African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12182

AJB Articles

August 2019

Studies on the sod culture and the management of soil moisture for the improvement of waxapple quality

In Taiwan, Kaohsiung and Pingtung districts are the main cultivating areas of waxapple in Taiwan. The quality of waxapple is commonly involved in appropriate fertilization. Therefore, the demonstration orchards were established in Kaohsiung and Pingtung districts. This research was conducted to the effects of sod culture and management of soil moisture on the improvement of waxapple quality. The results showed that soil...

Author(s): Yong-Hong Lin and Juei-Yu Chiu

August 2019

Morphological and molecular characterization of Jatropha curcas L. germplasm in Botswana

Jatropha curcas L. is an undomesticated plant species that has recently received great attention for its utilization in biofuel production in many countries including Botswana. The experiment investigated 30 J. curcas accessions, and the results revealed high significant differences (P<0.01) among accessions for peduncle length, number of seed per fruit, length of fruit stalk, fruit length, fruit width, seed length,...

Author(s): C. Gwafila, U. Batlang and S. Ngwako  

August 2019

Antioxidants enhance banana embryogenic cell competence to Agrobacterium mediated transformation

Gene transfer into the plant cell is a key step towards its successful genetic modification and its efficiency is heavily dependent on plant and bacterial cell biological status and a wide array of physical conditions. Gene transfer efficiencies in East African Highland Banana (EAHB) cell lines remains low compared to other monocotyledonous crops like rice and wheat due to factors such as high oxidative stress. The use...

Author(s): B. Namukwaya, B. Magambo, G. Arinaitwe, C. Oweitu, R. Erima, D. Tarengera, D. L. Bossa, G. Karamura, A. Muwonge, J. Kubiriba and W. Tushemereirwe

August 2019

The urothelium enhancive polarization in CfTX-1 peptide intervened toad urinary bladder

Toad urothelium barrier is the model to mimic and investigate urothelium permeability. Thiazide blocked ionic transportation in polarized membrane state. Jellyfish venom causes pores to be adjusted to urothelium permeability which improved polarization. This study aimed at CfTX-1 peptide in urothelium permeability evoked polarizations. Thiazide pretreated toad urothelium permeability to ions were investigated in...

Author(s): Ziduo Shen#, Xunguo Yang,#, Joseph Akparibila Azure,#, Annie Christel Bell,, Yueyi Sun, Xinyi Cheng, Fiona Masesi Dhlamini, Lingfeng Gao, and Yang Wang,  

August 2019

Effects of salt stress on antioxidant system activity and peroxidation damage in root tip cells of strawberry

In this study, strawberry seedlings were treated with 250 mmol·L-1 NaCl solution; then the O2- production rate, the content of H2O2 and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), electrolyte leakage (EL), the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) in the root tip cells were determined to be used for analysis after salt stress. The results revealed that the O2-...

Author(s): Ji-Zhong Wang, Cong Jin, Yun-Peng Wang, Bo-Qing Chen and Ji-Zhong Wang

August 2019

Effect of explant source and different hormonal combinations on in vitro regeneration of Heracleum candicans Wall: An important medicinal herb

In vitro regeneration of plants is influenced to a great extent by genotype, the type of explant used, media composition and plant growth regulators. This research was devised to study the effect of explant source and different hormonal combinations on the in vitro regeneration of Heracleum candicans. Two different explants viz; leaf and petiole were used to investigate their morphogenic response on MS medium...

Author(s): Mahroofa Jan, Seema Singh, Farhana Maqbool and Irshad Ahmad Nawchoo

August 2019

Anti-Xanthomonas activity of Antarctic fungi crude extracts

Agriculture suffers considerable losses in its production caused by plant diseases. In the citrus culture some problems were associated with citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. That same way, sugarcane plantations are impaired to leaf scald disease caused by Xanthomonas albilineans. One of the measures used to contain citrus canker is the spray of cupric bactericides; however for scalding leaves...

Author(s): Juliano Henrique Ferrarezi, Juliana Aparecida dos Santos, Lara Durães Sette, Henrique Ferreira and Daiane Cristina Sass

July 2019

Molecular characterization of some bacteria isolated from munitions contaminated sites in Kachia Military Firing Range, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Environmental pollution is principally caused by human activities that usually result in the release of man–made pollutants such as biological, chemical and radioactive in such states as solid, liquid and gaseous substances into the biosphere via, land, water and air. Globally, the increasing rate of environmental contamination by ammunition/explosives resulting from their increasing deployments in the rising...

Author(s): A. I. Alhaji, B. C. Onusiriuka, D. B. Maikaje, J. A. Appah, P. A. Vantsawa, Y. Magaji, A. A. Haroun, E. E. Oaikhena and E. O. Oladapo

July 2019

Genetic diversity in some Ghanaian and Malian sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench] accessions using SSR markers

The study was carried out to assess genetic diversity among forty-one sorghum accessions obtained from Savanna Agricultural Research Institute (SARI), Nyankpala, Northern Region of Ghana and the germplasm collection of Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Cape Coast. Genetic diversity and relationship among the forty-one accessions were evaluated using 22 microsatellite primers. The 22...

Author(s): Andrews Danquah, Isaac K. A. Galyuon, Emmanuel P. Otwe and Daniel K. A. Asante.

July 2019

Effective method to control Vibrio mimicus infection in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

Recently, a skin ulcerative disease caused by Vibrio mimicus has led to heavy economic losses in catfish, including yellow catfish, southern catfish, and Zhengchuan catfish in China. Currently, there was no effective method of controlling the outbreak of this disease. In this study, the bacterial isolates were obtained from dying channel catfish and identified as V. mimicus, which consist of formalin-inactivated V....

Author(s): Yan-Wei Li, Xiang Zhang , Yi-Jie Cai, Shu-Yin Chen, Hong-Yan Sun# and Xue-Ming Dan#

July 2019

Morphological and molecular screening of rice accessions for salt tolerance

The ever-increasing demand for rice raises the need to increase productivity by using salt tolerant varieties on saline soils. In this study, 12 rice accessions were screened for tolerance to salt at seedling stage using morphological and molecular methods. The study was carried out in a hydroponic system using Hoagland solution. Scoring was done using the modified standard evaluation score (SES) system after 14 days of...

Author(s): Uyoh E. A., Ntui V. O., Umego C., Ita E. E., and Opara C.  

July 2019

Enhancement of phytoremediation efficiency of Acacia mangium using earthworms in metal-contaminated soil in Bonoua, Ivory Coast

In this paper, the impact of Pontoscolex corethrurus on Acacia mangium growth and its phytoremediation efficiency in metal-contaminated soils were studied in a greenhouse pot culture under four treatments: non contaminated soil-non inoculated, control (C); non contaminated soil-inoculated (NcI); contaminated soil-non inoculated (CNi); contaminated soil-inoculated (CI). The results showed that A. mangium growth...

Author(s): BONGOUA-DEVISME Affi Jeanne, AKOTTO Odi Faustin, GUETY Thierry, KOUAKOU Sainte Adélaïde Ahya Edith, NDOYE Fatou and DIOUF Diégane  

July 2019

Review of microfluidics approaches to mimic the kidney

The use of microfluidics and nanotechnology in bioscience is gaining favor among the next generation of bioscience and clinical researchers, and this field has expanded to include organ-specific applications and modeling. While certain organ-specific microfluidic chips/applications, such as those in the heart and liver, are ubiquitous in the peer-reviewed literature, the kidneys require more focus and attention to drive...

Author(s): Zach Odeh, and Hongli Lin,

July 2019

Role of mucous cell and p53 protein in gastroprotective activity of methanolic extracts of Ageratum conyzoides Linn in rats

Ageratum conyzoides Linn is a medicinal plant used for diverse ethnomedicinal applications including anti-ulcer treatment. Usually, protection of gastric mucosa from injury or ulceration is dependent on the efficacy of intrinsic or induced protective factors against erosive effects of aggressive factors. In this study, our aim was to ascertain the gastroprotective activity of methanolic leaf extracts of A. conyzoides L....

Author(s): Omotoso D. R., Ajeigbe K. O., Owonikoko W. M., Okwuonu U. C., Akinola A. O., Daramola O. O., Adagboyin O. and Bienonwu E. O.

July 2019

Modified protocol for RNA isolation from different parts of field-grown jute plant suitable for NGS data generation and quantitative real-time RT-PCR

High quality RNA extraction from field-grown jute plants can be difficult due to the presence of complex polyphenolic, polysaccharide and waxes. But isolation of RNA in high quality is a basic need in plant genetics, genomics, transcriptomics, molecular biology and related physiological investigations. Here, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) based modified RNA isolation protocol suitable for isolating high quality...

Author(s): Rasel Ahmed, Md. Sabbir Hossain, Md. Samiul Haque, Md. Monjurul Alam, Md. and Shahidul Islam,

July 2019

DNA barcoding of Ghanaian fish species: Status and prospects

Ghana’s waters are biologically diverse with different fish species due to different ecological habitats and niches harboring several cryptic fish species. However, the fish production has reduced over the past decade; hence an urgent conservation and management strategies are required to save Ghanaian fishery such as accurate identification of species to formulate species-specific conservation and management...

Author(s): Gyamfua Afriyie, Shunkai Huang, Zhongdian Dong, Yusong Guo, Felix K. A. Kuebutornye, Christian Ayisi Larbi, Berchie Asiedu and Zhongduo Wang

July 2019

Genomic sequencing and recombinant expression of proinsulin isolated from cow and buffalo in Pakistan

This study was conducted to determine the heterologous expression of eukaryotic gene in Escherichia coli variable. The expression of Pakistani buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cow (Bos taurus) proinsulin genes in BL21 codon plus cells is 30% of total cellular protein. Total RNA was isolated from pancreatic tissues of local (Pakistani) breeds of buffalo (B. bubalis) and cow (B. taurus), converted to cDNA and cloned in a T/A...

Author(s): Farheen Aslam, Hooria Younas and Saima Iftikhar Bajwa  

July 2019

Optimization studies of chitin and chitosan production from Penaeus notialis shell waste

Optimization studies of extraction of chitin and chitosan from pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis) shell waste and of the degree of deacetylation (DDA) of extracted chitosan were investigated via the Box-Behnken design of experiments using response surface methodology. Robust quadratic models for predicting the extraction yields of chitin and chitosan and DDA of chitosan were obtained. These models were verified by...

Author(s): Amoo K. O., Olafadehan O. A. and Ajayi T. O.  

July 2019

Somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of Kenyan wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes from mature embryo explants

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) improvement via genetic transformation depends on an efficient regeneration system for recovery of transgenic events. This study reports a somatic embryogenesis-based regeneration system for two Kenyan wheat genotypes (Eagle 10 and Njoro bread wheat II) from mature embryos. The study investigated the efficiency of mercuric chloride, commercial bleach, and chlorine gas in surface sterilizing...

Author(s): Mark Ochieng Adero, Easter David Syombua, Lydia Kwamboka Asande, Nelson Onzere Amugune, Eliud Sagwa Mulanda and Godwin Macharia  

June 2019

A comparative assessment of the performance of a stay-green sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) introgression line developed by marker-assisted selection and its parental lines

A glasshouse experiment was conducted to compare the performance of a stay-green QTL introgression line (RSG 03123) and its parental lines (B35, a stay-green and R16, a high yielding cultivar with rapid senescence) after flowering, when water-limited (WL) or well-watered (WW). Flowering time and plant height were similar in RSG 03123 and the recurrent parent, R16. Under WW conditions, retention of green leaf area (GLA)...

Author(s): Isaac K. Galyuon, Allan P. Gay, Charles T. Hash, Fran R. Bidinger and Catherine J. Howarth

June 2019

Microencapsulation of Aspergillus niger phytases produced in triticale by solid fermentation and microencapsulates characterization

This paper aimed to carry out the stabilization of phytase produced in solid-state fermentation by means of Aspergillus níger 7A-1 in triticale as substrate. The crude extract obtained in liquid state was stabilized with glycerol and maltose. These materials presented a synergic effect that improve phytase stability around 80% with ki of 0.031 and a shelf-time of 156 days (22.35 weeks) with glycerol 30% and...

Author(s): José Daniel García García, Ana Iliná, Janeth Ventura, Georgina Michelena, Erika Nava, Carlos Espinoza González and José Luis Martínez

June 2019

Notice of Retraction: Sodium metabisulfite-induced polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin incubated in the extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa)

The editors of the African Journal of Biotechnology (AJB) are retracting the article, “Sodium metabisulfite-induced polymerization of sickle cell  hemoglobin incubated in the extracts of three medicinal plants  (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa)” published in 2011 (Vol. 10(32), pp. 6154-6161, 4 July). This is based on Dr. Paul C. Chikezie’s...

Author(s): Paul Chidoka Chikezie

June 2019

Explant type and hormone regime influences somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of cassava

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical root crop that serves as a food staple and a vital income source to resource deprived farmers in the tropics. Despite its importance, cassava production and consumption is faced by a myriad of biotic/abiotic constraints. Genetic transformation which can be applied to mitigate these challenges however has as a prerequisite the availability of robust regeneration systems....

Author(s): Easter D. SYOMBUA, Christine N. WANYONYI, Mark O. ADERO, Wilton M. MBINDA, Mathew P. NGUGI, Amos E. ALAKONYA and Richard O. ODUOR    

June 2019

Efficient low cost seesap (CSUP) technique for micropropagation of newly introduced sweetener plant, Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

Stevia rebaudiana is a non-caloric sweetening herb, which has a high potential for commercialization. During this study low cost media sterilization, seesap (CSUP) technique which applies sodium hypochlorite was used as an alternative to autoclaving. In vitro cultures were established using nodal segments collected from stevia mother plants. These in vitro shoots were cultured on Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium...

Author(s): Pubudini Lakshani Thilakarathne, Sriyani  Edussuriya Peiris and Pathirana Chathurangi Lankika

June 2019

Physicochemical properties of rhodanese from the kidney of cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus)

We report the properties of partially purified rhodanese, a cyanide detoxifying enzyme isolated from the kidney of the greater cane rat commonly known as grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus). T. swinderianus kidney rhodanese had a specific activity of 1.43 µmole/min/mg protein, a fold of 2.31 and a 55% recovery. The apparent Km values of 0.408 and 0.316 mM were obtained for both sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) and...

Author(s): Leonard Ona Ehigie, Bamidele Sanya Fagbohunka, Babamotemi Oluwasola Itakorode and Raphael Emuebie Okonji  

June 2019

Characterisation of volatile compounds and flavour attributes of Lablab purpureus bean accessions

The Lablab bean (Lablab purpureus) has potential of being an outstanding resource for human food and animal feed in tropical agricultural systems. The bean is however grossly underutilized due to anti-nutritional factors, which may affect its nutritive value and organoleptic properties. In this study, twenty-four (24) lablab bean accessions were assayed for sensory flavor characteristics and volatile compounds to...

Author(s): Kimani, E., Matasyoh, J., Kinyua, M. and Wachira, F. N.  

June 2019

Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils by lipopeptide producing Bacillus subtilis SE1

Hydrocarbons released into ecosystems have led to environmental pollution and generated a serious threat to human health. Bioremediation is an effective method to break down hazardous hydrophobic environmental contaminants with avoiding economic and technical disadvantages. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Bacillus subtilis SE1, a lipopeptide biosurfactant producer isolated from a petrochemical...

Author(s): Subuntith Nimrat, Somruetai Lookchan, Traimat Boonthai and Verapong Vuthiphandchai

June 2019

Nano Selenium: Reduction of severe hazards of Atrazine and promotion of changes in growth and gene expression patterns on Vicia faba seedlings

Atrazine is a widely used herbicide on many crops and is considered one of water pollutant with approved biological hazards on plants, animals and human. Vicia faba seedlings as a biological system, is used to investigate the genotoxicity of Atrazine. Also, Nano selenium (N-Se), a Nano particle with reactive oxygen species scavenging activity was applied to reduce the genotoxicity of Atrazine. Atrazine treatment at...

Author(s): Amina Zedan and Samar Omar  

May 2019

Effect of 6-benzylaminopurine and α-naphthalene acetic acid hormonal supplements on the in vitro seed germination and seedling development of orchid Otochilus albus Lindl

Otochilus albus Lindl is one of the important orchids especially used for the horticultural purpose and commercial use. It is listed as a rare and critically endangered species in Nepal. An attempt to preserve the important orchids was done by establishing an efficient in vitro regeneration protocol using seed. This study was carried out by using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and the MS medium supplemented with growth...

Author(s): Hira Adhikari and Bijaya Pant  

May 2019

Enhancing 15N-uptake in maize (Zea mays L.) by native Trichoderma spp. strains in Central Mexico

A study was undertaken to evaluate the role of Trichoderma strains on 15N-uptake by maize under greenhouse and field conditions. The Trichoderma strains were isolated from different maize production systems in Guanajuato State, Central Mexico. A total of 39 Trichoderma isolates were obtained, 23 correspond to Trichoderma harzianum (Intra-Genic-Segment). Some colonized the endorhizosphere of maize better than others;...

Author(s): Vera-Núñez, J. A., Luna-Martínez, F., Barcos-Arias, M. S., Ávila-Miranda, M. E., Grageda-Cabrera, O. A. and Peña-Cabriales, J. J.  

May 2019

Capacity building for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection in West Africa: Identifying a circulating GMO maize variety in Mali

DNA-based methodology employing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been successfully used to examine the incidence of genetically modified (GM) maize in Mali. This study aims to ascertain whether screening elements could also be used to detect GM maize. Fourteen maize varieties and one unknown dark color seeded variety from Mali were tested. DNA was extracted from three seeds of each variety. Three...

Author(s): Ibrahim Traoré, Diariatou Diagne, Ibrahim Keita, Hinda Doucouré, Mouhamadou Traoré, Niaba Témé, Mamadou Mory Coulibaly and Ousmane A. Koita  

May 2019

Alginate microporous beads promote higher ethanol productivity than the normal beads in a repeated-batch ethanolic process involving Saccharomyces cerevisiae LC 269108

Mass transfers pose significant challenge in fermentation due to wide diffusion gradient existing between the culture broth and the immobilized cells. In the present study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae LC 269108 was immobilized in a recently described microporous alginate beads. The new method was compared with the conventional calcium alginate gel beads in a repeated batch process for the production of ethanol. The...

Author(s): Charles O. Nwuche, Victor C. Igbokwe and Chukwudi O. Onwosi

May 2019

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for intermittent drought tolerance in BRB 191 × SEQ 1027 Andean Intra-gene cross recombinant inbred line population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

Drought is a major constraint of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in Uganda where irrigation for the crop is very uncommon. This study aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying drought tolerance in 128 F5 RILs derived from an Andean intra-gene cross between drought-tolerant SEQ 1027 and BRB 191. Eighteen traits were evaluated under drought stress and non-stress conditions in the field for...

Author(s): M. Nabateregga, C. Mukankusi, B. Raatz, R. Edema, S. Nkalubo and B. M. E. Alladassi

May 2019

Chemical study of Peganum harmala seeds

Peganum harmala belongs to the family Zygophyllaceae and is popularly known as "Arruda of Syria". It presents a broad therapeutic potential, highlighting the anti inflammatory, anticancer, analgesic, antiseptic and antibacterial activities. It is used in the preparation of religious rituals beverages with effects on the central nervous system as an inhibitor of the enzyme monoaminoxidase, whose action is due...

Author(s): Isabela Araujo e Amariz, Jacyara Pereira da Silva, Emanuella Chiara Valença Pereira, Nathália Andrezza Carvalho de Souza, José Marcos Teixeira de Alencar Filho, Renan Nunes Pereira, Ana Paula de Oliveira and Larissa Araújo Rolim

May 2019

Establishment of a transformation protocol for Uganda’s yellow passion fruit using the GUS gene

Horticulture is one of the fastest growing sectors in Uganda, exporting products worth US$100 million annually. Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) growing and export is one of the critical contributors to this sector employing over a million farmers. However, a number of biotic and abiotic constraints have initiated widespread enterprise abandonment by farmers. Passiflora improvement efforts by conventional breeding has...

Author(s): Samuel Tuhaise, Jesca L. Nakavuma, John Adriko, Kenneth Ssekatawa, and Andrew Kiggundu,  

May 2019

Dehairing of animal hides and skins by alkaline proteases of Aspergillus oryzae for efficient processing to leather products in Tanzania

The leather industry is one among the most vital sectors for economic development contributing to high earnings. However, tanning of hides and skins is constrained by primitive technology and the use of hazardous chemicals that contribute to environmental pollution. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of alkaline protease on dehairing animal hides and skins under different conditions. Alkaline protease was...

Author(s): Never Zekeya, Cecilia China, Suleimain Mbwana and Madundo Mtambo

May 2019

Exploring the nutritional efficiency of genotypes of Coffea arabica L. from different parental lineages in contrasting environments for N availability

The different responses of improved genotypes to alterations of the availability of nutrients indicate that it is possible to modulate the nutritional efficiency by exploring the interaction between the intrinsic response of a genotype and the level of nutrient supply. The objective of this research was to assess the response of genotypes of Coffea arabica L., from different parental lineages, to contrasting...

Author(s): Lima Deleon Martins, Daniel Soares Ferreira, Wagner Nunes Rodrigues, Tafarel Victor Colodetti, Sebastião Batista Brinate, Adan Dezan Côgo, Vanessa Maria de Souza Barros, Fábio Luiz Partelli, José Francisco Teixeira do Amaral and Marcelo Antonio Tomaz  

May 2019

Chemical composition of Cyperus esculentus nut and Phoenix dactylifera fruit

This study investigated the chemical composition of Cyperus esculentus nut and Phoenix dactylifera fruit. The nuts and fruits were purchased as commonly sold in Wukari, Nigeria. They were cleaned, sorted for healthy parts, sun-dried and milled into fine powder. The AOAC, AAS and GC-MS methods were adopted for the proximate, mineral and phytochemical analysis, respectively. The results show that C. esculentus nut is...

Author(s): Chinedu Imo, Friday O. Uhegbu, Kayode A. Arowora, Chukwuma S. Ezeonu, Ifeoma J. Opara, Caleb J. Nwaogwugwu and Chigozie J. Anigbo

May 2019

Antibacterial saponins from the leaves of Polyscias fulva (Araliaceae)

Saponins are a major family of secondary metabolites that occur in a wide range of plant species. Bioassay - guided fractionation of extract of the leaves of Polyscias fulva led to the isolation of three known saponins named, 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin (1), 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl]-hederagenin (2) and...

Author(s): Winnie Cherotich Maritim, Isabel Nyokabi Wagara and Josphat Clement Matasyoh  

May 2019

Uterotonic effect of aqueous extract of Launaea taraxacifolia Willd on rat isolated uterine horns

Launaea taraxacifolia is used by the traditional health practitioners in Sokoto to ease labour pains and augment labour thereby facilitating child birth. This study examined the effect of the aqueous extract of the whole plant on isolated uterus from non-pregnant rats pre-treated with stilbestrol and from pregnant rats in late gestation. This was compared to the effects of uterine contraction agonists, namely; oxytocin,...

Author(s): Adebisi Mobolawa Iyabo and Alka Hauwa  

May 2019

Physicochemical, spectroscopic and tableting properties of microcrystalline cellulose obtained from the African breadfruit seed hulls

This study evaluates the physicochemical, tableting and spectroscopic properties of microcrystalline cellulose obtained from the African breadfruit seed hulls. The seed hulls were dried, pulverized, sieved and digested with 2% w/v aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. The resultant pulp was further treated with 17.5% w/v NaOH solution and 2.5N hydrochloric acid to produce α-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose...

Author(s): Nwajiobi C. C., Otaigbe J. O. E. and Oriji O.  

May 2019

Transferability of microsatellite loci from Croton floribundus Spreng. to Croton urucurana Baill. (Euphorbiaceae)

Croton urucurana, known as “sangra-d’água”, is a tree species with timber and beekeeping potential, and also with medicinal potential. The use of microsatellite markers, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) is efficient in population genetic studies, with high transferability rate between correlated species. The present study aimed to optimize the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol and to test...

Author(s): Fernanda Gliceria Alencar Motta, Leandro Skowronski, Jannaína Velasques da Costa Pinto, Milene Silvestrini, Carina Elisei de Oliveira, Paula Martin de Moraes and Reginaldo Brito da Costa,

April 2019

Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by hydrocarbonaclastic bacteria

Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by bacteria isolated from spent engine oil (SEO) contaminated soils was investigated using nitrogen limitation in the production medium. Out of ten isolates, three were selected as the best based on their ability to metabolize SEO effectively and fluoresce orange when stained with Nile Blue A dye. Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophometer was used as a confirmatory test for PHA...

Author(s): Mwamburi Samuel M., Mbatia Betty N., Remmy Kasili, Kirwa Edward M and Noah Naumih M.  

April 2019

Cellulase production and molecular identification of Xanthobacter flavus (IM32-90) isolated under eucalyptus plantation in the cerrado of Minas Gerais

Lignocellulosic biomass has become a major ally for production of biofuels as a clean and renewable energy source. The manufacturing of cellulolytic enzymes capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulose and producing fermentable sugars has been, and still is a great challenge. There is a wide variety of microorganisms, both bacteria and fungi, capable of producing cellulolytic enzymes. These microorganisms can be grown by solid...

Author(s): Farley Souza Ribeiro Menezes, Maria Cecília Mota Docha, Any Caroliny Pinto Rodrigues, Jéssica Naiara Dos Santos, Gizelly Gomes da Cruz, Viviane Ferreira dos Anjos, Tarcisio Tomás Cabral de Sousa and Marcelo Luiz de Laia

April 2019

In silico prediction and segregation analysis of putative virus defense genes based on SSR markers in sweet potato F1 progenies of cultivars ‘New Kawogo’ and ‘Resisto’

In sweet potato, an anti-virus defense mechanism termed reversion has been postulated to lead to virus freedom from once infected plants. The objectives of this study were to identify anti-virus defense genes and evaluate their segregation in progenies. Reference genes from different plant species were used to assemble transcript sequences of each sweet potato defense gene in silico. Sequences were used for evaluate...

Author(s): Alexander Ssamula, Anthony Okiror, Liat Avrahami-Moyal, Yehudit Tam, Amit Gal-On, Victor Gaba, Settumba B. Mukasa and Peter Wasswa  

April 2019

Early selection in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. progenies in Savanna, Brazil

Genetic parameters were assessed and correlated to evaluate the feasibility of early selection for diameter at breast height (DBH) and total height (TH) in a half-sib progenies test of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The test is established in the Santo Antônio do Leverger municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, with 132 progenies, five blocks and three plants per plot at 3 x 2 m spacing. REML/BLUP procedure was...

Author(s): Mariana de Moura Queiroz, Daniele Aparecida Alvarenga Arriel, Antônio de Arruda Tsukamoto Filho, Oacy Eurcio de Oliveira, Paula Martin de Moraes, Leandro Skowronski and Reginaldo Brito da Costa,  

April 2019

Genetic diversity of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces from South Western Kenya for resistance to Pythium root rot disease

Common bean landraces represent an important source of genetic resources, which is under-exploited by Kenyan crop breeding programs. The objective of this study was to characterize 51 common bean landraces from South Western Kenya for resistance to Pythium root rot using 5 peroxidase gene (POX) markers. Following infection with Pythium spp., 11.77, 54.90 and 33.33% of the landraces were moderate-resistant, susceptible...

Author(s): Henry N. Anunda, Evans N. Nyaboga and Nelson O. Amugune

April 2019

Isolation and characterization of a lytic bacteriophage (VB_PAnP_PADP4) against MDR- Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from septic wound infections

Resistance to multiple drugs by pathogens has become the sweltering problem for the treatment of bacterial infections. To overcome this problem of drug resistance, several diversified bacteriophages can be used as one of the alternatives and attractive approaches. The present study aimed to detect, isolate and partially characterize the bacteriophage used against MDR-Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from wound...

Author(s): Roja Rani Pallavali, Vijaya Lakshmi Degati, Narala Venkata Rami Reddy and Vijaya Raghava Prasad Durbaka

April 2019

Genetic diversity among Fusarium species associated with sorghum stalk rot in Southern Ethiopia

Fusaria are very diverse and destructive pathogens affecting different crops. However, their identity and diversity are unresolved in countries like Ethiopia, where various crop species are grown under differing environmental conditions. The objectives of this paper were to identify Fusarium spp. associated with sorghum stalk rot in Southern Ethiopia, and elucidate the genetic diversity within and between the species....

Author(s): Alemayehu Chala  

April 2019

Copper (II) ions adsorption by untreated and chemically modified Tectona grandis (Teak bark): Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies

In this study, untreated Tectona grandis (UTG) and citric acid- modified T. grandis (CAMTG) bark powder were used for the adsorption of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solution. The UTG and CAMTG were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption characteristics were carried out by determining the solution pH, initial concentration of Cu (II) ions, effect of time...

Author(s): Chijioke John Ajaelu, Lara Ibironke and Adedotun Bamidele Oladinni

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