African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12240

AJB Articles

March 2016

Unexplored vegetal green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: A preliminary study with Corchorus olitorus Linn and Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam

Antibacterial properties of silver ion are known from ancient times. The plant extract mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining popularity due to green chemistry for the generation of nanosized materials. Corchorus olitorus Linn and Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam are world crops having leaves of high nutritional value. In the present work, Ag and AgCl nanoparticles were synthesized by incubating leaf aqueous extracts...

Author(s): François Eya’ane Meva, Marcelle Loretta Segnou, Cecile Okalla Ebongue, Agnes Antoinette Ntoumba, Djiopang Yadou Steve, Fanny Aimee Essombe Malolo, Lidwine Ngah, Harouna Massai and Emmanuel Mpondo Mpondo,

March 2016

Effects of season on the yield and quality of agar from Gelidium sesquipedale (Rhodophyta) from Mostaganem, Algeria

The aim of this work was to study the seasonal variations in the yield and physicochemical properties of agar of Gelidium sesquipedale. The algae were collected from January 2011 to December 2011, from the coast of Mostaganem, western Algeria. The overall results show that the dry biomass of Gelidium sesquipedale was constant throughout the year (22.34 ± 3.18 %), while the agar yield varied seasonally with...

Author(s): S. Nil, S. Ali-Mehidi, A. Zellal and S. M. E. A Abi-Ayad

March 2016

Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of twig essential oils from three Xylopia (Annonaceae) species

The chemical composition of twig essential oils of Xylopia malayana, Xylopia elliptica and Xylopia fusca were analyzed using GC and GCMS. Both X. malayana (12.9%) and X. fusca (11.8%) twig oils contained spathulenol as the major constituent while X. elliptica twig oil was found to be rich in terpinen-4-ol (11.9%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against six gram positive bacteria, two...

Author(s): Siti Humeirah Abdul Ghani, Nor Azah Mohamad Ali, Mailina Jamil, Mastura Mohtar, Saiful Azmi Johari, Mazurah Mohamad Isa and Mohd Faridz Zoll Patah

March 2016

Effect of acaricidal activity of Solanum nigrum on Tetranychus urticae Koch under laboratory conditions

Tetranychus urticae is an economically important pest for different commercial crops and is traditionally controlled with synthetic chemical products that are usually toxic. Therefore, alternative strategies are implemented to allow producers to meet the phytosanitary requirements demanded by quality seals. One of these alternatives is the use of plant extracts. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of...

Author(s): Stephanie Johana Numa Vergel, Lorena Rodríguez Coy, Daniel Rodríguez Caicedo and Ericsson Coy-Barrera

March 2016

Histomorphometry aspect of thyroid gland and biochemical profile in pregnant and non-pregnant dromedary camels

Modulation of body physiology and metabolism is a prerequisite for successful pregnancy in camels, which is about a year and few months. The present study was carried out to verify the effect of pregnancy on histomorphometry and functional traits of thyroid gland, as well as some biochemical indices of liver and kidney functions and mineral profile in one humped camels, under Egyptian climatic conditions or desert...

Author(s): Yousef F. Ahmed, Karima Gh. M. Mahmoud, Mohamed M. M. Kandiel, Nawito M. F. and AbdelRazik, A. M. A.

March 2016

Nutritional status, lifestyle and knowledge of predisposing factors on hyperlipedemia among out-patients in Enugu State University Teaching Hospital (ESUTH), Nigeria

The growing trend of hyperlipidemia in most developing countries has resulted largely from changes in lifestyle, diet and lack of adequate exercise which have led to decreased life expectancy and burden of cardiovascular diseases. A purposive sample size of 206 out-patients was selected for this study after obtaining their due consents. Out of these, 108 (52.84%) were female and 98 (47.6%) males. Validated structured...

Author(s): Nwamarah, Joy Ugo, Otitoju, Olawale and Otitoju, Grace Taiwo O.

March 2016

Protective effect of Haloxylon salicornicum on hepatic and renal functions of Wistar rats exposed to aluminium

Aluminium is present in some manufactured medicines and foods. It is known that aluminium causes oxidative stress. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of Haloxylon salicornicum extract in modulating aluminium chloride (AlCl3) induced oxidative stress in rats. Male rats (40 to 50 g) were divided into four groups of six animals each. The experimental protocol was based on the...

Author(s): Fatima Zohra TAHARI, Monya LABLACK, Nadia AЇT HAMADOUCHE, Zineb TAHARI and Abdelkader AOUES

March 2016

Histopathological effects of Cyperdicot and vitamin E supplementation on selected organs of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) reared in a tropical fish farm in Nigeria

This study conducted in 2014 investigated the histopathological effects of Cyperdicot and vitamin E supplementation on some selected organs in juveniles of Clarias gariepinus. Fish were exposed to 0. 0.08 and 0.16 mg/L Cyperdicot and vitamin E. Fish were divided into six groups: control, 0.80 mg/L; Cyperdicot, 0.16 mg/L; Cyperdicot, vitamin E, vitamin E + 0.08 mg/L Cyperdicot, and vitamin E + 0.16 m/L Cyperdicot...

Author(s): Odo, G. E., Agwu, J. E., Madu, J., Ezea, C. O., Nnamonu, E. I. and Eneje, V. O.

March 2016

Cellulose degradation capabilities of dung beetle, Euoniticellus intermedius, larva gut consortia

This study assessed the capabilities of the dung beetle, Euoniticellus intermedius (Coleoptera: Scarabaeida), larva gut consortia in degrading cellulose that can serve as glucose source for biofuels production. A total of 144 live dung beetles were randomly collected from a dairy farm and bred in a temperature controlled insect rearing room. On reaching the late second to third instar stage, dung beetle larvae were...

Author(s): Munamato Mabhegedhe, Karl Rumbold and Monde Ntwasa

March 2016

HPLC quantification of phenolic content and assessment of methanolic extract of Antiaris africana for toxicological study

The study was aimed at evaluating the toxicological and antioxidant activities of Antiaris africana Engl. (family Moraceae), that is used in Nigeria and other West Africa countries as a panacea for the treatment of several ailments. The methanolic extract of A. africana (MEA) obtained was analysed for antioxidant activities in vitro and screened for various phytochemicals present. Phenolic and flavonoid contents were...

Author(s): Omotayo B. Ilesanmi, Tolulope M. Olaleye, Afolabi C. Akinmoladun and Taiwo T. Alawode

March 2016

Physical and chemical properties of the acid protease from Onopordum acanthium: Comparison between electrophoresis and HPLC of degradation casein profiles

A protease was extracted by grinding, precipitation and gel filtration from Onopordum acanthium flowers. The physicochemical study of the enzyme showed an optimum pH of 4, a temperature of 40°C and kinetic parameters of 12.25 mM-1 for KM and 1329.6 UmL-1 for Vmax. The inhibition by pepstatin indicated that it is an aspartyl-protease (APs). Zymogram showed that the protease has a monomeric structure and a molecular...

Author(s): Malika Benkahoul, Meriem Benchiheub, Ines Bellil, Douadi Khelifi and Aicha Mechakra Maza

February 2016

Antiproliferative activity of protein extracts from the black clam (Chione fluctifraga) on human cervical and breast cancer cell lines

The wide diversity of the marine environment has been an important resource for the discovery of new bioactive agents from marine organisms. The aim of this study was to obtain protein extracts from the clam Chione fluctifraga and determine its antiproliferative activity against cervical and breast cancer cells. The extracts were obtained by ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography....

Author(s): Hiesu García-Morales, Luis Enrique Gutiérrez-Millán, Miguel A.Valdez, Armando Burgos-Hernández, Teresa Gollas-Galván and María G. Burboa

February 2016

Toxicity effects of ethanol extract of Simarouba versicolor on reproductive parameters in female Wistar rats

Simarouba versicolor is popularly known as pau-paraiba. It belongs to the Simaroubaceae family and is found in the Northeast of São Paulo and in some parts of the states of Pará and Mato Grosso do Sul. It is known that this and other species from this genus have several activities: insecticides, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anthelmintic, among others. The effects of ethanolic extract of the bark of S....

Author(s): Marlene S. Oliveira, Maria Zenaide L. C. M. Fernandes, Ana Lys B. B. Mineiro, Rosimeire F. dos Santos, Gregório E. N. Viana, Josana M. Coelho, Sahâmia M. Ribeiro, Ana Paula G. P. Cunha, Joselene F. Costa and Rozeverter M. Fernandes

February 2016

Codon usage bias analysis for the coding sequences of Camellia sinensis and Brassica campestris

Codon usage bias plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. A couple of measures are widely used to quantify the codon usage in genes. On the other hand, no quantitative endeavour has been made to compare the pattern of codon usage diversity within and between different genes of Camellia sinensis and Brassica campestris. Nucleotide composition and its relationship with codon usage bias were analyzed....

Author(s): Prosenjit Paul and Supriyo Chakraborty

February 2016

Identification of accelerated evolution in the metalloproteinase domain of snake venom metalloproteinase sequences (SVMPs) through comparative analysis

Computational protein sequence analysis is one of the most important tools used for understanding the evolution of closely related proteins sequences including snake venom metalloproteinase sequences (SVMPs) which give valuable information regarding genetic variations. The fundamental objective of the present study is to screen the evolution distributed in metalloproteinase domain regions of protein sequences among...

Author(s): Mahmudul Islam, Zahida Yesmin Roly, Mirza Ruhullah, Zohorul Islam, Alsan Sharia, Rafsan Zani Tanvir and Khaja Foyasal

February 2016

Genetic variability of sorghum landraces from lower Eastern Kenya based on simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers

The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic variability of sorghum landraces grown in lower eastern Kenya based on simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers. A total of 44 landraces obtained from the farmers and four improved varieties were analyzed using 20 SSR markers. All markers were polymorphic with polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranging from 0.04 to 0.81 with a mean of 0.49. Heterozygosity ranged...

Author(s): Catherine W. Muui, Reuben M. Muasya, Duncan T. Kirubi, Steven M. Runo and Arthur Karugu

February 2016

Effect of LED light quality on in vitro shoot proliferation and growth of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews)

As an alternative to conventional lighting systems, light emitting diode (LED) has been demonstrated to be an artificial flexible lighting source for commercial micropropagation. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different LED light quality on in vitro shoot proliferation and growth of Vanilla planifolia. To evaluate shoot proliferation, axillary bud cuttings (3 to 5 mm in diameter) of V....

Author(s): Jericó Jabín Bello-Bello, Eduardo Martínez-Estrada, José Humberto Caamal-Velázquez and Victorino Morales-Ramos

February 2016

Detection of metallo-beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa using a modified IMP-lysate assay

Since the increasing prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa spp., accurate detection of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) such as blaVIM type enzyme producing isolates became very important. However, phenotypic MBL detection methods previously reported are not highly sensitive or highly specific. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a modified IMP-lysate test, the double-disk-synergy-test...

Author(s): Olfa Sioud, Mariem Nasri, Mahjoub Aouni and Maha Mastouri,

February 2016

Application of rep-PCR as a molecular tool for the genetic diversity assessment of Jatropha curcas

Jatropha curcas L., a non-edible Euphorbiaceae oil-rich crop cultivated in subtropical/tropical countries, has gained global attention as a promising renewable resource for biodiesel production. Rep-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to investigate the genetic diversity of 15 populations of J. curcas L. Distinct populations of the plant growing wildly in Mauritius were characterised using three molecular...

Author(s): Sillma Rampadarath, Daneshwar Puchooa, Subhasisa Bal and Rajesh Jeewon

February 2016

High genetic variation of Portunus pelagicus from Makassar Straits revealed by RAPD markers and mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequences

The blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus, is presently managed as a single stock. In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and 16S rRNA sequences were used to understand the genetic diversity and parentage of P. pelagicus from Makassar Strait. A total of 150 samples were collected from the sea, grouped by gender and morphological features. DNA genome was performed at approximately 23130 base pairs...

Author(s): Yushinta Fujaya, Andi Ivo Asphama, Andi Aliah Hidayani, Andi Parenrengi and Andi Tenriulo

February 2016

DNA-based identification of Lentinula edodes strains with species-specific primers

Lentinula edodes is among the five globally cultivated edible mushrooms, which are wood decaying spore bearing Basidiomycetes possessing separate hyphae. Specific identification of this fungus from others in the division Basidiomycota using specific primers enables a fast and accurate detection through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a prelude to additional nutritional and sequence characterization research, we have...

Author(s): Pheba L. George, Venkateswara R. Sripathi, Seloame T. Nyaku, Govind C. Sharma and Ramesh V. Kantety

February 2016

Ascorbic acid content in leaves of Nightshade (Solanum spp.) and spider plant (Cleome gynandra) varieties grown under different fertilizer regimes in Western Kenya

Vitamin C is an important micronutrient because of its antioxidant and health promoting properties. With the introduction and commercialization of improved African indigenous plants, few studies have examined the impact of leaf age or the nutrient status of the plants by fertilizer. This study sought to determine amounts of vitamin C using redox titration in mature and immature leaves of spider plant (Cleome gynandra)...

Author(s): Emmanuel Ayua, Violet Mugalavai, James Simon, Stephen Weller, Pamela Obura and Naman Nyabinda

February 2016

Production of laccase without inducer by Chaetomium species isolated from Chettaba forest situated in the East of Algeria

A positive laccase strain which showed a positive reaction with guaïacol was isolated from Chettaba Forest, which is situated in Constantine, the East of Algeria. It was identified as Chaetomium species (Ref 051A) according to the morphological and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA genomic sequence analysis. Laccase activity was determined by using 2,2-azinobis(3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate)...

Author(s): Benhassine Sara, Kacem Chaouche Noreddine and Destain Jacqueline

February 2016

Effects of boiling and oil or vinegar on pickled jurubeba (Solanum paniculatum L.) fruit

Jurubeba fruit, raw and thermally processed for different periods of time, were preserved in soybean oil or vinegar and evaluated for physical characteristics, phytochemicals, antioxidant capacity and polyamines. The loss of green color in many vegetables after cooking is a frequent problem that affects the quality of pickled foods, and chlorophyll content is a relevant parameter to assess the quality. Data showed that...

Author(s): Mônica Bartira da Silva,  Luan Fernando Ormond Sobreira Rodrigues, Talita Cardoso Rossi, Marizete Cavalcante de Souza Vieira, Igor Otávio Minatel and  Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima

February 2016

Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro propagation of Brasiliorchis picta

Seed storage method for in vitro germination and propagation from leaves of Brasiliorchis picta was developed. Seeds were harvested and stored at -20 and -80°C for 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and were germinated on Knudson C (KC), Murashige and Skoog (MS), half-strength MS (½ MS macro- and micro-nutrients), and woody plant medium (WPM). Seeds stored at -20°C, the recommended temperature for seed banks, had a...

Author(s): Silvia Almeida dos Santos, Eric de Camargo Smidt, André Andrian Padial and Luciana Lopes Fortes Ribas

February 2016

Possible oxidative effects of isotretinoin and modulatory effects of vitamins A and C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Isotretinoin (ITN), chemically known as 13-cis-retinoic acid, is a part of the broad group of compounds related to vitamin A. It is particularly employed in the treatment of nodular cystic acne and as an inhibitor of proliferation of neoplastic cells, by exerting a regulatory effect on the cell differentiation. This study aimed at investigating the possible oxidative effects of ITN and modulatory effects of vitamins A...

Author(s): Alaíde Silva Lemos⊃, Vanessa Leopoldino Coelho Rodrigues, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Md. Torequl Islam, Raí Pablo Sousa de Aguiar, Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira da Mata, Ricardo Melo de Carvalho, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Chistiane Mendes Feitosa and Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante

February 2016

Isolation and characterization of thermotolerant ethanol-fermenting yeasts from Laos and application of whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis for their quick identification

Thermotolerant yeasts, which are expected to be applicable for high-temperature fermentation as an economical process, were isolated from four provinces in Laos. Of these yeasts, five isolates exhibited stronger fermentation abilities in a 16% sugars-containing medium of glucose, sucrose, sugarcane or molasses at 40°C than that of Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU 3-1042, one of the most thermotolerant and efficient...

Author(s): Chansom Keo-oudone, Sukanya Nitiyon, Phonepasith Sotitham, Akio Tani, Noppon Lertwattanasakul, Napatchanok Yuangsaard, Somchanh Bounphanmy, Savitree Limtong and Mamoru Yamada,

February 2016

Antifungal effects of sisal leaf juice on Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the causal agent of mulberry root rot

This study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal activities of leaf juices (fresh juice, fermented juice, boiled juice and sterile juice) of nine sisal varieties on Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the causal agent of mulberry root rot. Results show that all the leaf juices could inhibit the mycelial growth in different degrees (the inhibitory rates ranged from 63.3 to 100%), due to different varieties and treatments....

Author(s): Hong Hui Xie, Fu Yu Huang, Xia Lan, Xiao Ling Zhang, Hua Ning Wang, Hui Lv and Xuan Zhang

February 2016

Current status of Colletotrichum capsici strains, causal agents of Brown blotch disease of cowpea in Burkina Faso

Brown blotch disease, caused by Colletotrichum capsici, is an important disease of cowpea with a significant yield losses ranging from 42 to 100% in West Africa. In this study, a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer set CC1F1/CcapR was used to characterize and to study the phylogenetic relationship of thirty eight strains of Colletotrichum species. This primer set is capable of amplifying only C. capsici from...

Author(s): Thio I. G., Zida E. P., Sawadogo M. and Sérémé P.

February 2016

In vitro seed germination and seedling development of the orchid Coelogyne stricta (D. Don) Schltr.

Coelogyne stricta (D. Don) Schltr., an orchid of high ornamental and medicinal values, is native to Nepal at 1400 to 2000 m elevations. In vitro seed germination and seedling development was carried out on 0.8% (w/v) agar solidified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, supplemented with various combinations of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L BAP and 1...

Author(s): Gaurav Parmar and Bijaya Pant

February 2016

Adsorption of copper, zinc and lead on biosurfactant produced from cassava wastewater

The remediation of soils contaminated by hydrophobic compounds, especially petroleum derivatives, using surfactants has been fairly studied. The use of these compounds in heavy metal contaminated areas is incipient and their mechanism of action has not been totally elucidated yet. The biosurfactants are compounds with surfactant characteristics produced by living organisms and have several environmental advantages, like...

Author(s): Larissa Kummer, Natássia Jersak Cosmann, Glaucia Maria Pastore, Ana Paula Resende Simiqueli, Vander de Freitas Melo and Simone Damasceno Gomes

February 2016

Investigating the antioxidant properties and rutin content of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves and branches

The present study focused on the antioxidant properties and rutin content of leaves and branches of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Sea buckthorn) in Turkey. Dried leaves (leaf tea), processed (PB) and unprocessed branches (UB) of Sea buckthorn (SBT) were extracted with ethanol and prepared in forms of aqueous extract (AE). All samples were analyzed for their contents of rutin, total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and...

Author(s): Aliye Aras Perk, F. Duygu Ceylan, Onur Yanar, Kadir Boztas and Esra Capanoglu

January 2016

Iron bioavailability in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) desiccated gill and liver powder: Study in rats

This study assessed iron bioavailability in rats from diets enriched with desiccated tambaqui gill and liver powders using the hemoglobin depletion-repletion method. Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) liver and gills were bought at Manaus. After processing the livers and gills were placed on trays and desiccated in a ventilated incubator at 60°C. The rats were given free access to chow and water. The moisture, protein,...

Author(s): Francisca das Chagas do Amaral Souza, Jaime Paiva Lopes Aguiar, Lucia Kiyoko Ozaki Yuyama#, Bruna Quara de Carvalho Santos, Eudevan Souza Gomes and Risonilce Fernandes de Sousa

January 2016

Biological evaluation of 32 different essential oils against Acidovorax citrulli, with a focus on Cinnamomum verum essential oil

Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of watermelon caused by Acidovorax citrulli (ACC) is one of the most severe diseases of watermelon worldwide. Antibacterial activity of 32 essential oils (EOs) was evaluated against ACC using disk-diffusion assays. The oil from cinnamon exhibited the greatest antibacterial activity. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the major components of cinnamon oil were analyzed. Among...

Author(s): Okhee Choi#, Su Kyung Cho# and Jinwoo Kim,

January 2016

Treatment of domestic wastewater by anaerobic denitrification: Influence of the type of support media on the production of extracellular polymer substances

Eighteen Erlenmeyer flask containing six different support media [pozzolan, polyvinyl chloride1 (PVC1), polyvinyl chloride2 (PVC2), foam, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS)] were subject to identical volumetric organic loadings and hydraulic retention time in treating synthetic protein ± carbohydrate waste. The objective was to examine the influence of support media on performance of anaerobic...

Author(s): Salama Youssef, Chennaoui Mohammed, Sylla Aboubakr, Mountadar Mohammed, Rihani Mohammed and Assobhei Omar

January 2016

Removal of hexavalent chromium using chitosan prepared from shrimp shells

Contamination of the aqueous environment by heavy metals and due to the discharge of metal containing effluents into the water bodies is one of the environmental issues of the century. Thus, in this work, the main concern has been the preparation of chitin and chitosan from the raw materials of shrimp shells and the characterization of the prepared chitosan by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and...

Author(s): S. Kumari, P. Rath, A. Sri Hari Kumar and T. N. Tiwari

January 2016

Influence of enzymes and ascorbic acid on dough rheology and wheat bread quality

The combined action of ascorbic acid and two commercial enzymatic complexes containing amylase and xylanase/amylase was analyzed to determine their effects on dough rheology and bread quality. Seven bread formulations containing different concentrations of these improvers were used in the analysis. The rheological properties of each dough formulation were determined by moisture, gluten and farinograph tests. The breads...

Author(s): César Milton Baratto, Natalia Branco Becker, Jane Mary Lafayette Neves Gelinski and Sydnei Mitidieri Silveira

January 2016

In vitro antifungal activity of Dorstenia mannii leaf extracts (Moraceae)

The leaves of Dorstenia mannii are used in traditional medicine in Cameroon and other African countries for the treatment of infectious diseases like malaria, skin rashes and stomach disorders. To substantiate this folkloric claim, the crude methanol extract and fractions from the leaves of D. mannii were investigated for their antifungal activity. The crude methanol extract was prepared from powdered dried leaves of...

Author(s): Kechia Frederick Agem, Gerald Ngo Teke, Ngameni Bathelemy, Fokunang Charles, Dzoyem Jean-Paul and Kamga Henri Lucien

January 2016

Plants’ responses to drought and shade environments

Water and light are the most important environements for plants’ growth. These environemts are critical factors needed not only for the survival of plants but also their production. When plants are exposed to drought condition, they change in their anatomical, physiological and biochemical properties. Drought affects plants wildly from their cell structure to growth. It causes higher plastoglobuli, lower starch...

Author(s): Min Young Kwon and Su Young Woo

January 2016

Co-digestion of municipal organic wastes with night soil and cow dung for biogas production: A Review

Currently, biogas production is one of the most promising renewable energy sources and it represents a very promising way to overcome the problem of waste treatment. Biogas, which is principally composed of methane and carbon dioxide, can be obtained by anaerobic fermentation of biomass such as manure, night soil, sewage sludge and municipal solid wastes. Furthermore, the solid residuals of fermentation (the digested...

Author(s): Alemayehu Gashaw

January 2016

Chlorophyll meter reading and total nitrogen content applied as topdressing in parts of the crambe plant

The present study was aimed to assess the relationship between the reading of the chlorophyll meter and the total nitrogen (N) content in the leaf in different parts of the crambe plant, depending on the doses of nitrogen applied to the canopy. Randomized block design in a split-plot experimental design was used. The plots were composed by five levels of topdressing with nitrogen and the subplots composed of three parts...

Author(s): Ana Claudia Mascarello, Tiago Roque Benetoli da Silva, Beatriz Tomé Gouveia, Daiane Bernardi, Deonir Secco, Reginaldo Ferreira Santos and Charline Zaratin Alves

January 2016

Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci from transcriptome sequence of Ruditapes philippinarum

In this study, 38 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers derived from transcriptome sequence of Ruditapes philippinarum were reported. The polymorphisms of these markers were detected in a natural population of R. philippinarum. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 10 with an average of 4.8. The observed and expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.000 to 0.939 and 0.086 to 0.832, with an average of...

Author(s): Jia Li, Hongtao Nie, Depeng Zhu, Yanjie Qin, Zhongming Huo and Xiwu Yan,

January 2016

Simple sequence repeats (SSR) and interspersed sequence repeats (ISSR) markers for genetic diversity analysis among selected genotypes of Gossypium arboreum race ‘bengalense’

Genetic diversity among 65 selected genotypes of Gossypium arboreum race bengalense was explored using 62 simple sequence repeats (SSR) and 73 interspersed sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. The SSR primers produced a total of 170 alleles (all polymorphic), while ISSRs yielded 281 bands of which only 94.3% were polymorphic. Utility of various markers were evaluated by calculating different parameters like polymorphic...

Author(s): Khushboo Sethi, Priyanka Siwach and Surender Kumar Verma

January 2016

Molecular characterization and genetic diversity assessment of Tilapia guineensis from some coastal rivers in Nigeria

Tilapia guineensis is an important economically and nutritionally important fish commonly found in Nigerian coastal waters. Genetic diversity of the fish was assessed to obtain information that may help in developing appropriate conservation and breeding programmes for improving the economic and nutritional quality of the fish. Twelve (12) Nigerian coastal populations and nine microsatellite loci were considered. All...

Author(s): Ukenye E. A., Taiwo I. A., Oguntade O. R., Oketoki T. O. and Usman A. B.

December 2015

Traditional use, phytochemistry and biological activities of Poincianella pyramidalys (Tul.) LP Queiroz

The vegetation of Northeastern Brazil is an important source of income for the local population. Poincianella pyramidalis is a very important species in the semiarid and is inserted in various categories of ethnobotanical use, as foraging, construction and technology uses. However, the most important use is medicinal. Several preparations obtained from the root, bark, leaves and flowers of P. pyramidalis are used to...

Author(s): Thiago Pereira Chaves, , Joanda Paolla Raimundo e Silva, Francinalva Dantas de Medeiros, José Hamilton da Costa Filho, Laianne Carla Batista Alencar, Cleildo Pereira Santana, Delcio de Castro Felismino, Karlete Vania Mendes Vieira and Ana Cláudia Dantas Medeiros

December 2015

African fan palm (Borassus aethiopum) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) are alternate hosts of coconut lethal yellowing phytoplasma in Mozambique

In this study,  potential alternate hosts of the phytoplasma causing coconut lethal yellowing disease (CLYD) in Mozambique were investigated based on 16S rRNA and secA genes. The results reveal that the naturalized palm species, Elaeis guineensis and Borassus aethiopum are alternate hosts of CLYD phytoplasma in Mozambique. Based on the iPhyClassifier online software, the phytoplasma detected in B. aethiopum belongs...

Author(s): J. Bila, N. Högberg, A. Mondjana and B. Samils

December 2015

Production of cellulase-free xylanase by Aspergillus flavus: Effect of polyols on the thermostability and its application on cellulose pulp biobleaching

The production of xylanase without cellulase is required for prebleaching of pulp in pulp and paper industry. Aspergillus flavus produced high levels of xylanase on agricultural residues with wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse (4.17 U/mg), and wheat bran and corncob (2.97 U/mg). Xylanase was found to be stable at 45°C with 100% of its original activity remaining after 2 h incubation. At 50°C, xylanase was stable...

Author(s): Patricia Oliveira da Silva, Nelciele Cavalieri de Alencar Guimarães, Simone de Carvalho Peixoto-Nogueira, Jorge Henrique Betini, Clarice Rossato Marchetti, Fabiana Fonseca Zanoelo, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli, Maria Rita Marques and Giovana Cristina Giannesi

December 2015

Determination of some toxic gaseous emissions at Ama Industrial Complex, Enugu, south eastern Nigeria

A study of some gases emitted from three industries at Ama industrial complex, Nigeria, was carried out using Crowcon Gasman, single gas monitors. Results showed that HCN (0.94 ± 0.16 ppm) and CO (3.17 ± 0.89 ppm) emissions from Brewery were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of Bottling Company A (0.46 ± 0.12 and 0.65 ± 0.10 ppm, respectively). NH3, SO2 and NO2 emissions were the...

Author(s): Alfreda Ogochukwu Nwadinigwe

December 2015

Mineral content in French type bread with sodium replacement using fluorescence spectrometry X-rays by energy dispersive

The present study aimed to determine the mineral composition of the French type bread with partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride using the technique of X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive. The excitation energy used was 50 keV and detector operation at -176°C. The detected variations were from 10.16 to 613.69 mg 100 g-1 for sodium and from 211.58 to 958.96 mg 100 g-1 for potassium. The...

Author(s): Thaisa A. Souza Gusmão, Rennan P. De Gusmão, Severina De Sousa, Mário Eduardo R. Moreira Cavalcanti Mata, Maria Elita M. Duarte, Rossana Maria F. De Figuereido and Ricardo T.  Moreira

December 2015

Influence of acetylation on the physicochemical properties of composited starches from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) and water yam (Dioscorea alata L.)

The study investigates the effect of acetylation on the physicochemical properties of composited starches from sweet potato and water yam. Starch was respectively isolated from both sources, dried and subjected to acetylation at different combination. The result shows that the modified starches were of low percentage of acetylation and low degree of substitution. Acetylation increased the water absorption capacity of...

Author(s): Mathew Kolawole Bolade and Ojo Josiah Oni

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