African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12401

AJB Articles

In vitro anti-tyrosinase and anti-elastase activity of collagen from sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota)

April 2017

Collagen is the main structural component of connective tissues in vertebral and invertebral animal tissues and organs. The collagen isolated from the body wall of sea cucumber (Holothuria lecospilota) can be used in the pharmaceutical field. The research aimed at isolating collagen from the sea cucumber body wall and testing the anti-tyrosinase and anti-elastase activity. This was done by isolation of collagen by...

Author(s): Syamsudin Abdillah, Gita Wijiyanti, Metta Setiawan, Siti Umroh Noor and Mala Nurilmala

Enzootic bovine leukosis and the risk to human health

April 2017

The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was first reported as enzootic bovine lymphosarcoma in Eastern Europe in the late 19th century, highlighted by the presence of slightly yellow nodules in the enlarged spleen of cattle. It was believed to be an infectious disease because it spreaded through the herds. With changes observed in sensitivity of diagnostic techniques, the opinion that “BLV does not infect humans”...

Author(s): Axel Villalobos-Cortés

Micropropagation of two species of Micranthocereus (Cactaceae) with ornamental potential native to Bahia, Brazil

April 2017

The two target cactus species in this study, Micranthocereus flaviflorus subsp. densiflorus (Buining and Brederoo) P.J.Braun and Esteves and Micranthocereus. polyanthus subsp. alvinii M. Machado and Hofacker, are endemic to the state of Bahia and have ornamental value. Therefore, this work proposed to establish M. flaviflorus in vitro, as well as to micropropagate both species. The temperature regimes 25°C and...

Author(s): Laila Mandel Civatti, Maria Nazaré Guimarães Marchi and Moema Cortizo Bellintani

First detection of deformed wing and kakugo viruses in honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in Egypt by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

April 2017

The identification of bee viruses is of great importance where there is no information on their natural occurrence in honeybee populations. Honeybee samples (Apis mellifera L.) obtained from Giza Governorate, Egypt were evaluated for total RNA from the head, thorax and abdomen, and varroa mites. Two fragments of 250 and 540 bp of deformed wing (DWV) and kakugo viruses (KV), respectively, were amplified using...

Author(s): Emtithal M. Abd-El-Samie, Fatma K. Adham, Sawsan El-Mohandes and Heba Seyam

Assessment of genetic diversity and structure of Sporisorium scitamineum from China using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers

April 2017

In this study, the genetic diversity and structure of 90 monosporidia mating-type isolates of Sporisorium scitamineum collected from China were comprehensively evaluated based on the DNA extracted from mating-type haploid sporidias using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) polymorphism molecular marker technique. Fifteen selected ISSR primers produced 162 amplified DNA fragments, of which 115 (71.0%) were polymorphic....

Author(s): Gang-hong Xu, Quan-qing Deng, Wan-kuan Shen,, Shuang Chen, and Xia-ming Wu,

Evaluation of the role of SsaV ‘Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 dependent type III secretion system components on the virulence behavior of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

April 2017

Salmonella is a causative agent of wide range of diseases varying from gastroenteritis to systemic typhoid fever. It uses specialized Type III secretion system (T3SS) by its two compartments to invade and intracellularly survive inside the immune cells. T3SS is expressed in two subsequent phases by two distinct Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SP) I and II. Understanding and evaluation of components T3SS-SPI1 and...

Author(s): Wael A. H. Hegazy, and Hisham A. Abbas

Quality characteristics of Korean traditional rice wine (Takju) prepared by addition of green pepper

April 2017

Makgeolli, frequently called Takju, a famous Korean traditional rice wine, has long been prepared and consumed in Korea. Takju consumption in Korea has been increased because of its nutritional and functional values. The objective of the present study was to investigate the chemical characteristics, color values, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, total phenolic contents, and sensory...

Author(s): Chan Yong Kim, Kil Su Jang, Su Gyeong Jeon, Sanjeev Kumar Dhungana, Hyeon Min Do, Oh Hun Kwon, Oh-Heun Kwon, Hye-Ryun Kim and Il-Doo Kim

Physicochemical properties of rhodanese: A cyanide detoxifying enzyme from Pentadiplandra brazzeana (Baill) root

April 2017

Rhodanese a ubiquitous sulphur transferase enzyme catalyses the detoxification of cyanide to a less toxic thiocyanate. Rhodanese from the root of Pentadiplandra brazzeana was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and affinity chromatography. The enzyme had a specific activity of 4.82 RU/mg of protein. The Km values of the substrates (KCN and Na2S2O3) were 11.76 and 10 mM, respectively. The optimum pH and...

Author(s): Raphael E. Okonji, Bamidele S. Fagbohunka, Leonard O. Ehigie, Zainab A. Ayinla and Olajumoke O. Ojo

Effects of solid matrix priming with Trichoderma harzianum on seed germination, seedling emergence and photosynthetic capacity of eggplant

April 2017

The effects of solid matrix priming with strain T22 of Trichoderma harzianum on seed germination, seedling emergence and photosynthetic capacity in two eggplant varieties were evaluated. Seed were primed by mixing with vermiculite and the T. harzianum wettable powder (WP) suspension at a rate of 1:3:3.2 (fresh weigh basis, respectively) at 15°C for 7 days in the dark, then primed seed were dried. Solid matrix...

Author(s): Lingyun WU, Dongwei YAO and Ming LI

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by endophytic fungi: Its mechanism, characterization techniques and antimicrobial potential

April 2017

Nanotechnology has rapidly developed as an important field of modern research, generating most promising applications in electronics and medicine. It involves different approaches for the synthesis and application of nanoparticles having dimension smaller than 100 nm. Nanoparticles are the fundamental building blocks for preparing many nanostructured materials and devices. Therefore, there is an enormous interest in...

Author(s): Sardul Singh Sandhu, Harshita Shukla and Shyamji Shukla

Isolation and identification of Talaromyces purpurogenus and preliminary studies on its pigment production potentials in solid state cultures

March 2017

Pigments from various sources such as annatto seeds, cochineal, beet root, and microalgae are widely used in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, textile and other industries. However, these sources of pigments have various limitations such as toxicity and environmental pollution of synthetic pigments, and low productivity of pigments from higher organisms due to long period of growth. The objective of this study was to...

Author(s): Christiana N. Ogbonna, Hideki Aoyagi and James C. Ogbonna

Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red and white grapes on different rootstocks

March 2017

This study aimed to assess the rootstocks influence over total phenolic compound content, antioxidant activity and its correlation in different red and white grapes cultivars for wine production. This study conducted an experimental three-year-old vineyard, located in Jundiai, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, from July 2013 to January 2014. Red and white grapes from Vitis vinifera L. (Cabernet Sauvignon,...

Author(s): Marlon Jocimar Rodrigues da Silva, Bruna Thaís Ferracioli Vedoato, Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima, Mara Fernandes Moura, Giovanni Marcello de Angeli Gilli Coser, Charles Yukihiro Watanabe and Marco Antonio Tecchio

Effect of Brazil nut oil (Bertholletia excelsa HBK) on the physical, chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of a mayonnaise-type emulsion

March 2017

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of emulsifiers on the chemicophysical, colorimetric, microscopic and sensorial properties, and the stability of a mayonnaise-type emulsion prepared with Brazil nut oil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K). For this purpose, two emulsifiers were used: a soya protein isolate and dehydrated and pasteurised egg yolk as a source of protein. Both formulations had high energy...

Author(s): Cristina Grace de Sousa Guerra, Jaime Paiva Lopes Aguiar, Wallice Luiz Paxiuba Duncan, Ariane Mendonça Kluckzosvki and Francisca das Chagas do Amaral Souza

Morphometric characterization of Jatropha curcas germplasm of North-East India

March 2017

The morphological variation among Jatropha curcas L. populations from 29 different locations of North-East India was determined. Four populations from other parts of India were also incorporated in the study as an out-group. The morphological trait based analysis of J. curcas revealed large variation of quantitative traits among the populations. Of the six morphological traits used in this study, the highest variation...

Author(s): Adreeja Basu, Lokanadha Rao Gunupuru and Lingaraj Sahoo,

Isolation and characterization of heavy metals resistant Rhizobium isolates from different governorates in Egypt

March 2017

Contamination of soil with heavy metals is one of the major environmental problems in many countries that reach from many sources as power stations, application of metal pesticides, fertilizers, and sewage sludge. In this study, ten Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae isolates were collected from different governorates in Egypt (Menoufia, Kafr El-Sheikh, Qalubia, Fayoum, Ismailia, Sharkya, Dakhalia, Behira and North...

Author(s): Khalid S. Abdel-lateif,

Evaluation and association mapping of agronomic traits for drought tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]

March 2017

Drought is the major sorghum production constraint in Ethopia which necessitates the identification of sorghum genotypes that carry genes (quantitative trait locus, QTL) associated with drought tolerance thereby developing drought tolerant sorghum varieties. The objectives of this study were to identify drought tolerant sorghum genotypes, map chromosomal regions (QTLs) associated with agronomically important traits and...

Author(s): Aleye Endre and Kassahun Bantte

Efficiency of the partial substitution of agar with potato starch on the growth and phytochemical parameters of lulo (Solanum quitoense) cultured in vitro

March 2017

The demand for agar, thanks to its different uses, generates the need to look for alternative substances that replace it. This work studied the influence of four different additions of potato starch into agar media (T1 = 50%, T2 = 45%, T3 = 40% and T4 = 0%) on the growth and chemical composition of essential oils of lulo (Solanum quitoense) explants cultured in vitro. The lengths, fresh and dry biomass weights, and...

Author(s): D. A. Martin G., Oswaldo E. Cárdenas-González, José Pacheco, Maritza De Jesus-Echevarría and Jovanny A. Gómez Castaño

Bioactivity of ethanolic extracts of Euphorbia pulcherrima on Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

March 2017

The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous species which attacks many economically important crops in several countries. This insect is an important pest of corn, and currently the most widely used control method is chemical. In order to minimize environmental impacts, other forms of control have been tried, and accordingly, the investigation of plants with...

Author(s): Viviane Tavares Almeida, Vânia Maria Ramos,, Matheus Barbosa Saqueti, Pedro Henrique Gorni, Ana Cláudia Pacheco and Renato Marcos de Leão,

Differentiation of Urochloa brizantha cultivars by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers in seed samples

March 2017

Approximately 80-90% of cultivated grassland areas in Brazil are covered by Urochloa brizantha [syn. Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf.]. Some genotypes of Urochloa have being widely used with a wrong nomenclature, like species and cultivars. In this way, the Urochloa cultivar identification is primordial for breeding programs and seed production. Considering the importance of genetic purity in...

Author(s): Inaê Braga, Claudia Jaqueline Tome Yamamoto, Ceci Castilho Custódio and Nelson Barbosa Machado-Neto

In vitro evaluation of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented Shamita and Kocho for their desirable characteristics as probiotics

March 2017

The study was conducted to evaluate in vitro probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fermented Shamita and Kocho. Sixteen samples, 8 each of Shamita and Kocho, were collected from Arat-Kilo and Merkato sites in Addis Ababa, respectively. The average pH values of Shamita and Kocho samples were 3.52 and 3.44, respectively. A total of 140 LAB were isolated, of which 101 isolates (72%) were found to...

Author(s): Negasi Akalu, Fassil Assefa and Asnake Dessalegn 

Ethanolic Allium sativum extract down-regulates the pelF gene involved in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation

March 2017

Exploration of efficacious plant extracts that can reduce or inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation is necessary. Allium sativum is a suitable candidate because of its relative abundance. This study was carried out to determine the effect of ethanolic A. sativum extract on the expression of the P. aeruginosa biofilm gene, pelF. The presence of the pelF gene in the isolates used for this study was confirmed via...

Author(s): Nathaniel Nyakaat Ninyio, Hadiza Bashir Gidado, Mariama O. Yahaya, Tayaza  B. Fadason, Raji A. Bamanga and Lucy M. Yaki

A study on metallo-β-lactamases producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water samples from various parts of Malaysia

March 2017

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram negative aerobic rod shaped bacterium and is an opportunistic pathogen that usually causes nosocomial infection in immunocompromised patient with various infections and affects normal healthy human as well. P. aeruginosa is also an omnipresent pathogen that can be inhabited in soil, water, vegetable, human and animal. Metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) producing P. aeruginosa are known to...

Author(s): Nagaraja Suryadevara, Ooi Yi Shuang and Paulraj Ponnaiah

PCR validation of predicted virulence factors in a collection of Xanthomonas campestris (pv. musacearum and vascolurum) strains

March 2017

Bacterial plant pathogens belonging to the Xanthomonas genus are adapted to their host plants and are not known to colonize other environments. Xanthomonas colonize host parts such as leaves, stems and roots before entering vascular tissues and engaging in an invasive pathogenic phase. These bacterial strains have evolved strategies to adapt to life in this environment. The host-pathogen interactions of Xanthomonas...

Author(s): Arthur Wasukira, Geoffrey Tusiime and Jerome Kubiriba

Microsatellite, inter simple sequence repeat and biochemical analyses of Rosa genotypes from Saudi Arabia

March 2017

Rosa damascena Mill. as a main economic crop in the world is planted for beauty and essential oil production in Ta’if region. For the management and improvement of this important crop, genetic variability was evaluated amongst six Rosa genotypes grown in different plantations using microsatellite (simple sequence repeats, SSR), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and biochemical markers. The six SSR primers showed...

Author(s): Shawkat M. Ahmed, Hadeer Y. Darwish, and Khalid H. Alamer

Evaluation of cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of two artificial sweeteners by using eukaryotic test systems

March 2017

Considering the vast use of sweeteners by the Brazilian population and the constant need for toxicological studies of food additives, this study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic and mutagenic potentials of the sodium saccharin and/or sodium cyclamate sweeteners in plant (Allium cepa) and animal (Mus musculus) test systems based on concentrations permitted by the Brazilian laws. In A. cepa, both the sweeteners...

Author(s): Victor Alves de Oliveira, Virleny Maria alves de Oliveira, Thayse Wilma Nogueira de Oliveira, Andressa Nathanna Castro Damasceno, Charles Emanuel de Oliveira Silva, Stella Regina Arcanjo Medeiros, Bruno Moreira Soares, Felipe Cavalcanti Carneiro da Silva, Raí Pablo Sousa de Aguiar, Muhammad Torequl  Islam, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Paula Peron and João Marcelo de Castro e Sousa

Proteins patterns of eight genera of the Asteraceae family

March 2017

Asteraceae family grows as wild plants in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia near the Gulf coast with prevalent high humidity coupled with more moderate temperatures. Eight genera were collected during the flowering season to study genetic diversity according to protein patterns for each plant. The protein patterns showed different numbers of bands, concentrations, molecular weight and intensity. Two common bands were...

Author(s): Mona S. Al-Ahmadi

Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) based diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus in Panama

March 2017

The bovine leukemia virus is an exogenous retrovirus that causes enzootic bovine leukosis. The aim of this study was to apply and compare a diagnostic test in an outbreak of bovine leukemia virus by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)  in a core conservation of native cattle Guaymí. From the results obtained by the three techniques used, the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test detected 33 positive...

Author(s): Axel Villalobos-Cortés, Selma Franco, Rita Gonzalez and Marcelino Jaén

Effect of two different habitats on some primary and secondary phytochemicals of Miswak (Salvadora persica L.)

March 2017

Salvadora persica is a popular medicinal plant in the Middle East countries. It is well adapted to a wide range of habitats. In this study we have compared the effect of two different habitats (Al-ahsabah valley and Shada Mountain) in Al-Baha City, south west of Saudi Arabia on the content of some primary and secondary metabolites in S. persica. The results show that soil texture, soil moisture and organic matter...

Author(s): Amal Ahmed Mohammed Al-Ghamdi and Manal El-Zohri,

Post-treatment of municipal sewer in shallow polishing ponds

March 2017

This work aims to investigate the influence of polishing ponds (PP) depth on the post-treatment of sanitary sewers. Two treatment systems were designed and monitored. One system was an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) rector and intermittent flow sand filter; followed by a PP of 0.20 m depth with low superficial application rate (24.9, high sunlight incidence (597 Wm-2) and enough biological...

Author(s): Tales Abreu Tavares de Sousa, Wilton Silva Lopes, Israel Nunes Henrique, Valderi Duarte Leite and José Tavares de Sousa

Characterization of actinobacteria from the semiarid region, and their antagonistic effect on strains of rhizobia

March 2017

The actinobacteria are the most abundant bacterial group in the soil, where they present different characteristics and antagonistic effects on other microorganisms. The objectives of this study were to characterize and evaluate the antagonistic effect of actinobacteria from the semiarid region on rhizobia from the same climatic region. Tests were performed to observe chromogenic and micro-morphological characteristics,...

Author(s): José Vinícius Leite Lima⊃, Suzana Cláudia Silveira Martins⊃, Katia Aparecida de Siqueira⊃, Marcos Antônio Soares⊃ and Claudia Miranda Martins⊃

Micropropagation of Peach, Prunus persica (L.) BATSCH. cv. Garnem

March 2017

The present study aimed to develop micropropagation procedure for Prunus persica cv. Garnem. Shoot induction and multiplication was found from nodal explants cultured on MS medium fortified with different concentrations of two cytokinins (6-benzyladeninepourine and Kinetin) alone and in combination with 0.5 mg/l gibberellic acid and 0.01 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid. Microplantlets were cultured to root on ½...

Author(s): Wegayehu Felek, Firew Mekibib and Belayneh Admassu

Molecular characterization of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers

March 2017

Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willdenow) is a pseudocereal of Amaranthace family which originated from the Andes of South America. Quinoa is an interesting plant whose capacity to tolerate adverse environmental factors and exceptional nutritional qualities warrant further research in all fields of plant biology, agronomy, ecology and biotechnology. Presently, it is an underutilized crop, which has the potential become a...

Author(s): Morillo Coronado Ana-Cruz, Manjarres Elsa Helena and Morillo Coronado Yacenia

Production and characterization of bacterial cellulose before and after enzymatic hydrolysis

March 2017

Bacterial cellulose (BC) is produced by bacteria such as Gluconacetobacter xylinus. It has unique structural and mechanical properties and is highly pure as compared to plant cellulose. In this study, BC was produced in Hestrin-Schramm (HS) medium. G. xylinus produced an average dry yield of 1.4 ± 0.09 g/L BC after 9 days of fermentation period. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed BC to be...

Author(s): Richard Auta, Grazyna Adamus, Michal Kwiecien, Iza Radecka and Paul Hooley

Banana influences on differential expression of hypersensitive response and pathogenicity gene f (hrpf) in Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum

March 2017

Banana Xanthomonas wilt is a devastating disease of cultivated banana in East and Central Africa, manifesting as initial leaf wilting, premature fruit ripening and eventual death of all infected plants leading to total yield loss. In order to contribute towards development of effective disease control options, hrpf expression by Xanthomonas campestris pv musacearum (Xcm) during establishment of Xanthomonas wilt...

Author(s): Mudonyi, B., Tusiime, G., Kubiriba, J., Tushemereirwe, W. K. and Changa, C. M.

Refinement of protocol for rapid clonal regeneration of economical bamboo, Bambusa balcooa in the agroclimatic conditions of Bihar, India

March 2017

Bambusa balcooa is a commercially important bamboo. The present study was undertaken for refinement of protocol for the rapid and mass production of this species of bamboo in agroclimatic condition of Bihar. Micro-clonal propagation techniques have been employed for the study. This technique is the only method for the large scale production of B. balcooa. Explants were collected from Bamboo setum from TNB College...

Author(s): Choudhary A. K., Priyanka K. and Ashish R.

Molecular characterization of introduced sugarcane genotypes in Ethiopia using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers

March 2017

The major thrust of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) variety improvement programs is to increase sugar yield in addition to biomass and energy cane for biofuel production.  However, due to its genetic complexity, sugarcane has received very little research interest, despite its economic importance, and molecular marker techniques are being developed only in recent times. Furthermore, until the present date few molecular...

Author(s): Adebabay Tazeb, Teklehaimanot Haileselassie and Kassahun Tesfaye

Quality characteristics of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb) of different fruit sizes

March 2017

Fruits of persimmon are considered as one of the health promoting foods which has been established as one of the major fruits in Korea. Persimmon is one of the fruits processed mainly by drying. Quality characteristics of dried persimmon prepared with different fruit sizes of cultivar Sanggandungsi were investigated. Smaller sized fruits showed significantly high weight loss as compared to bigger ones due to drying. On...

Author(s): Ji Hyeong Cho, In Kyu Song, Doo Hyun Cho, Sanjeev Kumar Dhungana, Hong Ahn and  Il-Doo Kim

An improved protocol for in vitro propagation of the medicinal plant Mimosa pudica L.

March 2017

This work aimed to develop a protocol for the in vitro establishment, multiplication, rooting and ex vitro acclimatization of Mimosa pudica L., a species used in folk medicine and with pharmacological activity. Aseptic cultures were established from seeds inoculated in MS medium, without growth regulators, followed by an in vitro stabilization phase in culture medium supplemented with 2.22 μM BAP. The cultures were...

Author(s): Ricardo Ernesto Bianchetti, Cristiano Ferrara de Resende, Vinícius Sacramento Pacheco, Felipe Floriano Dornellas, Aline Mystica Silva de Oliveira, Jober Condé Evangelista Freitas and Paulo Henrique Pereira Peixoto

Biodegradation of monocrotophos by bacteria isolated from soil

March 2017

Bacteria were isolated by enrichment culture technique from groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) soils and tested for their ability to degrade monocrotophos in mineral salts medium under aerobic conditions in the laboratory. Based on some of the morphological and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were identified as Rhodococcus phenolicus strain MCP1 and Rhodococcus ruber strain MCP-2. The initial (0-day) recovery...

Author(s): Srinivasulu M., Nilanjan P. C., Chakravarthi B. V. S. K., Jayabaskaran C., Jaffer M. G., Naga R. M., Manjunatha B., Darwin R. O., Juan O. T. and Rangaswamy V.

Silver nanoparticles biosynthesized by secondary metabolites from Moringa oleifera stem and their antimicrobial properties

March 2017

Biological extracts have recently shown a great potential for rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with antibacterial activity. AgNPs were synthetized by reduction effect of secondary metabolites produced by the Nigrospora sp. fungus, from Moringa oleifera stem as a reducing agent and silver nitrate (AgNO3) (1 mM) as salt precursor. The synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) was monitored through analysis of the...

Author(s): Eric Cristina Arrieta, Benjamín Valdez, Mónica Carrillo, Mario Alberto Curiel, Francisco David Mateos, Rogelio Arturo Ramos, Navor Rosas and José María Bastidas

Effect of the essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Mentha piperita on fungal growth and morphology

March 2017

This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils of Thymus vulgaris L., Cinnamomum zeylanicum B. and Mentha piperita L. on some saprophytic fungi. Essential oils were extracted by hydro-distillation, and chemical composition was analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). T. vulgaris had as major components, Thymol (35.12%), p-cymene (25.36%) and γ–terpinene...

Author(s): Wilson Agwanande Ambindei, Pierre Michel Dongmo Jazet, Leopold Ngoune Tatsadjieu, Priya P, Manilal VB, Krishnakumar B and Paul Henri Amvam Zollo

Comparative study of native microorganisms isolated from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) waste and commercial microorganism (Clostridium thermocellum) used for bioethanol production

March 2017

This study was to examine the efficiency of native microorganisms, in relation to the commercial bacterium Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 for bioethanol production from waste watermelon on a pilot scale. The raw material was subjected to a grinding process for the later stage of hydrolysis under different temperatures using Aspergillus fumigatus and Leuconostoc dextranicum native microorganisms. This was followed...

Author(s): Rueda O. Darwin, Angulo Alexandra, Mafla Elena, Bangeppagari Manjunatha, Rueda B. Bryan, Gangireddygari V. Subbareddy, Naga Raju Maddela and Bugude Rajeswari

Genetic diversity and population structure of traditional sweet cassava accessions from Southern of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using microsatellite markers

February 2017

Sweet cassava is a food culture of great importance because it is a source of nutrition and energy for millions of people in tropical and sub-tropical regions. For that reason, genetic diversity and population structure studies are necessary in order to obtain more information regarding the evaluated genotypes, reassuring their use in future breeding programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic...

Author(s): Tiago Maretti Gonçalves, Pedro Soares Vidigal Filho, Maria Celeste Gonçalves Vidigal, Rebecca Caroline Ulbricht Ferreira, Vanesca Priscila Camargo Rocha, Alex Henrique Tiene Ortiz, Leonel Domingos Moiana and Marcus Vinícius Kvitschal

Identification of superior soybean lines by assessing genetic parameters and path analysis of grain yield components

February 2017

This study estimated genetic parameters, identified traits of direct and indirect correlation with the grain yield through path analysis and select superior lines, maximizing genetic gain. Two experiments were conducted in 2012/2013 season in randomized blocks with three replications. 23 lines (experiment I) and 44 lines (experiment II) were seeded. For all traits analyzed in both experiments, there was a significant...

Author(s): Bruno Henrique Pedroso Val, Fabiana Mota da Silva, Eduardo Henrique Bizari, Wallace de Sousa Leite, Eder Licieri Groli, Elise de Matos Pereira, Sandra Helena Unêda-Trevisoli and Antonio Orlando Di Mauro

Evaluation of some biological activities of Euglena gracilis biomass produced by a fed-batch culture with some crop fertilizers

February 2017

The feasibility of growing Euglena gracilis in some crop fertilizers was investigated and some biological activities of the produced biomass were evaluated. A fed-batch mixotrophic culture was done in an airlift photobioreactor operated at an aeration rate of 0.2 vvm. A final biomass concentration of 2.6 gL-1 obtained with NPK15:15:15 after 96 h of cultivation was significantly lower than the 5.7 gL-1 obtained with BGII...

Author(s): Eze Chijioke Nwoye, Ogbonna James Chukwuma, Ndu Okechukwu Obisike, Ochiogu Izuchukwu Shedrack and Charles Ogugua Nwuche

Effect of mineral salts and nitrogen source on yeast (Candida utilis NOY1) biomass production using tubers wastes

February 2017

The deficiency of protein in human food and animal feed is well recognized due to the rapid growth of population. It is therefore, important to increase protein production by utilizing all the available ways and means. In the light of this, an attempt was made in this study by selecting Candida utilis NOY1. This yeast was used to determine the optimum concentration of different minerals salts and nitrogen source on...

Author(s): Nicolas Ouedraogo, Aly Savadogo, Marius K. Somda, François Tapsoba, Cheikna Zongo and Alfred S. Traore

Hybrids performance of doubled haploid lines derived from 10 tropical bi-parental maize populations evaluated in contrasting environments in Kenya

February 2017

The doubled haploid (DH) technology enables maize breeders to develop a large number of homozygous lines rapidly and test them in hybrid combinations early in the breeding cycle. The objectives of this study were to evaluate testcross performance of 556 DH lines derived from 10 diverse tropical backcross (BC1) populations, and to estimate variance components and broad-sense heritability under both well-watered and...

Author(s): Yoseph Beyene, Stephen Mugo, Sylvester O. Oikeh, Collins Juma, Mike Olsen and B. M. Prasanna

Blood biochemical profile of Sudanese crossbred repeat breeder cows

February 2017

Repeat breeder (RB) is a cow that fails to conceive from three or more successive insemination, but with normal estrus and absence of detectable clinical abnormalities. It is one of the major problems in dairy production. In the present study, the plasma biochemistry of Sudanese crossbred RB cows was examined. Plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), total protein (TP) and urea nitrogen were...

Author(s): Mohamed Esmail Ahmed, Faisal Omer Ahmed, Ehab A. M. Frah and Imadeldin Elfaki

Algae for Africa: Microalgae as a source of food, feed and fuel in Kenya

February 2017

Microalgae are unicellular photosynthetic organisms that inhabit diverse ecological habitats ranging from freshwater and brackish water to seawater and wastewater. They are also especially equipped to thrive in extreme temperatures and pH conditions. Decades of research have highlighted their potential as sources of biofuels, foods, feeds and high-value bio-actives. However, industrial-scale cultivation of microalgae is...

Author(s): Moejes, Fiona Wanjiku, and Moejes, Karin Brenda

Qualitative detection of genetically modified material in crops and food products containing maize and soybean in Algeria

February 2017

The present study was carried out to ascertain the genetic status of soybean and maize crops introduced in Algeria and to test local and imported products containing maize and soybean for the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMO into the food and feed chain). Samples from crops and processed food products were selected, randomly sampled and screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of the...

Author(s): Louanchi M , Belalia N, Lehad A, Laala S and Salhi L. N.

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