African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12240

AJB Articles

May 2016

An efficient protocol for in vitro organogenesis and antioxidant studies in Melia dubia Cav.

Melia dubia Cav. (Meliaceae) is a multipurpose tree of tropical and subtropical regions mainly cultivated for its medicinal and industrial importance. Due to its versatile properties, it has been depleted in its natural environment. Moreover due to sluggish and poor seed germination, there is a threat of its gene pool exclusion from the natural habitat. The alternative method for conservation and efficient mass...

Author(s): Syed Naseer Shah, Tareq Ahmad Wani , Bhimi Ram, Monika Koul, Praveen Awasthi, Deependra Singh Rajput and Gillela Ravi Shanker Reddy

May 2016

A novel pig feed formulation containing Aspergillus niger CSA35 pretreated-cassava peels and its effect on growth and selected biochemical parameters of pigs

This study investigated the effects of Aspergillus niger CSA35 pretreated-cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peel feed (CPFG) on the body weight gain and some selected biochemical parameters of pigs. Cassava peels treated with biomass of A. niger CSA35 for a period of three weeks to initiate enzymatic digestion of peels were dried, ground and used in varying proportions to formulate pig rations in combination with other...

Author(s): Nyerhovwo J. Tonukari, Egbune E. Oliseneku, Oghenetega J. Avwioroko, Eferhire Aganbi, Osuvwe C. Orororo and Akpovwehwee A. Anigboro

May 2016

Inhibition of cell death as an approach for development of transgenic resistance against Fusarium wilt disease

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is one of the major threats to dessert banana (Musa spp.) production. In Uganda, ‘Sukali Ndiizi’ is one of the most popular dessert banana cultivars and it is highly susceptible to Fusarium wilt. Development of resistant cultivars through transgenic approaches has shown to offer one of the most effective control options for most diseases. The transgenic approaches for...

Author(s): Betty Magambo, Khanna Harjeet, Geofrey Arinaitwe, Sali Tendo Ivan Kabiita Arinaitwe, Jerome Kubiriba, Wilberforce Tushemereirwe and James Dale

May 2016

Evaluation of potential bio-control agents on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and wilt causing fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans in vitro

Indigenous strains of Trichoderma viride (ITCC No. 6889), Pseudomonas fluorescens (ITCC No. B0034) and Purpureocillium lilacinum (ITCC No.6887) were isolated from undisturbed forest eco-system of Southern India. These three bio-mediators were evaluated for their antagonism towards root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans in vitro. Cell free culture filtrate of these strains...

Author(s): Rajinikanth Rompalli, Sreenivasa Rao Mehendrakar and Pavani Kantabathini Venkata

May 2016

Leaf anatomy of Crambe abyssinica Hochst. during in vitro shoot induction

This study aimed to characterize and evaluate possible modifications in the leaf anatomy of crambe during the process of shoot induction based on micropropagation protocol. The anatomic characteristics of the leaves, and also the morphological characteristics of crambe plantlets, were evaluated during the shoot induction phase of the micropropagation. The shoots were induced by the cytokinins, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP),...

Author(s): Elias Terra Werner, Camilla Rozindo Dias Milanez, Andreia Barcelos Passos Lima Gontijo, Taís Cristina Bastos Soares and Jose Augusto Teixeira do Amaral

May 2016

Characterization of biochemical behavior of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [Moench.]) under saline stress conditions using multivariate analysis

The aim of this research was to characterize the biochemical behavior of sorghum plants under saline stress using multivariate statistical analysis methods for efficient management of Sorghum bicolor [Moench.]). The experimental design was completely randomized design composed of three saline concentrations (0, 1.5 and 2.0 M) in 10 replications. In the multivariate analysis (hierarchical method), there were distinct and...

Author(s): Luma Castro de Souza, Mara Regina Moitinho, Risely Ferraz de Almeida, Ellen Gleyce da Silva Lima, Leane Castro de Souza, Myriam Galvão Neves, Cândido Ferreira de Oliveira Neto, Glauco André dos Santos Nogueira, Maria Eunice Lima Rocha, Mayra Taniely Ribeiro Abade and Marlison Tavares Ávila

May 2016

Short-term phyto-toxicity consequences of a non-selective herbicide glyphosate (Roundup™) on the growth of onions (Allium cepa Linn.)

This study examined the phyto-toxic effects of a commonly named non-selective herbicide glyphosate (Roundup™) on onions (Allium cepa Linn.). The study was necessitated due to the indiscriminate use and release of Roundup™ for weed control in the Niger Delta soils of Nigeria. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) standard protocol # 208 was adopted. The short-term phyto-toxic...

Author(s): D. F. Ogeleka, F. E. Okieimen, F. O. Ekpudi and L. E. Tudararo-Aherobo

May 2016

Morphological and molecular genetic diversity of Syrian indigenous goat populations

Domestic goats in Syria may provide an interesting source of genetic variability due to its proximity to the centers of domestication. This study aimed to assess the morphological variation, genetic diversity and population substructure of the Syrian goat populations. Commonly, three goat genotypes are distinguished in Syria, namely Jabali or mountain goat, Baladi or local goat and Shami or Damascus (a well-known dairy...

Author(s): Halima Hassen, Barbara Rischkowsky, Adnan Termanini, Ghassen Jessry, Aynalem Haile, Michael Baum and Samir Lababidi

May 2016

Lipase-producing fungi for potential wastewater treatment and bioenergy production

The use of fungal biomass as a lipase biocatalyst represents an attractive approach for the treatments of oil wastewater as well as for the production of biodiesel from oil and residual grease, due to its greater stability, possibility of reuse, and lower cost. In this work, 20 filamentous fungi were isolated from the grease trap scum of a restaurant at the Federal University of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The fungi...

Author(s): Celson Rodrigues, Sérvio Túlio Alves Cassini, Paulo Wagner Pereira Antunes, Laura Marina Pinotti, Regina de Pinho Keller and Ricardo Franci Gonçalves

April 2016

Cloning, over-expression, and characterization of a new carboxypeptidase A gene of Bacillus pumilus ML413 in Bacillus subtilis 168

Carboxypeptidase A (CPAs) are a well-studied group of zinc-containing exopeptidases that facilitate the breakdown of proteins and peptides during metabolism. Carboxypeptidase A is typically produced in mammalian pancreatic, brain and other tissues. A new gene encoding carboxypeptidase A in the prokaryote Bacillus pumilus was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), ligated into the shuttle vector pMA5, and cloned...

Author(s): TRAORE Tahirou, Junping zhou, Zhiming Rao, Genchu Huang, Taowei Yang, Xian Zhang and Meijuan Xu

April 2016

Production, optimization and characterization of extracellular amylase from halophilic Bacillus lichineformis AH214

Twenty one moderately halophilic bacterial strains were isolated from seawater and sediment in Alexandria Eastern Harbour, Egypt. The isolates were screened for the production of four extracellular degradative enzymes. The majority of isolates (57.1%) possessed significant enzyme activities, 43% of them have potentiality to produce amylase enzyme. The most active isolate for the production of amylase enzyme was...

Author(s): Hanan M. Abel-Nabey and Aida M. Farag

April 2016

Molecular serotype and evolutionary lineage of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from different Nigerian food items

The molecular serotypes and the evolutionary lineage of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from various foods in Nigeria are yet to be documented. Consequently, popular uncooked food items known locally as Okazi Utazi, Onugbu, Ogbono, Garri and Egusi obtained from plants botanically known as Gnetum africanum, Gongronema latifolium, Vernonia amygdalina, Irvingia gabonensis, Manihot esculanta Crantz and Colocynthis...

Author(s): Ogueri Nwaiwu,

April 2016

In vitro production of thiophenes using hairy root cultures of Tagetes erecta (L.)

Marigold (Tagetes spp.) is a source of thiophenes, which are a group of heterocyclic sulfurous compounds possessing strong biocidal activity, thus making Tagetes plants very useful as natural source of agents for controlling pathogens such as nematodes, insects, fungi and bacteria. Hairy root cultures of Tagetes erecta L. were developed using Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation. The hairy root clones showed...

Author(s): Vijayta Gupta, Karuna Shanker and Laiq ur Rahman

April 2016

Screening for attractants compatible with entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for use in thrips management

Several thrips attractants were screened for compatibility with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and a subset of these for attraction to Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Conidial germination and germ tube length of M. anisopliae were used as indicators of its compatibility with thrips attractant. Conidial germination and germ tube length differed...

Author(s): David Kupesa Mfuti, Sevgan Subramanian, Saliou Niassy, Daisy Salifu, Hannalene du Plessis, Sunday Ekesi and Nguya Kalemba Maniania

April 2016

Antibacterial activity of six indigenous Indian plants: Acacia nilotica (Fabaceae), Albizia saman (Fabaceae), Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Carica papaya (Caricaceae), Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) and Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae)

Plants have been used as major source of active compounds with medicinal importance since human civilization. These naturally occurring pharmacologically active agents have least or no toxicity to the host. The antibacterial activity of extracts (water, acetone and methanol) from six indigenous Indian plants: Acacia nilotica (Fabaceae), Albizia saman (Fabaceae), Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Carica papaya...

Author(s): Aditi Singh, Parul Tripathi, Apeksha Srivastava, S. Marzia Ali and Lavie Rekhi

April 2016

Growth promotion and elicitor activity of salicylic acid in Achillea millefolium L.

Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic compound present in plants and has multiple functions, including hormonal effect on stimulus of plant growth and development and induction of plant defense responses under conditions of biotic and abiotic stresses. Studies related to SA’s elicitor action on the synthesis of secondary metabolite in medicinal plants have been conducted in order to increase the economic value of...

Author(s): Pedro Henrique Gorni and Ana Cláudia Pacheco

April 2016

Characterization of potential probiotic bacteria isolated from sorghum and pearl millet of the semi-arid tropics

The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize probiotic properties of bacteria isolated from flour and batter samples of sorghum and pearl millet. A total of five different selective media including plate count agar, yeast glucose chloramphenicol agar, Bifidobacterium agar, actinomycetes isolation agar and de ManRogosa and Sharpe agar were used and the most prominent bacteria (which were found abundantly...

Author(s): Rajyalakshmi Kunchala, Roopa Banerjee, Saikat Datta Mazumdar, Priyanka Durgalla, Vadlamudi Srinivas and Subramaniam Gopalakrishnan

April 2016

Chemical composition, antioxidant effects and antimicrobial activities of some spices’ essential oils on food pathogenic bacteria

Thymus vulgaris, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Ocimum gratissimum are spices widely used as aroma enhancers and food preservatives. This work assessed the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of their essential oils on some food pathogenic bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Morganella morganii, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris...

Author(s): Florentine M. C. Ndoye Foe, Maximilienne A. Nyegue, Sylvain L. S. Kamdem, Riwom H. S. Essama and François-Xavier Etoa

April 2016

Comparison of phenolic and volatile profiles of edible and toxic forms of Detarium senegalense J. F. GMEL

In Senegal, Detarium senegalense J.F. Gmel. (ditax in Wolof) is one of the most important ¶important forest fruit species. ¶However, exploitation of the edible fruit is based on local people’s knowledge. Only trees whose fruits are consumed by animals are exploited. ¶To identify them, a chemical comparison of edible and toxic forms was done in order to highlight differences between both forms....

Author(s): Nafissatou DIOP NDIAYE, Sylvie MUNIER, Yves PELISSIER, Frédéric BOUDARD, Christian MERTZ, Marc LEBRUN, Claudie DHUIQUE-MAYER and Manuel DORNIER

April 2016

Comparison of the properties of collagen extracted from dried jellyfish and dried squid

With increased recent interest in the utilization of industrial by-products, finding different sources, optimizing extracting conditions and characterization of collagen extracts have recently become important research topics. This study addresses the isolation of acid-soluble and pepsin-soluble forms of collagen from dried jellyfish and squid, and their partial characterization. The properties of these proteins have...

Author(s): Wichuda Jankangram, Sunthorn Chooluck and Busarakum Pomthong

April 2016

Production and characterization of β-glucosidase from Gongronella butleri by solid-state fermentation

Among the enzymes of the cellulolytic complex, β-glucosidases are noteworthy due to the possibility of their application in different industrial processes, such as production of biofuels, winemaking, and development of functional foods. This study aimed to evaluate the production and characterization of β-glucosidase from the filamentous fungus Gongronella butleri, recently isolated from Cerrado soil and...

Author(s): Flávia Regina da Silva Santos, Nayara Fernanda Lisboa Garcia, Marcelo Fossa da Paz, Gustavo Graciano Fonseca and Rodrigo Simões Ribeiro Leite

April 2016

Spectrophotometric method for quantification of soil microbial biomass carbon

The search for more suitable alternatives in analytical processes is a strategy to reduce environmental damages. The present study aimed to quantify the soil microbial biomass carbon (SMB-C), establishing a comparison between the methods involving quantification of SMB-C by titration of the samples with ferrous sulfate ammonia and molecular absorption spectrophotometry methods. This comparison was performed by two soil...

Author(s): Alessandra Oliveira da Silva, William Marra Silva, Carlos Hissao Kurihara and Fábio Martins Mercante

April 2016

Prospects of genetic modified maize crop in Africa

Genetic modified maize crop increases annually as a result of food insecurity and limited land caused by rapid population increase of over seven billion in the world. Scientists have been playing their role to address this food insecurity problem. The use of genetically modified (GM) maize crop to feed people is one of the proposed ways, because it yields more compared to the conventional varieties. However, there are...

Author(s): Andekelile Mwamahonje and Leon Mrosso

April 2016

Genome-wide analysis of mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS)-like gene family in common bean

Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels are transmembrane proteins that open and close in response to mechanical forces produced by osmotic pressure, sound, touch and gravity. In plants, MS have an important role in different biological processes like gravity detection, maintenance of plastid shape and size, lateral root emergence, growth of pollen tube, and plant-pathogen interactions. In this study, homologous...

Author(s): Silvia Graciele Hülse de Souza, Adriana Pereira da Silva, Tania Mayumi Ito, Eduardo Goiano da Silva, and Talita Cantú

April 2016

Biochemical effects of ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on cadmium treated maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

The effects of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on germination, length of stem, area of leaf, fresh weight, level of lipid per oxidation, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in the roots of cadmium (Cd) treated maize (Zea mays L) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L) seedlings after 7 and 21 days of germination were determined in this study. The results obtained, indicate...

Author(s): Emeke E. Agbadah, Kenneth C. Nwachukwu and Michael P. Okoh

April 2016

Effect of monosodium glutamate and aspartame on behavioral and biochemical parameters of male albino mice

The present study aimed to investigate the individual and combined effect of mono-sodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) on biochemical, blood parameters and neuro-behavioral aspects of mice. The results indicated that exposure induced many changes in fear and anxiety behavior. The non-social and social behavior of the exposed mice was significantly affected, showing an increase in the former and a decrease in the...

Author(s): Gasem Mohammad Abu-Taweel

April 2016

In vitro antimicrobial properties of friedelan-3-one from Pterocarpus santalinoides L’Herit, ex Dc

Chemical investigation of ethyl acetate leaf-extract of Pterocarpus santalinoides led to isolation of a friedelane-terpenoid. Structure elucidation was done by comparison of the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral features with literature data and was consistent with reported values for friedelan-3-one. The following microorganisms (Clinical isolates): methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), S. aureus,...

Author(s): Ichiko Chic Odeh, Terrumun Amom Tor-Anyiin, John Ogbaji Igoli and John Vershima Anyam

April 2016

Nanoformulation and antibiotic releasing property of cefotaxime nanoparticles

The objective of this study was to design nano-antibiotic to enhance their release from biomaterial agents. Cefotaxime was used as a model antibiotic substance in this carrier system. These nanoparticles were preformulated using different concentrations of polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly (vinyl alcohol) as coating material and prepared using double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The physiochemical properties...

Author(s): Maysaa Chasib Al-Moahmmedawi

April 2016

Polymorphism of growth hormone gene and its association with wool traits in Egyptian sheep breeds

Growth hormone (GH) gene has been described as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in different farm animals. The present study was designed to identify the polymorphism in GH gene and its association with variation of wool traits in Egyptian sheep breeds. Wool and blood samples were collected from 42 animals including two breeds (Barki and Rahmani) and one crossbred (Rahmani x Awase). Measurements of wool...

Author(s): Ibrahim M. Farag, Ahmed M. Darwish, Hassan R. Darwish, AbdelAziz K. B., Ramadan W. A., Mohamed M.I. and Othman E. Othman

April 2016

Effects of diets containing Cissus rotundifolia flour on lipid profile of rats and postprandial glucose levels of normoglycemic human adults

This study evaluated the effect of Cissus rotundifolia (CR), on the lipid profile of rats and postprandial blood glucose level of normoglycemic human adults. CR flour was processed using traditional Nigerian method of processing. The animal experiment involved male Sprague-Dawley rats fed for 14 days with hypercholesterolemic diet of corn oil, cholesterol, casein, mineral mix, vitamin mix, sucrose, solka floc and corn...

Author(s): Uchenna Agatha Onyechi and Vivienne Nkiruka Ibeanu

March 2016

Possibilities of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] value chain upgrading as revealed by physico-chemical composition of ten elites landraces of Benin

Sweet potato is one of the most important food security promoted root crops in the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Unfortunately, the crop is still neglected and underutilized in Benin Republic. To establish baseline data for its better utilization for upgrading its value chain, 10 selected local varieties (01 cream, 02 white, 03 yellow, and 04 orange flesh-colored) were compared for their macro-nutritional...

Author(s): Sanoussi A. F., Dansi A., Ahissou H., Adebowale A., Sanni L. O., Orobiyi A., Dansi M., Azokpota P. and Sanni A.

March 2016

Effect of osmotic stress on in vitro propagation of Musa sp. (Malbhog variety)

In vitro propagation of banana preferably use sword sucker as explant source where microbial contamination poses a great problem in establishment of aseptic cultures. This study demonstrates up to 36% reduced microbial contamination in aseptic culture establishment and subsequent micropropagation due to osmotic stress induction in the banana suckers. Osmotic stress was induced by keeping the freshly collected suckers in...

Author(s): Swapan Kumar Sinha and Alak Chandra Deka

March 2016

Development of putative transgenic lines of cassava variety H-226

Cassava production in India is drastically affected by cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by the Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV). An attempt was done to develop transgenic cassava lines resistant to SLCMV through RNAi vector targeting a conserved 440 bp of 5’ end of SLCMV Rep (AC1) gene which also overlaps with part of AC4 gene, and functions as a viral RNAi...

Author(s): Anuradha Arun, Palanisami Prabha, Krish K. Kumar and Ponnusammi Balasubramanian

March 2016

Determining water content and other impurities in Siparuna guianensis Aublet essential oil using differential scanning calorimetry

Siparuna guianensis Aublet is a predominant species in the Brazilian Cerrado. Some studies found that its essential oil has properties that could be useful for manufacturing new products. Its quality depends on physicochemical properties, since its degradation, as well as water content and other volatile materials may cause several changes in its features. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to...

Author(s): Augustus Caeser Franke Portella, Marilda Munaro, Chrystian de Assis Siqueira, Kleber Franke Portella, Magnólia de Mendonca Lopes, Alex Sander Rodrigues Cangussu and Raimundo Wagner de Souza Aguiar

March 2016

Antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoid contents of some wild medicinal plants in southeastern Algeria

This study reported on five plants known for their use in traditional medicine in southeastern Algeria, namely: Artemisia campestris, Asteriscus pygmaeus, Pituranthos chlorantus, Pallenis spinosa and Aizoon hispanicum. The work aimed to determine the antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of their aqueous and methanolic extracts. Flavonoids and phenol contents varied according to the nature of the extract...

Author(s): Abdelkrim Khettaf, Nacera Belloula and Seloua Dridi

March 2016

Genetic diversity and gene flow revealed by microsatellite DNA markers in some accessions of African Plum (Dacryodes edulis) in Cameroon

Dacryodes edulis is a multipurpose tree integrated in the cropping system of Central African region still dominated by subsistence agriculture. Some populations grown are wild which can provide information on the domestication process, and could also represent a potential source of gene flow. Leaves samples for DNA extraction were collected from wild forms in Mbakwa supe region and from cultivated forms in Yaounde and...

Author(s): Nehemie Donfagsiteli Tchinda, Bramwel Waswa Wanjala, Alice Muchugi, Fotso, Germo Nzweundji Denis Omokolo Ndoumou and Robert Skilton

March 2016

Estimate of genetic diversity in cassutinga (Croton heliotropiifolius) based on molecular markers

The Croton heliotropiifolius (Euphorbiaceae family) is a shrubby plant that has attracted attention both by the need for conservation as for their pharmacological potential. The present study aimed to characterize the diversity and structure genetic of a population of C. heliotropiifolius present in a forest fragment in the city of Itapetinga, Bahia. Young leaves were collected from 41 individuals after DNA extraction...

Author(s): Tallita de Oliveira Rocha, Janaina Silva Freitas, Elisa Susilene Lisboa dos Santos, Murilo Marques Scaldaferri, Claudine Gonçalves de Oliveira and Carlos Bernard Moreno Cerqueira-Silva,

March 2016

In vitro screening of selected essential oils from medicinal plants acclimated to Benin for their effects on methane production from rumen microbial fermentation

Enteric methane production lowers the efficiency of feed utilization in ruminants and contributes to greenhouse gas emissions which are responsible for global climate change. This study examined the effects of nine essential oils (EO) from Citrus aurantifolia, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Laurus nobilis, Lippia multiflora, Mentha piperita, Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum gratissimum and Zingiber officinalis on...

Author(s): Jacques B. Kouazounde, Long Jin, Tim A. McAllister and Joachim D. Gbenou

March 2016

Nutritional composition of bioproducts generated from semi-solid fermentation of pineapple peel by edible mushrooms

Mushroom production is a very efficient alternative to agro-industrial residues recycling. The proximal composition, content of macro and micro minerals, amino acid and proteolytic activity were assessed in the pineapple peel and in the bioproducts generated from pineapple peel and mycelium of Pleurotus albidus, Lentinus citrinus and Pleurotus florida. The bioproducts were obtained by semi-solid fermentation and drying...

Author(s): Raiane Áila Teixeira Souza, Tamiris Rio Branco da Fonseca, Larissa de Souza Kirsch, Larissa Svetlana Cavalcante Silva, Mircella Marialva Alecrim, Raimundo Felipe da Cruz Filho and Maria Francisca Simas Teixeira

March 2016

Histopathological changes in female rabbits administered with aqueous extract of Calotropis procera

Calotropis procera is an evergreen perennial shrub, which is found mainly in the arid regions and produces copious latex when cut. It has been reported to possess medicinal properties but equally pose deleterious effect in animals. In a bid to exploit its pharmacological properties, it was necessary to ascertain its level of safety. A toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of fresh leaves of the plant was...

Author(s): Jato, D. M., Jacob, K. A., Zainab, A., Okewole, P., Atiku, A., Shamaki, D., Umar, M. B. and Chudy, N.

March 2016

Effect of osmotic stress on in vitro propagation of Musa sp. (Malbhog variety)

In vitro propagation of banana preferably use sword sucker as explant source where microbial contamination poses a great problem in establishment of aseptic cultures. This study demonstrates up to 36% reduced microbial contamination in aseptic culture establishment and subsequent micropropagation due to osmotic stress induction in the banana suckers. Osmotic stress was induced by keeping the freshly collected suckers in...

Author(s): Swapan Kumar Sinha and Alak Chandra Deka

March 2016

In vitro regenerative potentials of the medicinal plant Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the most suitable concentration of growth regulators for callus induction and subsequent organogenesis in Abutilon indium (L.) Sweet (Malvaceae) leaf, stem and seed explants. Since the plant has a lot of medicinal importance, it was subjected to culture in vitro. Kinetin for seeds, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), benzyl amino purine (BAP), naphthalene acetic acid...

Author(s): Sudarshana Mysore Shankarsingh, Nissar Ahmad Reshi and Girish Hodiyala Vasanaika

March 2016

Glyoxalase I expression pattern in Hevea brasiliensis seedlings under varied stress conditions

Drought is one of the most important stress factors which adversely affect plants’ growth and productivity. Global climate change may make this situation more serious in the years ahead.  Considering the long time span required for the generation of drought resistant genotypes in Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) through conventional breeding, molecular interventions to engineer plants to have either drought...

Author(s): Siraj M. V. P, Thulaseedharan, A. and Anu Augustine

March 2016

Nutritional food content of seed and effects of five different growing media on the seed germination and seedling growth of Afzelia africana SM Caesalpiniaceae

Nutritional food content of seed and effect of five different growing media: Top forest soil (TS), sawdust (SD), 2:1 mixture of; TS+SD, TS+composted poultry manure (TS+PM) and 2:1:1 mixture of TS+SD+PM on the seed germination and seedling growth of Afzelia Africana SM Caesalpiniaceae  were investigated. Thirteen chemical food nutrients were detected in the species seed. These occurred in varying percentages. The...

Author(s): Nzekwe, U., Ajuziogu, G. C., Njoku, E. U., Okafor, G. I., Sani, M. B., Onyeke, C. C.­­­­, Onyeonagu, C. C., Ohaneje, A. A. and Eze, C. S.

March 2016

Response of African eggplants to Fusarium spp. and identification of sources of resistance

Eggplant (Solanum spp.) production in Arumeru district and other parts of Africa is severely affected by wilting diseases of unknown etiology. Fusarium spp. characterized through morphological and sequence analysis of the translation elongation factor associated with Fusarium wilt of eggplants was used to test the response of three different eggplant species. Three Solanum spp. accessions were tested in a screen house...

Author(s): Phoebe Kirigo Mwaniki, Mathew Musumbale Abang,#, Isabel Nyokabi Wagara#, Joseph Ngwela Wolukau and Schroers Hans-Josef#

March 2016

A commercial micropropagation protocol for virupakshi (AAB) banana via apical meristem

In vitro micropropagation of banana (Musa spp.) cv.virupakshi (Hillbanana) was studied. Suckers were collected from the germ plasm block of Jain R&D (originally established from the suckers from Palani Hills, Tamil Nadu) during summer. The sucker surface sterilized with 1% NaOCl for 30 min gave 100% survival without any contamination. Apical meristems that were isolated and cultured on MS based media supplemented...

Author(s): Karule P., Dalvi V., Kadu A., Chaudhari R., Subramaniam V. R., and Patil A. B.

March 2016

Detection of extracellular enzymatic activity in microorganisms isolated from waste vegetable oil contaminated soil using plate methodologies

In the present study, from a total of 100 strains isolated from waste vegetable oil contaminated soil, 38 bacterial and 14 fungi strains that presented positive lipolytic activity were obtained by detection through Rhodamine B Agar 0.02% w/v as a screening method. Additionally, two other enzymatic activities were determined. Positive proteolytic activity was evaluated in Casein Hydrolysis Agar and chitinolytic activity...

Author(s): Eugenia G. Ortiz Lechuga, Isela Quintero Zapata and Katiushka Arévalo Niño⃰

March 2016

Production of thermophilic and acidophilic endoglucanases by mutant Trichoderma atroviride 102C1 using agro-industrial by-products

Many traditional mutagenic strategies have been used to improve cellulase production by micro-organisms, especially fungi species. Trichoderma species are among cellulolytic fungi, those that have been most extensively studied, due to their efficient production of these enzymes. In the present study, N-methyl-N´-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) was used as mutagenic agent to obtain cellulolytic mutant from wild...

Author(s): Mariana Menezes Quadros de Oliveira, André Luiz Grigorevski de Lima, Elba Pinto da Silva Bon, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues Coelho and Rodrigo Pires do Nascimento

March 2016

Genetic diversity and structure of goats within an early livestock dispersal area in Eastern North Africa

In this study we genotyped 14 microsatellites to assess genetic diversity, population stratification and demographic dynamics using Egyptian local goats (Zaraibi, Baladi, Saidi and Barki) and the Shami (Damascus) goat from the Middle East and West Asia close to the geographic center of goat domestication. We observed high levels of allelic and genetic diversity that was partitioned into six gene pools. Cluster analyses...

Author(s): Elbeltagy A. R., Aboul-Naga A. M., Hassen H., Solouma G. M., Rischkowsky B. and Mwacharo J. M.

March 2016

Histological and biochemical evaluations of the liver and kidney of Wistar rats fed with fish meal of Sarotherodon melanotheron captured with Tephrosia vogelii’s powder

To evaluate the toxicity of fish captured with Tephrosia Vogelii (TV), an ichtyotoxic plant, the Wistar albino rats were fed with the flour of tilapias Sarotherodon melanotheron poisoned with TV leaves powder. This study aimed to evaluate the poisonous effects of TV on various organs of rats, especially the liver and kidney. Three groups of Wistar rats were constituted and fed for 28 days. Histological sections were...

Author(s): Dougnon Tossou Jacques, Kpodekon T. Marc, Houessionon M. Jedirfort and Kiki S. Pascal

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