat (Triticum aesum L.) production in Bangladesh is often impaired by heat stress. Therefore, it has been a priority to develop heat tolerant wheat variety for Bangladesh. An investigation was carried out to evaluate locally cultivated wheat genotypes for heat tolerance based on morpho-physiological and molecular markers. A pot experiment was carried out with ten locally cultivated wheat genotypes. Heat treatment was...

Author(s): Nihar Ranjan Saha, Md.Tariqul Islam, Md. Monirul Islam and Muhammad Shahidul Haque  

Genetic diversity among Ethiopian sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] gene bank accessions as revealed by SSR markers

February 2020

The presence of genetic variation in plant populations is useful for conservation and use in breeding programs. This study was conducted to estimate the extent and patterns of genetic diversity among 200 sorghum accessions collected from different parts of Ethiopia and preserved in a gene bank.  Using 39 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, which were previously mapped, 261 alleles were produced with...

Author(s): Alemu Tirfessa, Tesfaye Tesso, Asfaw Adugna, Hussein Mohammed and Dan Kiambi  

Introduction of the exotic breeds and cross breeding of local chicken in Ethiopia and solution to genetic erosion: A review

February 2020

This study reviews the introduction of the exotic breeds and cross breeding of local chicken in Ethiopia, solution to genetic erosion and needs for conservation with aim of delivering in the short form and clear information for beneficiaries and to whom it may concern. Poultry production and its product consumption are progressively increasing globally. In Ethiopia, chicken production plays a great role as a primary...

Author(s): Yonas Kejela  

Effect of methanolic extract of Dennettia tripetala (pepper fruit) on biomarkers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in type 2 diabetic male wistar rats

February 2020

Oxidative stress resulting from chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes is due to high production of reactive oxygen species and/or a decrease in the antioxidant defense system activity. The study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effect of methanolic extract of Dennettia tripetala (DT) on oxidative stress and blood glucose level in type II diabetic male Wistar rats. Type II diabetes was induced by a single...

Author(s): Nwaeme Ogochukwu, Ude Victor Chibueze, Augustine Ndubuisi, Ugwudike Patrick, Agu Francis, Celestine Ani, Emeka Ugwuishi, Sunday Njoba, , Lilian Ndubuisi, , Hector Obianyido, Joachin Ezeokeke and Nwachukwu Daniel  

Effectiveness of solid carriers on multiplication of bradyrhizobium mutant strain and nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L)

February 2020

Effective nodulation of legume is usually solid carriers dependent. Peat, the most effective solid carrier is not readily available in Nigeria, hence, alternative solid carriers were evaluated with Bradyrhizobium strains using cowpea as a test crop. Mutant strains (USDA 3384 and USDA 3451) were evaluated in the laboratory using solid carriers and pot experiments. The survival (multiplication), infectivity and nodulating...

Author(s): Nwokocha, A. G., Fagbola, O. and Daramola, D. S.  

Chemical and physico-chemical characterization of seeds of melon cultivars: Valenciano and Pele de Sapo, cultivated in the Amazon

February 2020

The aim of this work was to perform chemical and physical-chemical analyzes of the oil of the cultivars Valenciano Amarelo melon (VA) and Pele de Sapo melon (PS) (Cucumis melo L.) produced in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil, by GC -FID, IR, 1H NMR and the thermogravimetric behavior TG/DTG as well as yield of that obtained oil. Thus, the oil yield of Valenciano melon seeds was 28.47% and that of Pele de Sapo melon was 26.41%....

Author(s): Flavio Paulino da Silva, Ismael Montero Fernández, Selvin Antonio Saravia Maldonado, Simone Rorigues da Silva, Ricardo Santos Alemán, Vany Perpetua Ferraz, Jhunior Abrahan Marcia Fuentes and Bernardo de Morais Linhares  

Analytical quantification of copper in frogs (Rana tigrina) found from various aquatic habitats

February 2020

This study focused on the quantitative determination of Cu metal in various physical parts of frogs by using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry technique). Cu was measured (2.72±0.77 µg/g) in kidney of Rana tigrina captured from industrial site and in R. tigrina captured from non-industrial site (28.10±27.02 µg/g). Similarly, 27.56±9.92 µg/g Cu was discovered in liver of R. tigrina...

Author(s): Muhammad Nasir, Tariq Mahmood Ansari, Hira Javed, Ghulam Yasin, Aleem Ahmad Khan and Muhammad Shoaib  

Involvement of class 1 and class 2 integrons in dissemination of tet and catA1 resistance genes of Salmonella enterica from children with diarrhea in rural Burkina Faso

January 2020

With high annual mortality rates among young children, antimicrobial resistant salmonellosis is considered a major public health concern worldwide. Antimicrobial resistant salmonellosis is a worldwide health issue, particularly in low income countries with high microbially-derived food contaminations. As a result, it is important to better understand the biological factors that may control these bacteria’s...

Author(s): René Dembélé, Wendpoulomdé Aimé Désiré Kaboré, Issiaka Soulama, Ali Konaté, Assèta Kagambèga, Oumar Traoré, Alfred S. Traoré , Awa Aidara-Kane, Amy Gassama-Sow† and Nicolas Barro  

Impact of transgenic conversion on the characteristics of Burkina Faso cotton

January 2020

Genetically modified cotton (GMC) was compared with two conventional cultivars, using data from trials and commercial farms. Objectives were to highlight disparate agronomic and technological performance parameters and identify perspectives to Burkina Faso comeback to GMC. Results showed that compared materials are similar for most agronomic characteristics, except fiber percent. As this important parameter is...

Author(s): BOURGOU Larbouga, HEMA S. Omer, KOULIBALY Bazoumana, DIANE S. Karamogo and SAWADOGO Mahamadou  

Effect of two agro-pedo-climatic zones, drying methods and pelleting processes on chemical composition of Manihot esculenta (sp.), Leucaena leucocephala and Cajanus cajan

January 2020

In tropical and subtropical countries, livestock productivity may be affected by the availability of food resources and the high prevalence of gastrointestinal pathogenic nematodes. The classical method of control using anthelmintic drugs is becoming decreasingly efficient because of a generalised resistance of the gastrointestinal nematodes suppress (GIN) to most of the drugs. In small farms, protein-rich biomasses...

Author(s): Nathalie MINATCHY, Harry ARCHIMÈDE, Dingamgoto Jesse BARDE, Liza DAHOMÉ, Fernand LABIRIN, Brigitte CALIF and Carine MARIE-MAGDELEINE  

Bacterial and vermi-remediation of soil contaminated with chlorpyrifos insecticide

January 2020

This study aimed at investigating the effect of consortia of three types of indigenous bacteria (Corynebacterium sp., Sphingobacterium gobiense and Kocuria flava) and earthworm (at 5 and 10 earthworms/kg soil) and their combination on the percentage removal of chlorpyrifos from chlorpyrifos contaminated soil in Sudan. Silt soil (Gerf soil) samples were mixed with known concentration of chlorpyrifos (450 mgkg-1) and...

Author(s): Nagla Abdelmoniem Mohamed Ahmed, Sulieman Hammad Nasser Ali, Ahmed Mohammed Ali Hammad, Abd Elaziz Sulieman Ahmed Ishag and Azhari Omer Abdelbagi  

Studies on some major yield responsive genes in selected rice (Oryza species) cultivars grown in Nigeria using candidate gene SSR-based markers approach

January 2020

This study was aimed at determining the presence of five major yield responsive genes shown to be among key determinants of rice yield in ten rice cultivars grown in Nigeria using candidate gene SSRs markers (Cg-SSRs). DNAs were extracted from young leaf samples using optimized cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-extraction method. An established gene sequences for high yielding rice Nipponbare cultivar for the five...

Author(s): Zaharaddin Halilu, Rabi&#;u Aliyu Umar, Riskuwa Arabu Shehu, Adamu Aliyu Aliero, Aliyu Abdullahi Turaki, Ahmed Hamza Balarabe, Abubakar Muhammad Gumi and Sha&#;aya&#;u Shehu  

Amino acyl tRNA synthetase inhibitors is therapeutics for gliomas at sub nanomolar concentrations

January 2020

Glioblastoma is the most malignant and fatal of all primary brain tumors. Each year in the United States, about 22,000 cases of glioma are diagnosed and about 70% of these patients die. The current treatment modality options available for glioma patients are limited to temozolomide, radiation, and surgery. The poor outcome with these treatment options has necessitated the search for a better chemotherapeutic strategy to...

Author(s): Peace C. Asuzu and Chidiebere U. Awah  

Lack of association of toll-like receptor 2 rs3804100 polymorphism with paediatric tuberculosis in South Africa

January 2020

Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR 2) genetic polymorphisms are important factors that are involved in the development of clinical tuberculosis. In this study, a single nucleotide polymorphism of the immune response protein molecule, toll-like receptor 2 designated as rs3804100 involving T/C polymorphism was carried out by genotypic analysis of DNA obtained from blood samples of the paediatric population in South Africa...

Author(s): Inyang Udosen  

Antiproliferative effect of Amburana cearensis seed extracts on human cancer cell lines

January 2020

Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith (Fabaceae) is a plant of Brazil, popularly known as umburana or cumaru, and is widely used in folk medicine. The population uses its bark and seeds against many pathologies including cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the antiproliferative effect of A. cearensis extracts on human tumor cell lines of HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma and HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as on...

Author(s): Aline Aires Aguiar, Ernane Gerre Pereira Bastos, Ilsamar Mendes Soares, Ivana Grivicich, Jéssica Machado Miri, Sérgio Donizeti Ascêncio and Raimundo Wagner de Souza Aguiar  

Effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Vinca major L. on biochemical parameters and glucose level of alloxan induced diabetic rats

December 2019

In view of World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation on the use of medicinal plants for the management of diabetes mellitus, this study evaluated the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Vinca major L. on biochemical parameters and glucose level of alloxan induced diabetic rats as objective. Sixty-four male Wistar albino rats were induced with diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection and were separated into...

Author(s): Monago-Ighorodje Comfort, Duru Majesty, Adindu Eze, Nwauche Kelechi, Ezekwe Ahamefula, Nosiri Ijeoma, Odika Prince, Onyeabo Chimaraoke, Ogar Ishade, Berezi Ebitimi Peter, Ugoh Austin Ikenna, Eboagwu Ijeoma and Otta Emmanuel  

Development of a rice yellow mottle virus amplicon biotechnological tool for the production of high value proteins in rice

December 2019

Lately, advances on biotechnology have led to the emergence of plants as bioreactor for the production of molecules of industrial, pharmaceutical and agribusiness interests. One of the major advances was the exploitation of plant viruses as “amplifier” for the protein production. This amplicon technology relies on viral vector engineered to contain a gene encoding candidate protein that is produced in...

Author(s): Pingdwende Kader Aziz Bamogo,, Christophe Brugidou, Fidèle Tiendrébéogo, Drissa Sérémé, Florencia Wendkuuni Djigma, Jacques Simpore and Séverine Lacombe,

An alternative caprine infection model for Mycoplasma mycoides

December 2019

Ruminant infection models for Mycoplasma mycoides are invasive and laborious factors that may interfere with the experiment outcomes. This brief review presents an alternative method that may minimize on the mentioned challenges earlier mentioned. M. mycoides subsp. capri GM12 and M. mycoides subsp. capri YCP1.1 ∆68 strains were used; the former, causing a septicemia in goats. An intra-tracheal inoculation technique was...

Author(s): Ssajjakambwe Paul, Elise Schieck, Anne Liljander, Tweyongyere Robert, Matovu Enock, Kazibwe Ann, Nanteza Ann and Mwiine Frank

Phenotypic and molecular characterization of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Nigeria

December 2019

This present study was undertaken for detection of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLS) enzyme genes among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using phenotypic and molecular techniques. Thirty-four P. aeruginosa isolates from different hospitals in Nsukka and University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu were screened for the presence of ESBL-encoding genes. Phenotypic screening for ESBL producers...

Author(s): Martina C. Agbo, Ifeoma M. Ezeonu, Maurice N. Odo, Chukwuebuka  M. Ononugbo, Beatrice O. Onodagu, Chinelo C. Eze, Ezinwanne  N. Ezeibe and Chizoba A. Ozioko  

Evaluation of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from locally consumed probiotic food in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria for antimicrobial activity utilizing agar well diffusion and pH tolerance tests

December 2019

Antimicrobial activity against entero-pathogens and tolerance to acid stress are crucial characters of probiotic bacteria. Lactobacillus spp. isolates were phenotypically characterized using colony observation, catalase test and Gram stain reaction.  The pH (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5) tolerance of each isolate was evaluated at 0 and 4 h. The antibacterial activities of the isolates were tested against pathogenic strains of...

Author(s): Dinebari P. Berebon, Kenneth C. Ofokansi, Anthony A. Attama, Christopher O. Eze, Restus C. Onwusoba, Chukwudi T. Ugwu, Charity C. Eze and Somtochukwu A. Evurani  

First report of bovine papillomavirus genotypes in cutaneous lesions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing in Panama

December 2019

Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) causes benign tumours in the mucosal and cutaneous epithelium and is characterized by the presence of warts. The present study includes the molecular identification of BPV strains in samples of warts using degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers FAP59/64. Skin biopsies were taken from crossbred cattle from two experimental farms of Instituto de Investigación Agropecuaria de...

Author(s): Rita González, Manuel Murillo, Hilda Elena Castillo M., Marcelino Jaén  and Axel Villalobos-Cortés

Survey of the incidence and distribution of groundnut rosette disease in major groundnut-producing regions of Western Kenya

December 2019

Groundnut rosette disease (GRD) is the most important viral disease of groundnuts in sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, GRD infection especially before flowering results in 100% loss in pod yield. Surveys were conducted in 2016 and 2017 to determine the incidence and distribution of GRD in five major groundnut growing Counties of western Kenya. A structured questionnaire was used to assess GRD incidence and severity and...

Author(s): Eric O. Were, Evans N. Nyaboga and Elijah M. Ateka  

In vitro regeneration of coconut (Cocos nucifera L) through indirect somatic embryogenesis in Kenya

December 2019

Regeneration of the coconut (Cocos nucifera L) through indirect somatic embryogenesis using 9 to 12 months embryos explants was established in Y3 medium supplemented with 100 to 250 µM 2,4 -dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) alone and in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and thiadiazuron (TDZ). The highest callus induction (100%) was observed in medium containing 150 and 250...

Author(s): Caren C. Bett, Cecilia M. Mweu and Aggrey B. Nyende  

Expression profiling, phylogenetic, and structural analyses of a laccase gene from the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

November 2019

Laccases, member of multicopper oxidase (MCO) family enzymes, play crucial roles in insects’ cuticle tanning and pigmentation. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a laccase gene from the red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. The isolated RPW laccase gene sequence was 3,389 bp, including a 2,163 bp open reading frame that encodes 720 amino acids. The RPW laccase gene conserved the...

Author(s): Babiker M. A. Abdel-Banat and Hamadttu A. F. El-Shafie

In vitro regeneration protocol through direct organogenesis for Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) accessions in Ethiopia

November 2019

Jatropha curcas L. is among important tree crops in the world with a potential for biofuel production. In Ethiopia, there is a soaring investors’ interest to produce Jatropha in the country for biodiesel production. However, insufficient good quality propagation material is a major production constraint. A study was undertaken to establish a protocol for in vitro mass propagation of three Ethiopian Jatropha...

Author(s): Hundessa Fufa, Meseret Tesema and Jiregna Daksa  

Effects of genotype and plant growth regulators on callus induction in leaf cultures of Coffea arabica L. F1 hybrid

November 2019

Coffea arabica, F1 hybrid variety, Ruiru 11 is a highly sought after crop in Kenya due to its alleviated resistance to Coffee Berry Disease and Coffee Leaf Rust coupled with high yield capacity and good cup quality. Access to the variety’s planting materials is limited due to challenges with difficulty in propagation using conventional methods of seed and vegetative propagation; and somatic embryogenesis is...

Author(s): Mwaniki W. I., Lubabali A. H., Asava K. K., Agwanda C. O. and Anami S. E.  

Relationship between 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and aroma in Uganda rice populations with Oryza (barthi, glaberrima and sativa) backgrounds

November 2019

The sweet popcorn aroma conferred by 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is a highly economic trait of rice grain attracting premium price worldwide. This research study was conducted to determine the levels of 2AP in Ugandan rice lines with the aim of establishing a better understanding on the level and classes of 2AP and aroma phenotype. Concentration of 2AP was assayed using two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight...

Author(s): David Ocan, Rongrong Zhang, Martin Odoch, Michael Kanaabi,  Angele Pembele Ibanda, Agnes Akwero, Bill Williams Khizzah, Ephraim Nuwamanya, Jimmy Lamo, Melissa Anne Fitzgerald, Venea Dara Daygon and Patrick Rutimbanzigu Rubaihayo

Evaluation of aflatoxins levels and molecular identification of toxigenic molds in cereals and cereal-derived breakfast foods in Nigeria

November 2019

In the last decade, there have been an increase in safety concerns on the aflatoxins contents of cereals and cereal-derived food products in Nigeria. In the current study, evaluation of aflatoxins levels and molecular identification of toxigenic molds recovered from cereals and cereal-derived foods products in Nigeria were studied. Enzyme Link Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...

Author(s): Michael O. Odo, Fidelis Azi, Ignatius C. Alaka and Veronica N. Nwobasi

Whole-genome optical mapping: Improving assembly of Macrophomina phaseolina MS6 through spanning of twelve blunt end chromosomes by obviating all errors and misassembles

November 2019

Deciphering genetic information through next-generation sequencing (NGS) is considered as the basic platform to unveil in details of an organism. However, as it produces short reads that lead to difficulties in assembly, we generated long scaffold-based optical mapping (OM) data of previously sequenced devastating fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina MS6. In the process, KpnI identified as the most effective restriction...

Author(s): Quazi Md. Mosaddeque Hossen, Md. Shahidul Islam, Emdadul Mannan Emdad, Md. Samiul Haque, Md. Monjurul Alam and Maqsudul Alam,

Callus induction in three mosaic disease resistant cassava cultivars in Benin and genetic stability of the induced calli using simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers

November 2019

The effect of different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ), benzyl amino purine (BAP), kinetin and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) on callus induction in three elite cassava cultivars (agric-rouge, atinwewe and agblehoundo) was evaluated. Leaf explants harvested from greenhouse-grown cassava were sterilised using different concentrations of commercial bleach commonly called Jik (3.85% NaOCl) at different time...

Author(s): Amitchihoué Franck Sessou, Jane W. Kahia, Elijah Ateka, Jerome Anani Houngue, Colombe Dadjo, Peter Njenga and Corneille Ahanhanzo  

Scientific applications and prospects of nanomaterials: A multidisciplinary review

October 2019

Nanotechnology is the science of objects <100 nm in size. Research into the development and application of nanomaterials takes a material science and engineering-based approach to nanotechnology. Nanomaterials often possess interesting optical, electronic and mechanical properties. The capacity to construct large, intricate structures with nanometer precision is rapidly increasing and consists several top-down...

Author(s): ADEOLA Adedapo Oluwasanu, FAPOHUNDA Oluwaseun, JIMOH Adeleke Teslim, TOLUWALOJU Tunde Isaiah, IGE Ayokunle Olalekan and OGUNYELE Abimbola Chris  

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