African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12269

AJB Articles

Ascorbic acid content in leaves of Nightshade (Solanum spp.) and spider plant (Cleome gynandra) varieties grown under different fertilizer regimes in Western Kenya

February 2016

Vitamin C is an important micronutrient because of its antioxidant and health promoting properties. With the introduction and commercialization of improved African indigenous plants, few studies have examined the impact of leaf age or the nutrient status of the plants by fertilizer. This study sought to determine amounts of vitamin C using redox titration in mature and immature leaves of spider plant (Cleome gynandra)...

Author(s): Emmanuel Ayua, Violet Mugalavai, James Simon, Stephen Weller, Pamela Obura and Naman Nyabinda

Production of laccase without inducer by Chaetomium species isolated from Chettaba forest situated in the East of Algeria

February 2016

A positive laccase strain which showed a positive reaction with guaïacol was isolated from Chettaba Forest, which is situated in Constantine, the East of Algeria. It was identified as Chaetomium species (Ref 051A) according to the morphological and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA genomic sequence analysis. Laccase activity was determined by using 2,2-azinobis(3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate)...

Author(s): Benhassine Sara, Kacem Chaouche Noreddine and Destain Jacqueline

Effects of boiling and oil or vinegar on pickled jurubeba (Solanum paniculatum L.) fruit

February 2016

Jurubeba fruit, raw and thermally processed for different periods of time, were preserved in soybean oil or vinegar and evaluated for physical characteristics, phytochemicals, antioxidant capacity and polyamines. The loss of green color in many vegetables after cooking is a frequent problem that affects the quality of pickled foods, and chlorophyll content is a relevant parameter to assess the quality. Data showed that...

Author(s): Mônica Bartira da Silva,  Luan Fernando Ormond Sobreira Rodrigues, Talita Cardoso Rossi, Marizete Cavalcante de Souza Vieira, Igor Otávio Minatel and  Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima

Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro propagation of Brasiliorchis picta

February 2016

Seed storage method for in vitro germination and propagation from leaves of Brasiliorchis picta was developed. Seeds were harvested and stored at -20 and -80°C for 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and were germinated on Knudson C (KC), Murashige and Skoog (MS), half-strength MS (½ MS macro- and micro-nutrients), and woody plant medium (WPM). Seeds stored at -20°C, the recommended temperature for seed banks, had a...

Author(s): Silvia Almeida dos Santos, Eric de Camargo Smidt, André Andrian Padial and Luciana Lopes Fortes Ribas

Possible oxidative effects of isotretinoin and modulatory effects of vitamins A and C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

February 2016

Isotretinoin (ITN), chemically known as 13-cis-retinoic acid, is a part of the broad group of compounds related to vitamin A. It is particularly employed in the treatment of nodular cystic acne and as an inhibitor of proliferation of neoplastic cells, by exerting a regulatory effect on the cell differentiation. This study aimed at investigating the possible oxidative effects of ITN and modulatory effects of vitamins A...

Author(s): Alaíde Silva Lemos⊃, Vanessa Leopoldino Coelho Rodrigues, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Md. Torequl Islam, Raí Pablo Sousa de Aguiar, Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira da Mata, Ricardo Melo de Carvalho, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Chistiane Mendes Feitosa and Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante

Isolation and characterization of thermotolerant ethanol-fermenting yeasts from Laos and application of whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis for their quick identification

February 2016

Thermotolerant yeasts, which are expected to be applicable for high-temperature fermentation as an economical process, were isolated from four provinces in Laos. Of these yeasts, five isolates exhibited stronger fermentation abilities in a 16% sugars-containing medium of glucose, sucrose, sugarcane or molasses at 40°C than that of Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU 3-1042, one of the most thermotolerant and efficient...

Author(s): Chansom Keo-oudone, Sukanya Nitiyon, Phonepasith Sotitham, Akio Tani, Noppon Lertwattanasakul, Napatchanok Yuangsaard, Somchanh Bounphanmy, Savitree Limtong and Mamoru Yamada,

Antifungal effects of sisal leaf juice on Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the causal agent of mulberry root rot

February 2016

This study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal activities of leaf juices (fresh juice, fermented juice, boiled juice and sterile juice) of nine sisal varieties on Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the causal agent of mulberry root rot. Results show that all the leaf juices could inhibit the mycelial growth in different degrees (the inhibitory rates ranged from 63.3 to 100%), due to different varieties and treatments....

Author(s): Hong Hui Xie, Fu Yu Huang, Xia Lan, Xiao Ling Zhang, Hua Ning Wang, Hui Lv and Xuan Zhang

Current status of Colletotrichum capsici strains, causal agents of Brown blotch disease of cowpea in Burkina Faso

February 2016

Brown blotch disease, caused by Colletotrichum capsici, is an important disease of cowpea with a significant yield losses ranging from 42 to 100% in West Africa. In this study, a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer set CC1F1/CcapR was used to characterize and to study the phylogenetic relationship of thirty eight strains of Colletotrichum species. This primer set is capable of amplifying only C. capsici from...

Author(s): Thio I. G., Zida E. P., Sawadogo M. and Sérémé P.

In vitro seed germination and seedling development of the orchid Coelogyne stricta (D. Don) Schltr.

February 2016

Coelogyne stricta (D. Don) Schltr., an orchid of high ornamental and medicinal values, is native to Nepal at 1400 to 2000 m elevations. In vitro seed germination and seedling development was carried out on 0.8% (w/v) agar solidified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, supplemented with various combinations of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L BAP and 1...

Author(s): Gaurav Parmar and Bijaya Pant

Adsorption of copper, zinc and lead on biosurfactant produced from cassava wastewater

February 2016

The remediation of soils contaminated by hydrophobic compounds, especially petroleum derivatives, using surfactants has been fairly studied. The use of these compounds in heavy metal contaminated areas is incipient and their mechanism of action has not been totally elucidated yet. The biosurfactants are compounds with surfactant characteristics produced by living organisms and have several environmental advantages, like...

Author(s): Larissa Kummer, Natássia Jersak Cosmann, Glaucia Maria Pastore, Ana Paula Resende Simiqueli, Vander de Freitas Melo and Simone Damasceno Gomes

Investigating the antioxidant properties and rutin content of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves and branches

February 2016

The present study focused on the antioxidant properties and rutin content of leaves and branches of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Sea buckthorn) in Turkey. Dried leaves (leaf tea), processed (PB) and unprocessed branches (UB) of Sea buckthorn (SBT) were extracted with ethanol and prepared in forms of aqueous extract (AE). All samples were analyzed for their contents of rutin, total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and...

Author(s): Aliye Aras Perk, F. Duygu Ceylan, Onur Yanar, Kadir Boztas and Esra Capanoglu

Iron bioavailability in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) desiccated gill and liver powder: Study in rats

January 2016

This study assessed iron bioavailability in rats from diets enriched with desiccated tambaqui gill and liver powders using the hemoglobin depletion-repletion method. Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) liver and gills were bought at Manaus. After processing the livers and gills were placed on trays and desiccated in a ventilated incubator at 60°C. The rats were given free access to chow and water. The moisture, protein,...

Author(s): Francisca das Chagas do Amaral Souza, Jaime Paiva Lopes Aguiar, Lucia Kiyoko Ozaki Yuyama#, Bruna Quara de Carvalho Santos, Eudevan Souza Gomes and Risonilce Fernandes de Sousa

Biological evaluation of 32 different essential oils against Acidovorax citrulli, with a focus on Cinnamomum verum essential oil

January 2016

Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of watermelon caused by Acidovorax citrulli (ACC) is one of the most severe diseases of watermelon worldwide. Antibacterial activity of 32 essential oils (EOs) was evaluated against ACC using disk-diffusion assays. The oil from cinnamon exhibited the greatest antibacterial activity. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the major components of cinnamon oil were analyzed. Among...

Author(s): Okhee Choi#, Su Kyung Cho# and Jinwoo Kim,

Treatment of domestic wastewater by anaerobic denitrification: Influence of the type of support media on the production of extracellular polymer substances

January 2016

Eighteen Erlenmeyer flask containing six different support media [pozzolan, polyvinyl chloride1 (PVC1), polyvinyl chloride2 (PVC2), foam, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS)] were subject to identical volumetric organic loadings and hydraulic retention time in treating synthetic protein ± carbohydrate waste. The objective was to examine the influence of support media on performance of anaerobic...

Author(s): Salama Youssef, Chennaoui Mohammed, Sylla Aboubakr, Mountadar Mohammed, Rihani Mohammed and Assobhei Omar

Removal of hexavalent chromium using chitosan prepared from shrimp shells

January 2016

Contamination of the aqueous environment by heavy metals and due to the discharge of metal containing effluents into the water bodies is one of the environmental issues of the century. Thus, in this work, the main concern has been the preparation of chitin and chitosan from the raw materials of shrimp shells and the characterization of the prepared chitosan by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and...

Author(s): S. Kumari, P. Rath, A. Sri Hari Kumar and T. N. Tiwari

Influence of enzymes and ascorbic acid on dough rheology and wheat bread quality

January 2016

The combined action of ascorbic acid and two commercial enzymatic complexes containing amylase and xylanase/amylase was analyzed to determine their effects on dough rheology and bread quality. Seven bread formulations containing different concentrations of these improvers were used in the analysis. The rheological properties of each dough formulation were determined by moisture, gluten and farinograph tests. The breads...

Author(s): César Milton Baratto, Natalia Branco Becker, Jane Mary Lafayette Neves Gelinski and Sydnei Mitidieri Silveira

In vitro antifungal activity of Dorstenia mannii leaf extracts (Moraceae)

January 2016

The leaves of Dorstenia mannii are used in traditional medicine in Cameroon and other African countries for the treatment of infectious diseases like malaria, skin rashes and stomach disorders. To substantiate this folkloric claim, the crude methanol extract and fractions from the leaves of D. mannii were investigated for their antifungal activity. The crude methanol extract was prepared from powdered dried leaves of...

Author(s): Kechia Frederick Agem, Gerald Ngo Teke, Ngameni Bathelemy, Fokunang Charles, Dzoyem Jean-Paul and Kamga Henri Lucien

Plants’ responses to drought and shade environments

January 2016

Water and light are the most important environements for plants’ growth. These environemts are critical factors needed not only for the survival of plants but also their production. When plants are exposed to drought condition, they change in their anatomical, physiological and biochemical properties. Drought affects plants wildly from their cell structure to growth. It causes higher plastoglobuli, lower starch...

Author(s): Min Young Kwon and Su Young Woo

Co-digestion of municipal organic wastes with night soil and cow dung for biogas production: A Review

January 2016

Currently, biogas production is one of the most promising renewable energy sources and it represents a very promising way to overcome the problem of waste treatment. Biogas, which is principally composed of methane and carbon dioxide, can be obtained by anaerobic fermentation of biomass such as manure, night soil, sewage sludge and municipal solid wastes. Furthermore, the solid residuals of fermentation (the digested...

Author(s): Alemayehu Gashaw

Chlorophyll meter reading and total nitrogen content applied as topdressing in parts of the crambe plant

January 2016

The present study was aimed to assess the relationship between the reading of the chlorophyll meter and the total nitrogen (N) content in the leaf in different parts of the crambe plant, depending on the doses of nitrogen applied to the canopy. Randomized block design in a split-plot experimental design was used. The plots were composed by five levels of topdressing with nitrogen and the subplots composed of three parts...

Author(s): Ana Claudia Mascarello, Tiago Roque Benetoli da Silva, Beatriz Tomé Gouveia, Daiane Bernardi, Deonir Secco, Reginaldo Ferreira Santos and Charline Zaratin Alves

Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci from transcriptome sequence of Ruditapes philippinarum

January 2016

In this study, 38 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers derived from transcriptome sequence of Ruditapes philippinarum were reported. The polymorphisms of these markers were detected in a natural population of R. philippinarum. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 10 with an average of 4.8. The observed and expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.000 to 0.939 and 0.086 to 0.832, with an average of...

Author(s): Jia Li, Hongtao Nie, Depeng Zhu, Yanjie Qin, Zhongming Huo and Xiwu Yan,

Simple sequence repeats (SSR) and interspersed sequence repeats (ISSR) markers for genetic diversity analysis among selected genotypes of Gossypium arboreum race ‘bengalense’

January 2016

Genetic diversity among 65 selected genotypes of Gossypium arboreum race bengalense was explored using 62 simple sequence repeats (SSR) and 73 interspersed sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. The SSR primers produced a total of 170 alleles (all polymorphic), while ISSRs yielded 281 bands of which only 94.3% were polymorphic. Utility of various markers were evaluated by calculating different parameters like polymorphic...

Author(s): Khushboo Sethi, Priyanka Siwach and Surender Kumar Verma

Molecular characterization and genetic diversity assessment of Tilapia guineensis from some coastal rivers in Nigeria

January 2016

Tilapia guineensis is an important economically and nutritionally important fish commonly found in Nigerian coastal waters. Genetic diversity of the fish was assessed to obtain information that may help in developing appropriate conservation and breeding programmes for improving the economic and nutritional quality of the fish. Twelve (12) Nigerian coastal populations and nine microsatellite loci were considered. All...

Author(s): Ukenye E. A., Taiwo I. A., Oguntade O. R., Oketoki T. O. and Usman A. B.

Traditional use, phytochemistry and biological activities of Poincianella pyramidalys (Tul.) LP Queiroz

December 2015

The vegetation of Northeastern Brazil is an important source of income for the local population. Poincianella pyramidalis is a very important species in the semiarid and is inserted in various categories of ethnobotanical use, as foraging, construction and technology uses. However, the most important use is medicinal. Several preparations obtained from the root, bark, leaves and flowers of P. pyramidalis are used to...

Author(s): Thiago Pereira Chaves, , Joanda Paolla Raimundo e Silva, Francinalva Dantas de Medeiros, José Hamilton da Costa Filho, Laianne Carla Batista Alencar, Cleildo Pereira Santana, Delcio de Castro Felismino, Karlete Vania Mendes Vieira and Ana Cláudia Dantas Medeiros

African fan palm (Borassus aethiopum) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) are alternate hosts of coconut lethal yellowing phytoplasma in Mozambique

December 2015

In this study,  potential alternate hosts of the phytoplasma causing coconut lethal yellowing disease (CLYD) in Mozambique were investigated based on 16S rRNA and secA genes. The results reveal that the naturalized palm species, Elaeis guineensis and Borassus aethiopum are alternate hosts of CLYD phytoplasma in Mozambique. Based on the iPhyClassifier online software, the phytoplasma detected in B. aethiopum belongs...

Author(s): J. Bila, N. Högberg, A. Mondjana and B. Samils

Production of cellulase-free xylanase by Aspergillus flavus: Effect of polyols on the thermostability and its application on cellulose pulp biobleaching

December 2015

The production of xylanase without cellulase is required for prebleaching of pulp in pulp and paper industry. Aspergillus flavus produced high levels of xylanase on agricultural residues with wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse (4.17 U/mg), and wheat bran and corncob (2.97 U/mg). Xylanase was found to be stable at 45°C with 100% of its original activity remaining after 2 h incubation. At 50°C, xylanase was stable...

Author(s): Patricia Oliveira da Silva, Nelciele Cavalieri de Alencar Guimarães, Simone de Carvalho Peixoto-Nogueira, Jorge Henrique Betini, Clarice Rossato Marchetti, Fabiana Fonseca Zanoelo, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli, Maria Rita Marques and Giovana Cristina Giannesi

Determination of some toxic gaseous emissions at Ama Industrial Complex, Enugu, south eastern Nigeria

December 2015

A study of some gases emitted from three industries at Ama industrial complex, Nigeria, was carried out using Crowcon Gasman, single gas monitors. Results showed that HCN (0.94 ± 0.16 ppm) and CO (3.17 ± 0.89 ppm) emissions from Brewery were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of Bottling Company A (0.46 ± 0.12 and 0.65 ± 0.10 ppm, respectively). NH3, SO2 and NO2 emissions were the...

Author(s): Alfreda Ogochukwu Nwadinigwe

Mineral content in French type bread with sodium replacement using fluorescence spectrometry X-rays by energy dispersive

December 2015

The present study aimed to determine the mineral composition of the French type bread with partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride using the technique of X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive. The excitation energy used was 50 keV and detector operation at -176°C. The detected variations were from 10.16 to 613.69 mg 100 g-1 for sodium and from 211.58 to 958.96 mg 100 g-1 for potassium. The...

Author(s): Thaisa A. Souza Gusmão, Rennan P. De Gusmão, Severina De Sousa, Mário Eduardo R. Moreira Cavalcanti Mata, Maria Elita M. Duarte, Rossana Maria F. De Figuereido and Ricardo T.  Moreira

Influence of acetylation on the physicochemical properties of composited starches from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) and water yam (Dioscorea alata L.)

December 2015

The study investigates the effect of acetylation on the physicochemical properties of composited starches from sweet potato and water yam. Starch was respectively isolated from both sources, dried and subjected to acetylation at different combination. The result shows that the modified starches were of low percentage of acetylation and low degree of substitution. Acetylation increased the water absorption capacity of...

Author(s): Mathew Kolawole Bolade and Ojo Josiah Oni

Genetic variations and evolutionary relationships among radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) with different flesh colors based on red pigment content, karyotype and simple sequence repeat analysis

December 2015

To determine the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among red radishes, 37 accessions with different flesh colors were analyzed in terms of the red pigment content, karyotypes, and simple sequence repeat markers. Red pigment content of red radish was 3.4 to 28.8% with an average of 15.62%. The karyotype formulas were 14 m (median) + 4 sm (submedian), 16 m + 2 sm, and 18 m for radishes with the same number...

Author(s): Fabo Chen, Hongfang Liu, Qilun Yao, Ping Fang and Fasheng Lv

Fertilizer use efficiency by maize (Zea mays) and egusi-melon (Colocynthis citrullus) in various cropping ratios in an ultisol in Edo rainforest area of Nigeria

December 2015

Three separate field studies were conducted in a rainforest area to determine efficient use of applied fertilizers by maize and egusi-melon in various ratios of mixtures in an ultisol in Nigeria. The experiment was a factorial combination of seven cropping ratios of maize and egusi-melon (MA:EM 1:0, 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 1:2, and 1:3, respectively) tested under four levels of NPK 20:10:10 (0, 200, 400, and 600 kg/ha)...

Author(s): J. O. Ehigiator, G. O. Iremiren and E. J. Falodun

Production of ethanol and polyethanol by yeasts isolated from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) wastes

December 2015

The production of dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in Algeria generates each year, considerable quantities of waste that weaken the balance of our environment and are very rich in organic matter. Their valuation by biotechnological processes enables the production of high value added materials with low cost. In this regard, the objective of this study focused on the selection of yeasts that can be used to produce ethyl...

Author(s): Rezki Meriem Amina, Aouad Linda and Bekki Abdelkader

Blood glucose response of normoglycemic adults fed breakfast porridges made from Zea mays supplemented with Afzelia africana, Detarium microcarpum or Sphenostylis stenocarpa

December 2015

Effect of high fibre leguminous products in breakfast porridges, made from Afzelia Africana (AA), Detarium microcarpum (DM), Sphenostylis stenocarpa (SS) and Zea mays on blood glucose level of humans was investigated in this study. The food items were processed into flour using African (Nigerian) traditional processing methods. The flours were combined in a ratio of 4:1, Z. mays-A. africana (CAA), Z. mays-D. microcarpum...

Author(s): Uchenna Agatha Onyechi, Vivienne NkirukaIbeanu and Nkechinyere Gift Ugwumba

The simulation analysis of contact characteristics of biomimetic flexible surfaces

December 2015

Based on the foot structure of the climbing biology and multivariate coupling bionic technology, the bionic flexible convex surface was designed and a 3D model was created using the digital modeling software. Finite Element Analysis software was used for contacting analysis to the bionic flexible convex foot structure in the state of dry friction and wet adhesion, and then studied frictional contact performance. The...

Author(s): Sui Xiuhua, He Jing, Zeng Xianwei, Huang Yunqian and Su Xu

Application of solar treatment for the disinfection of geophagic clays from markets and mining sites

December 2015

Most of the microorganisms occurring in geophagic clays are undesirable and may to some extent be harmful to geophagists; it is therefore important to develop a cheap and sustainable technique for the treatment of these clays prior to consumption. In this study, a solar treatment simulated in a chamber has been investigated for its potential to inactivate the microorganisms found in the geophagic clays obtained from...

Author(s): Fosso-Kankeu E., Netshitanini T. L., Abia A. L. K., Ubomba-Jaswa E. and Waanders F. B.

Pathogen detection and gut bacteria identification in Apis cerana indica in Thailand

December 2015

Pathogen infection of honeybees can lead to economic losses in apiculture. The earlier the pathogen contamination can be found the better it will likely be for the treatment of the infected colony and prevention of the spread of the pathogen within and between colonies. A total of 50 colonies of Apis cerana were sampled in Samut-Songkhram (five colonies) and Chumphon (45 colonies) provinces in the central and the south...

Author(s): Pawornrat Nonthapa and Chanpen Chanchao

Adaptability and stability of transgenic soybean lines and cultivars in the Brazilian macroregion 3 assessed by using parametric and nonparametric methods

December 2015

This study aimed to evaluate the adaptability and stability of 20 soybean genotypes, ten of which were lines of Monsoy Ltd breeding program, whereas the other 10 genotypes were commercially used cultivars. The experiments were carried out in the agricultural years of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007, in Brazil, specifically in the soybean microregions 301, 302 and 303 (part of Minas Gerais, Goiás and São Paulo...

Author(s): Rodrigo Marchiori, Osvaldo Toshiyuki Hamawaki, Gabriel Lemes Jorge, Fernanda Mundim, Ana Paula Oliveira Nogueira, Raphael Lemes Hamawaki and Larissa Barbosa de Sousa

Application of multivariate analysis to evaluate the biochemical changes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) after exposure to water stress and silicon applications

December 2015

The objective of the present work was to verify, through multivariate analysis, the behavior patterns of biochemical compounds in forage sorghum, submitted to different silicon applications and water stress. Experiment with forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), variety BR 700, was conducted in a greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2×4 factorial arrangement with seven...

Author(s): Luma Castro de Souza, Glauco André dos Santos Nogueira, Risely Ferraz de Almeida, Leane Castro de Souza, Myriam Galvão, Cândido Ferreira de Oliveira Neto, Tamires Borges de Oliveira, Ismael de Jesus Matos Viégas and Ricardo Shigueru Okumura

Phyto-nutrient composition and antioxidative potential of ethanolic leaf extract of Sida acuta in wistar albino rats

December 2015

Phytochemical, micronutrient composition and anti-oxidative potential of ethanolic leaf extract of Sida acuta in albino wistar rats were investigated using standard analytical methods. The result (mg/100 g) for phytochemical composition were 91.46 ± 0.02 tannin, 1500.36 ± 0.36 alkaloid, 530.27 ± 0.03 saponin, 1163.86 ± 0.1 flavonoid, 1454.50 ± 0.85 steriod, 115.29 ± 0.05...

Author(s): Nwankpa P., Chukwuemeka O. G., Uloneme G. C., Etteh C. C., Ugwuezumba P. and Nwosu D.

Surveys of virus diseases on pepper (Capsicum spp.) in South-west Nigeria

December 2015

Surveys to determine the incidence, diversity and distribution of viruses infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) were conducted in six states (Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ogun, Ekiti and Lagos) of South-west Nigeria in 2010 and 2011. Leaf samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants were collected at random from farmers’ fields and were analyzed for viruses using antigen coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...

Author(s): Arogundade Olawale, Balogun Olusegun Samuel, Akinyemi Sunday O. Solomon and P. Lava Kumar

Detection of beet necrotic yellow vein virus in Pakistan using bait-plant bioassay, ELISA and RT-PCR

December 2015

The Northwestern plains of Pakistan are the major sugar beet producing region in the country, providing an important alternative to sugar cane for sugar production when sugar cane is absent in the fields. We surveyed this region for four consecutive years and found that Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is prevalent in at least five of these districts (Peshawar, Charsadda, Nowshera, Mardan and Swabi). An increase...

Author(s): Muhammad Arif, Waseemullah Khan, Amna Shafi and Kamranullah

Minerals and trace elements in domesticated Namibian Ganoderma species

December 2015

Edible and medicinal mushrooms are regarded as the ideal health foods. They are well appreciated for their exquisite taste and flavor and are consumed both fresh and in processed forms. Nutritive value of mushrooms is attributed to their high content of essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals and low lipid content. Regular consumption of whole medicinal and edible mushrooms could introduce a functional or medicinal...

Author(s): F. N. Mhanda, N. P. Kadhila-Muandingi and I. S. E. Ueitele

Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices, Streptomyces and Pseudomonas spp. strain on finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) cv Korchara under water deficit condition

December 2015

In present study, a total of 104 bacteria and 96 actinomycetes were isolated from rhizosphere plant root of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) from Almora district of Uttarakhand, India. Isolates were characterized using microscopic and morphological methods followed by their biochemical test. Based on functional tests, four most promising isolates were identified using 23S rDNA primers as Streptomyces labedae (SB-9),...

Author(s): Ranveer Kamal, Yogendra Singh Gusain, Ishwar Prakash Sharma, Suvigya Sharma and A. K. Sharma

Isolation and characterization of efficient cellulolytic fungi from degraded wood and industrial samples

December 2015

Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer and renewable natural product in the biosphere. Cellulose degrading fungal strains play an important role in recycling of cellulosic materials. They have immense advantage in various industries to hydrolyze cellulosic substrates for production of various products. This study was thus aimed to isolate and characterize efficient cellulose degrading fungi from their common natural...

Author(s): Abreham Bekele, Tariku Abena, Adane Habteyohannes, Addisalem  Nugissie, Fitala  Gudeta,  Tigist Getie, Musin Kelel and Admas Berhanu

Biological activities of species in the genus Tulbaghia: A review

November 2015

Since time immemorial, plants have been used by several communities to treat a large number of diseases. Numerous studies on the pharmacology of medicinal plants have been done. Medicinal plants constitute a potential source for the production of new medicines and may complement conventional antimicrobials and probably decrease health costs. Phytochemical compounds in plants are known to be biologically active aiding,...

Author(s): S. Takaidza, M. Pillay and F. M. Mtunzi

Techno-economic analysis of fuel ethanol production from cassava in Africa: The case of Tanzania

November 2015

The abundance of low-cost feedstock is of great importance for reinforcing industrialization of bioethanol as a sustainable source of eco-friendly energy. This paper describes improved techniques that increase the root productivity of cassava (Manihot esculenta) and its conversion to bioethanol. A variety of models and analytical approaches were used to choose the best technologies, considering various levels of...

Author(s): Julián A. Quintero, Carlos A. Cardona, Erika Felix, Jonathan Moncada and Juan C. Higuita

Stimulatory activity of four green freshwater sponges on aquatic mycotal communities

November 2015

The influence of the four species of green sponges (Ephydatia muelleri, Heteromeyenia stepanowii, Spongilla fluviatilis, and Spongilla lacustris) on the occurrence of aquatic mycotal species in the water of three four water bodies of different trophy was investigated in this study. Seeds and snake exuviae were used as baits. For the measurement of the primary and extracellular production by symbiotic algae of green...

Author(s): Bazyli Czeczuga, Ewa Czeczuga- Semeniuk, Adrianna Semeniuk- Grell and Janusz Semeniuk

Polyphenolic constituents and antioxidant/antiradical activity in different extracts of Alstonia scholaris (Linn.)

November 2015

Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) leaves extracted in aqueous, dichloromethane (DCM), methanolic and ethanolic solvents were assessed for different polyphenolic constituents endowed with antioxidant/antiradical activity. Total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents were significantly (P<0.05) higher in ethanolic extract as compared to other extracts. The antiradical activity and efficiency was significantly (P<0.05)...

Author(s): Pawan K. Verma, Rajinder Raina, Mudasir Sultana, Shahid Prawez and Maninder Singh

Sugarcane in vitro culture technology: Opportunities for Kenya’s sugar industry

November 2015

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is one of the most important crops in Kenya and has wide range of economic importance. The sugar industry contributes up to 15% to the country’s agricultural gross domestic product and an estimated 25% of the population depends on the industry for their livelihood. However, the industry has been facing several challenges including declining yields due to use of poor quality...

Author(s): Richard Wekesa, Justus M. Onguso, Bernard A. Nyende and Leonard S. Wamocho

Production of α-amylase from some thermophilic Aspergillus species and optimization of its culture medium and enzyme activity

November 2015

This paper aimed to evaluate the thermophilic and hyperthermophilic fungi isolated from extreme conditions capable of secreting α-amylase, an enzyme that has a commercial value especially in the production of bread in the food industry and also to ensure their optimization. In this study, thermostable amylase activities of some thermophilic Aspergillus species were evaluated. The suitable medium and microorganisms...

Author(s): Arzu Unal

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