African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12236

AJB Articles

February 2020

Isolation of ursolic acid from the leaves of Ocimum lamiifolium collected from Addis Ababa Area, Ethiopia

Ocimum lamiifolium is a well known medicinal plant in Ethiopia. Fresh leaves of the plant are squeezed and sniffed to treat colds and coughs and as an eye rinse for eye infections, while crushed leaves are used to arrest nose bleeding. In this study phytochemical investigation on the methanol extracts of this plant collected from Addis Ketema subcity, Addis Ababa. A triterpene, namely ursolic acid, was isolated using...

Author(s): Girma Birhanu  

February 2020

Morpho-molecular screening of wheat genotypes for heat tolerance

Wheat (Triticum aesum L.) production in Bangladesh is often impaired by heat stress. Therefore, it has been a priority to develop heat tolerant wheat variety for Bangladesh. An investigation was carried out to evaluate locally cultivated wheat genotypes for heat tolerance based on morpho-physiological and molecular markers. A pot experiment was carried out with ten locally cultivated wheat genotypes. Heat treatment was...

Author(s): Nihar Ranjan Saha, Md.Tariqul Islam, Md. Monirul Islam and Muhammad Shahidul Haque  

February 2020

Genetic diversity among Ethiopian sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] gene bank accessions as revealed by SSR markers

The presence of genetic variation in plant populations is useful for conservation and use in breeding programs. This study was conducted to estimate the extent and patterns of genetic diversity among 200 sorghum accessions collected from different parts of Ethiopia and preserved in a gene bank.  Using 39 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, which were previously mapped, 261 alleles were produced with...

Author(s): Alemu Tirfessa, Tesfaye Tesso, Asfaw Adugna, Hussein Mohammed and Dan Kiambi  

February 2020

Introduction of the exotic breeds and cross breeding of local chicken in Ethiopia and solution to genetic erosion: A review

This study reviews the introduction of the exotic breeds and cross breeding of local chicken in Ethiopia, solution to genetic erosion and needs for conservation with aim of delivering in the short form and clear information for beneficiaries and to whom it may concern. Poultry production and its product consumption are progressively increasing globally. In Ethiopia, chicken production plays a great role as a primary...

Author(s): Yonas Kejela  

February 2020

Effect of methanolic extract of Dennettia tripetala (pepper fruit) on biomarkers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in type 2 diabetic male wistar rats

Oxidative stress resulting from chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes is due to high production of reactive oxygen species and/or a decrease in the antioxidant defense system activity. The study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effect of methanolic extract of Dennettia tripetala (DT) on oxidative stress and blood glucose level in type II diabetic male Wistar rats. Type II diabetes was induced by a single...

Author(s): Nwaeme Ogochukwu, Ude Victor Chibueze, Augustine Ndubuisi, Ugwudike Patrick, Agu Francis, Celestine Ani, Emeka Ugwuishi, Sunday Njoba, , Lilian Ndubuisi, , Hector Obianyido, Joachin Ezeokeke and Nwachukwu Daniel  

February 2020

Effectiveness of solid carriers on multiplication of bradyrhizobium mutant strain and nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L)

Effective nodulation of legume is usually solid carriers dependent. Peat, the most effective solid carrier is not readily available in Nigeria, hence, alternative solid carriers were evaluated with Bradyrhizobium strains using cowpea as a test crop. Mutant strains (USDA 3384 and USDA 3451) were evaluated in the laboratory using solid carriers and pot experiments. The survival (multiplication), infectivity and nodulating...

Author(s): Nwokocha, A. G., Fagbola, O. and Daramola, D. S.  

February 2020

Chemical and physico-chemical characterization of seeds of melon cultivars: Valenciano and Pele de Sapo, cultivated in the Amazon

The aim of this work was to perform chemical and physical-chemical analyzes of the oil of the cultivars Valenciano Amarelo melon (VA) and Pele de Sapo melon (PS) (Cucumis melo L.) produced in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil, by GC -FID, IR, 1H NMR and the thermogravimetric behavior TG/DTG as well as yield of that obtained oil. Thus, the oil yield of Valenciano melon seeds was 28.47% and that of Pele de Sapo melon was 26.41%....

Author(s): Flavio Paulino da Silva, Ismael Montero Fernández, Selvin Antonio Saravia Maldonado, Simone Rorigues da Silva, Ricardo Santos Alemán, Vany Perpetua Ferraz, Jhunior Abrahan Marcia Fuentes and Bernardo de Morais Linhares  

February 2020

Analytical quantification of copper in frogs (Rana tigrina) found from various aquatic habitats

This study focused on the quantitative determination of Cu metal in various physical parts of frogs by using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry technique). Cu was measured (2.72±0.77 µg/g) in kidney of Rana tigrina captured from industrial site and in R. tigrina captured from non-industrial site (28.10±27.02 µg/g). Similarly, 27.56±9.92 µg/g Cu was discovered in liver of R. tigrina...

Author(s): Muhammad Nasir, Tariq Mahmood Ansari, Ghulam Yasin, Aleem Ahmad Khan and Muhammad Shoaib  

January 2020

Involvement of class 1 and class 2 integrons in dissemination of tet and catA1 resistance genes of Salmonella enterica from children with diarrhea in rural Burkina Faso

With high annual mortality rates among young children, antimicrobial resistant salmonellosis is considered a major public health concern worldwide. Antimicrobial resistant salmonellosis is a worldwide health issue, particularly in low income countries with high microbially-derived food contaminations. As a result, it is important to better understand the biological factors that may control these bacteria’s...

Author(s): René Dembélé, Wendpoulomdé Aimé Désiré Kaboré, Issiaka Soulama, Ali Konaté, Assèta Kagambèga, Oumar Traoré, Alfred S. Traoré , Awa Aidara-Kane, Amy Gassama-Sow† and Nicolas Barro  

January 2020

Impact of transgenic conversion on the characteristics of Burkina Faso cotton

Genetically modified cotton (GMC) was compared with two conventional cultivars, using data from trials and commercial farms. Objectives were to highlight disparate agronomic and technological performance parameters and identify perspectives to Burkina Faso comeback to GMC. Results showed that compared materials are similar for most agronomic characteristics, except fiber percent. As this important parameter is...

Author(s): BOURGOU Larbouga, HEMA S. Omer, KOULIBALY Bazoumana, DIANE S. Karamogo and SAWADOGO Mahamadou  

January 2020

Effect of two agro-pedo-climatic zones, drying methods and pelleting processes on chemical composition of Manihot esculenta (sp.), Leucaena leucocephala and Cajanus cajan

In tropical and subtropical countries, livestock productivity may be affected by the availability of food resources and the high prevalence of gastrointestinal pathogenic nematodes. The classical method of control using anthelmintic drugs is becoming decreasingly efficient because of a generalised resistance of the gastrointestinal nematodes suppress (GIN) to most of the drugs. In small farms, protein-rich biomasses...

Author(s): Nathalie MINATCHY, Harry ARCHIMÈDE, Dingamgoto Jesse BARDE, Liza DAHOMÉ, Fernand LABIRIN, Brigitte CALIF and Carine MARIE-MAGDELEINE  

January 2020

Bacterial and vermi-remediation of soil contaminated with chlorpyrifos insecticide

This study aimed at investigating the effect of consortia of three types of indigenous bacteria (Corynebacterium sp., Sphingobacterium gobiense and Kocuria flava) and earthworm (at 5 and 10 earthworms/kg soil) and their combination on the percentage removal of chlorpyrifos from chlorpyrifos contaminated soil in Sudan. Silt soil (Gerf soil) samples were mixed with known concentration of chlorpyrifos (450 mgkg-1) and...

Author(s): Nagla Abdelmoniem Mohamed Ahmed, Sulieman Hammad Nasser Ali, Ahmed Mohammed Ali Hammad, Abd Elaziz Sulieman Ahmed Ishag and Azhari Omer Abdelbagi  

January 2020

Studies on some major yield responsive genes in selected rice (Oryza species) cultivars grown in Nigeria using candidate gene SSR-based markers approach

This study was aimed at determining the presence of five major yield responsive genes shown to be among key determinants of rice yield in ten rice cultivars grown in Nigeria using candidate gene SSRs markers (Cg-SSRs). DNAs were extracted from young leaf samples using optimized cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-extraction method. An established gene sequences for high yielding rice Nipponbare cultivar for the five...

Author(s): Zaharaddin Halilu, Rabi&#;u Aliyu Umar, Riskuwa Arabu Shehu, Adamu Aliyu Aliero, Aliyu Abdullahi Turaki, Ahmed Hamza Balarabe, Abubakar Muhammad Gumi and Sha&#;aya&#;u Shehu  

January 2020

Amino acyl tRNA synthetase inhibitors is therapeutics for gliomas at sub nanomolar concentrations

Glioblastoma is the most malignant and fatal of all primary brain tumors. Each year in the United States, about 22,000 cases of glioma are diagnosed and about 70% of these patients die. The current treatment modality options available for glioma patients are limited to temozolomide, radiation, and surgery. The poor outcome with these treatment options has necessitated the search for a better chemotherapeutic strategy to...

Author(s): Peace C. Asuzu and Chidiebere U. Awah  

January 2020

Lack of association of toll-like receptor 2 rs3804100 polymorphism with paediatric tuberculosis in South Africa

Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR 2) genetic polymorphisms are important factors that are involved in the development of clinical tuberculosis. In this study, a single nucleotide polymorphism of the immune response protein molecule, toll-like receptor 2 designated as rs3804100 involving T/C polymorphism was carried out by genotypic analysis of DNA obtained from blood samples of the paediatric population in South Africa...

Author(s): Inyang Udosen  

January 2020

Antiproliferative effect of Amburana cearensis seed extracts on human cancer cell lines

Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith (Fabaceae) is a plant of Brazil, popularly known as umburana or cumaru, and is widely used in folk medicine. The population uses its bark and seeds against many pathologies including cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the antiproliferative effect of A. cearensis extracts on human tumor cell lines of HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma and HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as on...

Author(s): Aline Aires Aguiar, Ernane Gerre Pereira Bastos, Ilsamar Mendes Soares, Ivana Grivicich, Jéssica Machado Miri, Sérgio Donizeti Ascêncio and Raimundo Wagner de Souza Aguiar  

December 2019

Effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Vinca major L. on biochemical parameters and glucose level of alloxan induced diabetic rats

In view of World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation on the use of medicinal plants for the management of diabetes mellitus, this study evaluated the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Vinca major L. on biochemical parameters and glucose level of alloxan induced diabetic rats as objective. Sixty-four male Wistar albino rats were induced with diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection and were separated into...

Author(s): Monago-Ighorodje Comfort, Duru Majesty, Adindu Eze, Nwauche Kelechi, Ezekwe Ahamefula, Nosiri Ijeoma, Odika Prince, Onyeabo Chimaraoke, Ogar Ishade, Berezi Ebitimi Peter, Ugoh Austin Ikenna, Eboagwu Ijeoma and Otta Emmanuel  

December 2019

Development of a rice yellow mottle virus amplicon biotechnological tool for the production of high value proteins in rice

Lately, advances on biotechnology have led to the emergence of plants as bioreactor for the production of molecules of industrial, pharmaceutical and agribusiness interests. One of the major advances was the exploitation of plant viruses as “amplifier” for the protein production. This amplicon technology relies on viral vector engineered to contain a gene encoding candidate protein that is produced in...

Author(s): Pingdwende Kader Aziz Bamogo,, Christophe Brugidou, Fidèle Tiendrébéogo, Drissa Sérémé, Florencia Wendkuuni Djigma, Jacques Simpore and Séverine Lacombe,

December 2019

An alternative caprine infection model for Mycoplasma mycoides

Ruminant infection models for Mycoplasma mycoides are invasive and laborious factors that may interfere with the experiment outcomes. This brief review presents an alternative method that may minimize on the mentioned challenges earlier mentioned. M. mycoides subsp. capri GM12 and M. mycoides subsp. capri YCP1.1 ∆68 strains were used; the former, causing a septicemia in goats. An intra-tracheal inoculation technique was...

Author(s): Ssajjakambwe Paul, Elise Schieck, Anne Liljander, Tweyongyere Robert, Matovu Enock, Kazibwe Ann, Nanteza Ann and Mwiine Frank

December 2019

Phenotypic and molecular characterization of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Nigeria

This present study was undertaken for detection of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLS) enzyme genes among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using phenotypic and molecular techniques. Thirty-four P. aeruginosa isolates from different hospitals in Nsukka and University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu were screened for the presence of ESBL-encoding genes. Phenotypic screening for ESBL producers...

Author(s): Martina C. Agbo, Ifeoma M. Ezeonu, Maurice N. Odo, Chukwuebuka  M. Ononugbo, Beatrice O. Onodagu, Chinelo C. Eze, Ezinwanne  N. Ezeibe and Chizoba A. Ozioko  

December 2019

Evaluation of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from locally consumed probiotic food in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria for antimicrobial activity utilizing agar well diffusion and pH tolerance tests

Antimicrobial activity against entero-pathogens and tolerance to acid stress are crucial characters of probiotic bacteria. Lactobacillus spp. isolates were phenotypically characterized using colony observation, catalase test and Gram stain reaction.  The pH (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5) tolerance of each isolate was evaluated at 0 and 4 h. The antibacterial activities of the isolates were tested against pathogenic strains of...

Author(s): Dinebari P. Berebon, Kenneth C. Ofokansi, Anthony A. Attama, Christopher O. Eze, Restus C. Onwusoba, Chukwudi T. Ugwu, Charity C. Eze and Somtochukwu A. Evurani  

December 2019

First report of bovine papillomavirus genotypes in cutaneous lesions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing in Panama

Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) causes benign tumours in the mucosal and cutaneous epithelium and is characterized by the presence of warts. The present study includes the molecular identification of BPV strains in samples of warts using degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers FAP59/64. Skin biopsies were taken from crossbred cattle from two experimental farms of Instituto de Investigación Agropecuaria de...

Author(s): Rita González, Manuel Murillo, Hilda Elena Castillo M., Marcelino Jaén  and Axel Villalobos-Cortés

December 2019

Survey of the incidence and distribution of groundnut rosette disease in major groundnut-producing regions of Western Kenya

Groundnut rosette disease (GRD) is the most important viral disease of groundnuts in sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, GRD infection especially before flowering results in 100% loss in pod yield. Surveys were conducted in 2016 and 2017 to determine the incidence and distribution of GRD in five major groundnut growing Counties of western Kenya. A structured questionnaire was used to assess GRD incidence and severity and...

Author(s): Eric O. Were, Evans N. Nyaboga and Elijah M. Ateka  

December 2019

In vitro regeneration of coconut (Cocos nucifera L) through indirect somatic embryogenesis in Kenya

Regeneration of the coconut (Cocos nucifera L) through indirect somatic embryogenesis using 9 to 12 months embryos explants was established in Y3 medium supplemented with 100 to 250 µM 2,4 -dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) alone and in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and thiadiazuron (TDZ). The highest callus induction (100%) was observed in medium containing 150 and 250...

Author(s): Caren C. Bett, Cecilia M. Mweu and Aggrey B. Nyende  

November 2019

Expression profiling, phylogenetic, and structural analyses of a laccase gene from the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

Laccases, member of multicopper oxidase (MCO) family enzymes, play crucial roles in insects’ cuticle tanning and pigmentation. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a laccase gene from the red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. The isolated RPW laccase gene sequence was 3,389 bp, including a 2,163 bp open reading frame that encodes 720 amino acids. The RPW laccase gene conserved the...

Author(s): Babiker M. A. Abdel-Banat and Hamadttu A. F. El-Shafie

November 2019

In vitro regeneration protocol through direct organogenesis for Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) accessions in Ethiopia

Jatropha curcas L. is among important tree crops in the world with a potential for biofuel production. In Ethiopia, there is a soaring investors’ interest to produce Jatropha in the country for biodiesel production. However, insufficient good quality propagation material is a major production constraint. A study was undertaken to establish a protocol for in vitro mass propagation of three Ethiopian Jatropha...

Author(s): Hundessa Fufa, Meseret Tesema and Jiregna Daksa  

November 2019

Effects of genotype and plant growth regulators on callus induction in leaf cultures of Coffea arabica L. F1 hybrid

Coffea arabica, F1 hybrid variety, Ruiru 11 is a highly sought after crop in Kenya due to its alleviated resistance to Coffee Berry Disease and Coffee Leaf Rust coupled with high yield capacity and good cup quality. Access to the variety’s planting materials is limited due to challenges with difficulty in propagation using conventional methods of seed and vegetative propagation; and somatic embryogenesis is...

Author(s): Mwaniki W. I., Lubabali A. H., Asava K. K., Agwanda C. O. and Anami S. E.  

November 2019

Relationship between 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and aroma in Uganda rice populations with Oryza (barthi, glaberrima and sativa) backgrounds

The sweet popcorn aroma conferred by 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is a highly economic trait of rice grain attracting premium price worldwide. This research study was conducted to determine the levels of 2AP in Ugandan rice lines with the aim of establishing a better understanding on the level and classes of 2AP and aroma phenotype. Concentration of 2AP was assayed using two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight...

Author(s): David Ocan, Rongrong Zhang, Martin Odoch, Michael Kanaabi,  Angele Pembele Ibanda, Agnes Akwero, Bill Williams Khizzah, Ephraim Nuwamanya, Jimmy Lamo, Melissa Anne Fitzgerald, Venea Dara Daygon and Patrick Rutimbanzigu Rubaihayo

November 2019

Evaluation of aflatoxins levels and molecular identification of toxigenic molds in cereals and cereal-derived breakfast foods in Nigeria

In the last decade, there have been an increase in safety concerns on the aflatoxins contents of cereals and cereal-derived food products in Nigeria. In the current study, evaluation of aflatoxins levels and molecular identification of toxigenic molds recovered from cereals and cereal-derived foods products in Nigeria were studied. Enzyme Link Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...

Author(s): Michael O. Odo, Fidelis Azi, Ignatius C. Alaka and Veronica N. Nwobasi

November 2019

Whole-genome optical mapping: Improving assembly of Macrophomina phaseolina MS6 through spanning of twelve blunt end chromosomes by obviating all errors and misassembles

Deciphering genetic information through next-generation sequencing (NGS) is considered as the basic platform to unveil in details of an organism. However, as it produces short reads that lead to difficulties in assembly, we generated long scaffold-based optical mapping (OM) data of previously sequenced devastating fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina MS6. In the process, KpnI identified as the most effective restriction...

Author(s): Quazi Md. Mosaddeque Hossen, Md. Shahidul Islam, Emdadul Mannan Emdad, Md. Samiul Haque, Md. Monjurul Alam and Maqsudul Alam,

November 2019

Callus induction in three mosaic disease resistant cassava cultivars in Benin and genetic stability of the induced calli using simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers

The effect of different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ), benzyl amino purine (BAP), kinetin and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) on callus induction in three elite cassava cultivars (agric-rouge, atinwewe and agblehoundo) was evaluated. Leaf explants harvested from greenhouse-grown cassava were sterilised using different concentrations of commercial bleach commonly called Jik (3.85% NaOCl) at different time...

Author(s): Amitchihoué Franck Sessou, Jane W. Kahia, Elijah Ateka, Jerome Anani Houngue, Colombe Dadjo, Peter Njenga and Corneille Ahanhanzo  

October 2019

Scientific applications and prospects of nanomaterials: A multidisciplinary review

Nanotechnology is the science of objects <100 nm in size. Research into the development and application of nanomaterials takes a material science and engineering-based approach to nanotechnology. Nanomaterials often possess interesting optical, electronic and mechanical properties. The capacity to construct large, intricate structures with nanometer precision is rapidly increasing and consists several top-down...

Author(s): ADEOLA Adedapo Oluwasanu, FAPOHUNDA Oluwaseun, JIMOH Adeleke Teslim, TOLUWALOJU Tunde Isaiah, IGE Ayokunle Olalekan and OGUNYELE Abimbola Chris  

October 2019

Selection of Lactobacillus strains newly isolated from Algerian camel and mare fermented milk for their in vitro probiotic and lipolytic potentials

The main objective of this study was the characterization of new lactobacilli probiotic strains belonging to lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Eighty-eight strains were isolated from different Algerian camel and mare fermented milks; three of them were pre-selected for their stability, fast growth and resistance to acidity and bile salts. Cell viability was assessed in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. On the other...

Author(s): Sabrina Amara, Halima Zadi-Karam and Nour-Eddine Karam

October 2019

Optimizing DNA isolation protocol for rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L) accessions

Rosemary plant is in high demand due to its application in traditional health care, food flavoring, fragrance and pharmaceutical industries. It contains high level of secondary metabolites which are responsible for its beneficial activities. Application of molecular techniques would facilitate the production of these substances and screening of accessions. The isolation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifiable...

Author(s): Zewdinesh Damtew Zigene, Bizuayehu Tesfaye Asfaw and Tesfaye Disasa Bitima  

October 2019

Nutritional enhancement of cocoa pod husk meal through fermentation using Rhizopus stolonifer

This study evaluated the effect of fermentation period on the proximate composition, anti-nutritional content, fibre fractions and amino acid profile of cocoa pod husk meal (CPHM). Cocoa pod husk was taken through a solid state fermentation process involving Rhizopus stolonifer as its starter culture for a period of two weeks. The fermented CPHM was dried and analyzed for its proximate composition, anti-nutritional...

Author(s): Olugosi O. A., Agbede J. O., Adebayo I. A., Onibi G. E. and Ayeni O. A.  

October 2019

Variable DNA methylation in Ensete (Ensete ventricosum) clones associated with developmental stage revealed by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) with Methylation-Sensitive enzyme

Ensete (Ensete ventricosum) is an important perennial species in Ethiopia. It is used for food and fiber. The mode of propagation is asexual and sexual. Asexual form of reproduction is by natural and anthropogenic induced sucker. This research aims to investigate and measure the methylation diversity of natural and anthropogenic induced sucker forming Ensete. Twenty-seven individuals from Hawassa University research...

Author(s): Hewan Demissie Degu and Bizuayehu Tesfaye  

October 2019

Development and validation of an analytical method for quantification of total flavonoids in Alternanthera brasiliana by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrophotometry

Alternanthera brasiliana is popularly known in Brazil as "penicillin" or "benzetacil" and is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infections and for the healing of wounds. It is also used as an ornamental plant due to the characteristic purple coloration of its leaves when cultivated in shade. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology by...

Author(s): José M. T. de Alencar Filho, Hyany A. P. Teixeira, Iure S. de Carvalho, Milenna V. V. de O. Alencar, Nathália A. C. de Souza, Tarcísio C. de L. Arraújo, Emanuella C. V. Pereira, Isabela A. Amariz, Pedrita A. Sampaio, Pedro J. Rolim-Neto, Larissa A. Rolim, and Edigênia C. da C. Araújo,  

October 2019

Characterization of three full Iris yellow spot virus genes of a garlic-infecting isolate from Zimbabwe using next-generation sequencing technology

Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) is an important pathogen of Allium species worldwide. It has a tripartite genome consisting of the large (L), medium (M) and small (S) RNA segments. Despite its worldwide distribution, very few complete gene and genome sequences are available in public databases. The aim of this study was to obtain full gene sequences of a garlic-infecting IYSV isolate by next-generation sequencing (NGS)...

Author(s): Charles Karavina, Jacques Davy Ibaba and Augustine Gubba  

October 2019

Economic viability of the biogas produced on pig farms in Brazil for electric power generation

Electric energy generated by clean and renewable sources, such as biogas, is a subject widely discussed and of global importance. Biogas, besides being an alternative to other fuels uses a raw material, which in many cases is considered disposable, worthless and harmful to the environment when not correctly disposed of. Several factors influence the design, operation and collection of the final product. This paper is a...

Author(s): Levi Mariano Neto, Wellington Henrique Ponciano and Antonio Manoel Batista da Silva

October 2019

Comparison of embryo developmental rates in Nguni, Bonsmara and Boran beef cattle breeds following in vitro fertilization and artificial insemination

The aim of this study was to compare the embryonic developmental rates in the Southern African cattle breeds. To do this, cryopreserved semen straws from Nguni, Bonsmara, and Boran bulls were thawed at 38°C and evaluated for sperm motility characteristics using Sperm Class Analyser (SCA). The fertilizing ability of frozen/thawed sperm was evaluated by performing artificial insemination (AI) and in vitro...

Author(s): Mohleko Helen Mapeka, Cyril Mpho Pilane, Robert. Treadwell, Jones Ng’ambi and Cuthbert Banga  

October 2019

Genetic diversity assessment of yams (Dioscorea spp.) from Ethiopia using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers

The genetic diversity and relationships of 70 accessions of yam belonging to Dioscorea cayenensis/Dioscorea rotundata complex (55), Dioscorea bulbifera (13) and Dioscorea alata (2, as a reference) were assessed using six inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers. DNA was extracted from a bulk of two plants per accession using a modified cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method. Six ISSR primers amplified 77...

Author(s): Kedra Mohammed Ousmael, Kassahun Tesfaye, and Teklehaimanot Hailesilassie

September 2019

Molecular identification of acetic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mango juices of Burkina Faso: 16S rRNA gene sequencing

Acetic acid bacteria are known for their ability to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid. This study investigated to identify dominant strain acetic acid bacteria involving in fermented juice of mango and capable to produce Vinegar, total of 4 bacteria (CRSBAN-BVA1, CRSBAN-BVK1, CRSBAN-BVK2, CRSBAN-BVI1) bacteria strains were preselected ¶for the analyses. The strains were examined with biochemical, physiological and...

Author(s): Assiètta OUATTARA, K. Marius SOMDA, A. T. Cheik OUATTARA, Bassirou N’DOYE, S. Alfred TRAORE and S. Aboubakar OUATTARA  

September 2019

Phylogenetic analysis of bluetongue virus serotype16 based on genome segment 5 (encoding NS1)

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the ‘type’ species of the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae. The BTV genome is composed of ten linear segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), each of which codes for at least one of ten distinct viral proteins. Phylogenetic analysis based on VP2, VP3, VP5, VP7 and NS3 gene has been advocated by different researchers around the world. However, very little information...

Author(s): Molalegne Bitew, Sukdeb Nandi, Chintu Ravishankar and Asit Sharma

September 2019

Cytogenetic and molecular assessment of some nanoparticles using Allium sativum assay

One of the primary objectives in agriculture is providing high-quality crops to consumers. Multiple techniques and methods are utilized to achieve this objective, including nanotechnology that depends on the use of very small materials, which will help in decreasing the amounts usually used with similar effects. Nanomaterials are used as fertilizers and also as component of nano-pesticides for plants. Despite their...

Author(s): Mona S. Al-Ahmadi  

September 2019

Biotechnological tools for detection, identification and management of plant diseases

Detection and identification of plant pathogens is one of the most important strategies for sustainable plant diseases management. For this reason, the availability of fast, sensitive and accurate methods for detection and identification of plant pathogens is increasingly necessary to improve disease control decision making process. In other words, new technologies and improved methods with reduced/fair cost and...

Author(s): Tibebu Belete and Nuh Boyraz  

September 2019

Biopreservation of meat using the essential oil from Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae) in Burkina Faso

Essential oils are natural substances which can be used as natural conservators for foods. The present work aimed to evaluate biological properties of essential oil of Hyptis suaveolens and its effect on shelf-life of beef. The extraction was carried out by hydro-distillation. Antioxidant activity was determined by method of DPPH and FRAP. Antimicrobial activity was determined by the microdilution and agar diffusion...

Author(s): Henriette B. MIHIN, Marius K. SOMDA, Donatien KABORE, Souleymane SANON, Agbémébia Y. AKAKPO, Zenabou SEMDE, Alfred S.TRAORE and Aboubakar S. OUATTARA  

September 2019

Recombination fraction and genetic linkage among key disease resistance genes (Co-42/Phg-2 and Co-5/“P.ult”) in common bean

Anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum), Angular leaf spot (Pseudocercospora griseola) and Pythium root rot are important pathogens affecting common bean production in the tropics. A promising strategy to manage these diseases consists of combining several resistance (R) genes into one cultivar. The aim of the study was to determine genetic linkage between gene pairs, Co-42/Phg-2, on bean-chromosome Pv08 and...

Author(s): Dennis Okii, Arfang Badji , Thomas Odong, Herbert Talwana, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Allan Male, Clare Mukankusi and Paul Gepts  

September 2019

Aqueous Extracts of Pericopsis angolensis and Swartzia madagascariensis with High Antimicrobial Activities against Escherichia coli O157, Shigella spp. and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (Serovar typhi)

This study determined the potential antidiarrhoeal potential of Pericopsis angolensis and Swartzia madagascariensis extracts against Escherichia coli O157, Shigella species and Salmonella Typhi. Extracts were obtained using the following methods: (i) hot water extraction (90°C) (LHWE), (ii) cold water extraction (CWED) and (iii) ethanolic extraction (EED). Antimicrobial effects of the extracts were determined using...

Author(s): Chingwaru Constance, Tanja Bagar and Chingwaru Walter,

September 2019

Extreme resistance to late blight disease by transferring 3 R genes from wild relatives into African farmer-preferred potato varieties

Three late blight resistance (R) genes from wild potato species were transferred as a stack into the farmer-preferred varieties ‘Tigoni’ and ‘Shangi’. Transgenic events were tested by detached-leaf assays (DLA) and whole-plant assays (WPA) with isolates of Phytophthora infestans using 20,000 sporangia / mL inoculum. For the first DLA, 9 out of 13 ‘Tigoni’ and 10 out of 12...

Author(s): Ethel N. Webi, Kariuki Daniel, Kinyua Johnson, Njoroge Anne, Ghislain Marc and Magembe Eric  

September 2019

Characterization of products from sawdust biodegradation using selected microbial culture isolated from it

Characterization of products from sawdust degradation using selected microbial culture isolated from it was carried out. A composite sawdust waste sample was collected from MCC timber market in Calabar. The sample was diluted using serial dilution method and inoculated on Nutrient agar and Sabauraud dextrose agar using pour plate technique and incubated at 370C and 270C respectively. Five bacteria species and 3 species...

Author(s): Lennox, Josiah A., Asitok, A., John, Godwin E. and Etim, Blessing T.

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