African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12269

AJB Articles

Bacillus sp. R2 α-amylase production optimization: Pasta cooking water as medium of amylase production

November 2015

α-Amylases (EC; 1,4-α-D-glucanglucanohydrolase) are enzymes that are widely studied and used in industries. Their major source is microorganisms. This study aimed to prepare a readily available medium for industrial amylase production. An optimization of amylase production conditions by Bacillus sp. R2 and medium composition were done. Pasta cooking water was selected as basal medium due to its...

Author(s): Slimane Choubane, Omar Khelil and Ben Amar Cheba

Validating simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for introgression of stay-green quantitative trait loci (QTLs) into elite sorghum lines

November 2015

Considerable effort has been made to improve drought-stress tolerance in sorghum by incorporating the stay-green trait into drought-susceptible elite sorghum varieties. Keeping track of the several genes involved in the expression of this complex trait during the breeding program is an enormous task. In this study, the fidelity of recently identified SSR markers were tested for introgression of stay-green QTLs into...

Author(s): R. Edema and G. L. Amoding

In vitro transformation of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L). R. BR.): Selection of chlorsulfuron-resistant plants and long term expression of the gus gene under the control of the emu promoter

November 2015

The plasmids pULGU1 and pEmuGN were introduced by biolistics in embryogenic cell suspensions of pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum. The plasmid pULGU1 contained the mutant acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana, responsible for resistance to the chlorsulfuron herbicide. The plasmid pEmuGN carried the reporter β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene of Escherichia coli. Two months after bombardment of the cells,...

Author(s): Kouakou Tiécoura, Abou Bakari Kouassi, N’nan-Alla Oulo, Séry Gonedelé Bi, Monique Dinant and Lucien Ledou

Influence of enzymes and ascorbic acid on dough rheology and wheat bread quality

November 2015

The combined action of ascorbic acid and two commercial enzymatic complexes containing amylase and xylanase/amylase was analyzed to determine their effects on dough rheology and bread quality. Seven bread formulations containing different concentrations of these improvers were used in the analysis. The rheological properties of each dough formulation were determined by moisture, gluten and farinograph tests. The breads...

Author(s): César Milton Baratto, Natalia Branco Becker, Jane Mary Lafayette Neves Gelinski and Sydnei Mitidieri Silveira

Spectral analysis and anti-bacterial activity of methanolic fruit extract of Citrullus colocynthis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

November 2015

Phytochemicals are chemical compounds often referred to as secondary metabolites. Thirty three bioactive phytochemical compounds were identified in the methanolic extract of Citrullus colocynthis. The identification of phytochemical compounds is based on the peak area, retention time molecular weight and molecular formula. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of C. colocynthis revealed the existence of...

Author(s): Salah Ali Idan, Ali Hussein Al-Marzoqi and Imad Hadi Hameed

Investigations of antioxidant and antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica

November 2015

Active ingredients of medicinal plants have been used to cure several human diseases. Azadirachta indica is one of the most versatile medicinal plants having a wide spectrum of biological activity due to the presence of large number of bioactive compounds. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant efficiency and phytochemical screening of A. indica leaf extract using methanol as a...

Author(s): Bharat Pokhrel, Sagar Rijal, Sulav Raut and Ankit Pandeya

In vitro antifungal activity of Dorstenia mannii leaf extracts (Moraceae)

November 2015

The leaves of Dorstenia mannii are used in traditional medicine in Cameroon and other African countries for the treatment of infectious diseases like malaria, skin rashes and stomach disorders. To substantiate this folkloric claim, the crude methanol extract and fractions from the leaves of D. mannii were investigated for their antifungal activity. The crude methanol extract was prepared from powdered dried leaves of...

Author(s): Kechia Frederick Agem, Gerald Ngo Teke, Ngameni Bathelemy, Fokunang Charles, Dzoyem Jean-Paul and Kamga Henri Lucien

Selection of okra parents based on performance and genetic divergence

November 2015

A total of 200 okra accessions with wide variability and a potential for genetic improvement were stored in the Vegetables Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Viçosa (UFV-BGH) in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The objective of this work was to select parents by genetic divergence and behavior per se in 70 okra accessions from the BGH-UFV by quantitative and qualitative descriptors of economic...

Author(s): André Pugnal Mattedi, Bruno Soares Laurindo, Derly José Henriques da Silva, Carlos Nick Gomes, Leonardo Lopes Bhering and Moacil Alves de Souza

Evaluation of genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship using sequence-tagged microsatellite (STMS) sequences in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes

November 2015

The current investigation was carried out to analyse the genetic diversity estimates between 125 chickpea genotypes using sequence-tagged microsatellite (STMS) markers. Thirty one STMS primers generated a total of 153 loci (an average of 4.94 loci per primer) out of which 129 loci were found to be polymorphic and 24 loci were monomorphic. The value of PIC varied from 0.128 to 0.783 while the resolving power varied from...

Author(s): Himanshu Aggarwal, Alka Rao, Anil Kumar, Jasbir Singh, Jogender Singh Rana, Pradeep Kumar Naik and Vinod Chhokar

Genetic diversity of bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia spp., Irvingiaceae) in West and Central Africa

November 2015

Economically important food tree species in sub-Saharan Africa should be domesticated to enhance their production within agro forestry systems. The African bush mango trees (Irvingia species) are highly preserved and integrated in agro forestry systems in tropical Africa. However, the taxonomic debate related to the species or varietal status of the bitter and sweet fruited African bush mango trees hinders their...

Author(s): Vihotogbé, R., van den Berg, R. G., Missihoun, A. A., Sinsin, B., and Sosef, M. S. M.,

Glycerine associated molecules with herbicide for controlling Adenocalymma peregrinum in cultivated pastures

November 2015

The weed Adenocalymma peregrinum that is popularly known in Brazil as “ciganinha”, belongs to the family Bignoniaceae. The only way to control this plant species in crop fields is by the application of herbicides on the stump or directly on the stem. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of glycerine in controlling A. peregrinum (MIERS) L.G.Lohmann when applied on the stem. The glycerin used as a...

Author(s): Rejanne Lima Arruda, Melquezedeque do Vale Nunes, Paulo Roberto da Silva , Fernando Ferreira Leão (In memoria), Renato de Almeida Sarmento , Thomas Vieira Nunes and Eduardo Andrea Lemus Erasmo

Response of maize (Zea mays L.) to combined application of organic and inorganic (soil and foliar applied) fertilizers

November 2015

A field trial was carried out in the 2013 cropping season at the Teaching and Research Farm of Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria (08° 42” 48.5N and 004° 26 17.9” E ) to assess the response of early maturing maize variety (TZEE-Y) when using organic poultry manure (pm) alone or in combination with inorganic (NPK) and foliar fertilizer (ff) (boost xtra). The treatments were: pm 5.0 t ha-1 + ff,...

Author(s): A. I. Afe, S. Atanda, M. O. Aduloju, S. K. Ogundare and A. A. Talabi

Susceptibility of Algerian pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L) to Phytophthora capsici strains from different geographic areas

November 2015

Ten pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L), that is, Doux D’Alger, Sonar, Esterel, Doux, Marconi, Magister, Belconi, Italico II, Lipari, Arabal, and Doux d’Espagne commercially grown in Algeria were inoculated with six isolates of Phytophthora capsici Leon, and susceptibility of pepper was assessed by evaluation of disease severity in different plant organs. The cultivar Italico II was found to be more...

Author(s): Benabdelkader Messaouda, Guechi Abdelhadi and Mézaache-Aichour Samia

Drying of enzyme immobilized on eco-friendly supports

November 2015

Endophytic fungus Cercospora kikuchii lipase was immobilized on agroindustrial by-products and dried by oven, freeze and spray drying. Spray drying showed the best performance regarding the drying technologies evaluated. Microcrystalline cellulose and rice husk showed the best result since they retained almost 100% of lipase activity after drying. Immobilized derivatives obtained had decreased enzyme activity (»...

Author(s): Costa-Silva T. A., Souza C. R. F., Said S. and Oliveira W. P.

Purification and characterization of phenoloxidase from immunized haemolymph of Schistocerca gregaria

November 2015

Phenoloxidase (PO) is a key factor in insect immunity. On invasion of microorganisms and pathogens, prophenoloxidase (PPO) changes to its active form, PO. The present study has been conducted to purify and characterize the PO from the haemolymph of desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal) following activation of immune system by invasion of bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Bt). PO is purified by a...

Author(s): Mahmoud, D. M., Salem, D. A. M., Mo&#;men, S. A., Barakat, E. M. S. and Salama, M. S.

Genetic characterization of angular leaf spot resistance in selected common bean landraces from Tanzania

October 2015

Angular leaf spot disease (ALS) caused by Pseudocercospora griseola is one of the most important bean diseases in Tanzania. The bean landraces Beti-10, Nanka, Nanavala and Nkanamna used in this study have been identified as resistant to ALS but the nature of inheritance and mechanisms of resistance against ALS in those potential sources has not been elucidated. This information is crucial and a necessary first step for...

Author(s): George Muhamba Tryphone, Luseko Amos Chilagane, Susan Nchimbi-Msolla and Paul Mbogo Kusolwa

Laboratory study on influence of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on growth response and tolerance of Zea mays to petroleum hydrocarbon

October 2015

The influence of rhizobacteria on the growth and tolerance of Zea mays (maize) in a petroleum hydrocarbon (crude oil) impacted medium was investigated. This study evaluated the effect of inoculating maize seeds with plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains in a crude oil impacted medium. The rhizobacterial strains used in this study were tested for plant growth promoting traits [indole-3-acetic acid production,...

Author(s): Chinyere Augusta Ajuzieogu, Abiye Anthony Ibiene and Herbert Okechukwu Stanley

Milk quality in high production systems during dry and rainy seasons according to normative instruction N° 62

October 2015

This study aimed to evaluate the milk quality of crossbred cows from five production systems according to the quality parameters required by Normative Instruction No. 62 (NI 62). Five different production systems were used, with different environmental and sanitary conditions, and with animals from different breeds in two seasons: dry and rainy. Three individual milk samples were collected from animals in the five...

Author(s): Cristiane Isabô Giovannini, Priscila Alonso dos Santos, Thiago Soares de Carvalho, Jakeline Fernandes Cabral and Thamara Evangelista Silva

Bioguided investigation of the antimalarial activities of Trema orientalis (L.) Blume leaves

October 2015

Malaria remains a major public health concern which affects millions of people, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The need for the development of alternate treatment means has become critical because of the emergence of resistance to nearly all antimalarial drugs (Kim and Schneider, 2013). Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Ulmaceae) is used locally for the treatment of malaria. This study was designed to determine the...

Author(s): Samuel Babatunde, , Oluyemi Wande Michael and Abiodun Oyindamola

Antibacterial activity of secondary metabolites isolated from Alternaria alternata

October 2015

The aims of this study were the analysis of the secondary metabolites and evaluation of the antibacterial and antifungal activity of Alternaria alternata. Twenty six bioactive compounds were identified in methanolic extract of Alternaria alternata. The identification of bioactive chemical compounds is based on the peak area, retention time molecular weight and molecular formula. GC-MS analysis of A. alternata revealed...

Author(s): Sabreen A. Kamal, Lena Fadhil Hamza and Imad Hadi Hameed

Drug resistant Salmonella in broiler chicken sold at local market in Bangladesh and its public health significance

October 2015

Salmonella is a globally widespread food-borne pathogen having major impact on public health. Salmonellosis is an infection with bacteria called Salmonella. Most persons infected with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 h after infection. This study was designed to isolate and identify Salmonella spp. from cloacal swabs of apparently healthy broiler chickens in Bangladesh. Salmonella was...

Author(s): Abanish Aditya

Effect of reproductive status on body condition score, progesterone concentration and trace minerals in sheep and goats reared in South Sinai, Egypt

October 2015

This study aimed at evaluating the effect of reproductive stage on nutritional status, and hormonal and trace mineral levels in sheep and goats reared in harsh arid conditions in South Sinai, Egypt. Egyptian local breeds of sheep (n=74) and goats (n=58) raised in South Sinai were examined by means of transabdominal ultrasonography to verify single vs. multiple feti pregnancy or non-pregnant status. Serum samples were...

Author(s): Mahmoud Fathy Nawito, Karima Ghonaimy M. Mahmoud, Mohamed Mahmoud M. Kandiel, Yousef F. Ahmed and Ahmed Sayed A. Sosa

Comparison of anther and microspore culture in androgenic embryogenesis and regeneration of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica P.)

October 2015

The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of broccoli anther and microspore culture methods for doubled haploid (DH) lines production. We evaluated the main influencing factors and optimized the culture methods to improve embryo induction and plant regeneration for efficient doubled haploid production in broccoli breeding. Six broccoli hybrids were used in this study. Our results show that generally, the...

Author(s): Ying Qin, Yunyu Huang, Seppo Pulli and Yang-Dong Guo

Suppressive effects of a polymer sodium silicate solution on powdery mildew and root rot diseases of miniature rose

October 2015

Sodium silicate was dissolved in water in either a monomer form or polymer form; the effects of both forms of sodium silicate aqueous solution on rose powdery mildew and root rot diseases of miniature rose were examined. Both forms of sodium silicate aqueous solution were applied to the roots of the miniature rose. Potassium silicate aqueous solution was used as a control and was compared to the effect of sodium...

Author(s): Mohsen Mohamed Elsharkawy, Tatsuya Hase, Masafumi Shimizu and Mitsuro Hyakumachi

Toxic effects of Ricinus communis non-protein trypsin inhibitor on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

October 2015

In the study reported herein, we aimed to isolate a trypsin inhibitor from Ricinus communis leaves through chromatographic and spectrometric techniques and evaluate its toxic effects on the development of Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. Plant extracts were submitted to fractionation in adsorption column. The fraction 10, which showed the highest inhibitory activity, were incorporated into an artificial diet at the...

Author(s): Gislaine A. Carvalho, Custódio D. dos Santos, Dejane S. Alves, Geraldo A. Carvalho, Maria das G. Cardoso and Marcelo M. de Haro

The efficacy of palm oil sludge in reducing ruminal methanogenesis using rumen simulation technique

October 2015

The effect of including palm oil sludge in cattle diet (silage) was conducted in vitro in order to ascertain the suppressing effect on ruminal methanogenesis. The silage used for the study was Panicum maximum, Centrocema pubscens, Bracharia decumbens and Andropogon gayanus. The silage were cut into an average size of 3 to 5 cm and ensiled for 21 days. Four treatment diets were formulated with the silage by including...

Author(s): L. C. Ugwuowo, A. G. Ezekwe, A. O. Ani, S. I. Eze, C. N. Anyanwu and A. Ofomatah  

Heterogeneous expression and functional evaluation of in silico characterized recombinant OmpC of Salmonella Typhimurium as a functional poultry vaccine to eradicate zoonotic transmission

October 2015

Salmonellosis is one of the major global health concerns leading to millions of deaths annually. The present vaccines not being up to the mark necessitate the need for the development of new generation vaccines. Outer membrane proteins (Omps) of several Gram negative bacteria have been investigated and found to be immunogenic and protective. The present study explores the potential of a major porin protein (OmpC) of...

Author(s): Richa Jha, Anil Kumar, Anjani Saxena, Mamta Pandey, Rajesh Kumar and Mumtesh Kumar Saxena

Use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for screening blue disease resistance in cotton germplasm exchange

October 2015

Blue disease of cotton is an economically important disease of the crop first described from the Central African Republic and spread to other countries. Brazil and other South American countries record crop losses of up to 80% from infection but no cases of the disease have been reported in Tanzania. Resistance to the disease has been found in African germplasm and transferred to crop cultivars worldwide. Molecular...

Author(s): Christopher Faustine, Lucia Vieira Hoffmann, Flora Ismail Tibazarwa and Everina Lukonge

Antibiosis in Ascia monuste orseis Godart (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) caused by kale genotypes

October 2015

Ascia monuste orseis (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) is one of the main insect pests of kale. The study was done to identify kale varieties resistant to A. monuste orseis by the antibiosis resistance mechanism. Kale genotypes (26) were evaluated in experiments performed at the Laboratory of Agricultural Entomology of Goiano Federal Institute - Campus Urutaí. A completely randomized experimental design with 50 replicates...

Author(s): Luciano Nogueira, Lígia Alves de Paiva, Andre Cirillo de Sousa Almeida, Zulene Antonio  Ribeiro Arlindo Leal Boica Junior and Flavio Goncalves de Jesus

Estimation of genetic diversity between three Saudi sheep breeds using DNA markers

October 2015

The genetic variation of Najdi, Harri and Awassi breeds of Saudi sheep prevailing in Raniah province of Makka district were assessed and compared to Sudanese Desert sheep using random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase cahin reaction (RAPD-PCR) technique. Five primers successfully amplified distinguishable 40 bands with an average of 96% polymorphism revealing that Saudi sheep breeds possess the needed genetic...

Author(s): Ahmed Abdel Gadir Adam, Nada Babiker Hamza, Manal Abdel Wahid Salim and Khaleil Salah Khalil

Determination of lactic acid bacteria in Kaşar cheese and identification by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy

October 2015

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) arise in Kaşar cheese, an artisanal pasta filata cheese produced in Turkey from raw milk without starter addition or pasteurized milk with starter culture. In this study, 13 samples of Kaşar cheese that were produced from raw milk were used as reference materials. LAB were characterized by using phenotypic, API and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods. One hundred and...

Author(s): İlkay Turhan and Zübeyde Öner

Profile, antioxidant potential, and applicability of phenolic compounds extracted from Spirulina platensis

October 2015

This work aimed at an investigation of the profile of free phenolic compounds (PC) of Spirulina platensis and assesses their antioxidant potential, applying them as a natural conservative in minimally processed apples. The phenolic extract showed 396 µg g-1 gallic acid, 347  µg g-1 of caffeic acid, 54 µg g-1 salicylic acid and 3.5 µg g-1 trans-1-cinmamic a total of 608 µg PC g-1 of S....

Author(s): Taiana Denardi de Souza, Luciana Prietto, Michele Moraes de Souza and Eliana Badiale Furlong

Analysis of bioactive chemical components of two medicinal plants (Coriandrum sativum and Melia azedarach) leaves using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)

October 2015

The main objective of this study was to determine the phytochemical composition in the leaves of Coriandrum sativum, using methanolic extraction and report the main functional components by using IR technique. The phytochemical compounds in the extract were then screened by GC-MS method. Seven bioactive phytochemical compounds were identified in the methanolic extract of C. sativum: 1,6-octadien-3-ol, 3,7-dimethyl,...

Author(s): Ali Hussein Al-Marzoqi, Imad Hadi Hameed and Salah Ali Idan

In vitro regeneration of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess: A valuable medicinal tree

October 2015

Calophyllum brasiliense (Calophyllaceae) is a medicinal tree known mainly for producing calanolides, secondary metabolites against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. This wild plant is listed as threatened and despite its outstanding medicinal value, no studies have been conducted on its propagation or preservation. This study standardized a procedure for the micropropagation of C. brasiliense with nodal segments from in...

Author(s): A. Maldonado-Magana, A. Bernabe-Antonio, E. Salcedo-Perez and F. Cruz-Sosa

Gene mining a marama bean expressed sequence tags (ESTs) database: Embryonic seed development genes and microsatellite marker identification

October 2015

Tylosema esculentum (marama bean) is one of the underutilized legumes that have potential to provide protein and fatty acids to ensure food security in dry parts of Southern Africa. In order to establish rapid domestication programs for the plant, it is important to explore the plant’s genome and identify functional genes molecular markers like microsatellites in order to develop molecular tools. With the advent...

Author(s): Emilia N. Sheehama and Percy M. Chimwamurombe

Multiploidy occurrence in tomato calli from anther culture

October 2015

Anther culture has long been used for the production of fully homozygous lines in order to produce, mainly, doubled haploid plants, which are of great interest in plant breeding. For tomato, a recalcitrant species for androgenesis production protocols have not been standardized. It is known that the genotype, anther size, the developmental stage of the microspore, and the medium composition are some factors that can...

Author(s): Sirlei Aparecida Julião, Carlos Roberto Carvalho, Thaís Cristina Ribeiro da Silva and Andréa Dias Koehler

Extraction and physicochemical characterization of a potential multifunctional pharma-excipient from crab shell wastes

October 2015

An efficient and beneficial waste disposal mechanism is highly desired. This study was carried out to extract and characterize a potential multifunctional pharmaceutical excipient from crab shell wastes. Shells of Pachygrapsus mamoratus were obtained from Oron, a coastal town in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Chitin was extracted from the powdered shell by deproteination and demineralization; and chitosan was derived by...

Author(s): Emmanuel O. Olorunsola, Olubunmi J. Olayemi, Stephen O. Majekodunmi and Unyime B. Etukudo

A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Kalanchoë blossfeldiana with a flavonoid 3',5' hydroxylase (F3'5'H) gene

September 2015

In the present investigation, explants from Kalanchoë blossfeldiana were used for gene transformation. The young leaves were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 strain with a binary vector plasmid pArtblue containing F3'5'H gene under control of CaMV35S promoter and nptII selectable marker gene. After inoculation, the explants were transferred to the co-cultivation medium. They were then...

Author(s): Phopgao Buddharak, Ruttaporn Chundet and Warut U-kong

Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation on growth, and nutrient uptake of the two grass species, Leptochloa fusca (L.) Stapf and Sporobolus robustus Kunth, under greenhouse conditions

September 2015

The aim of our work was to assess the effect of inoculation with three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Rhizoglomus aggregatum (N.C. Schenck and G.S. Sm.) Sieverd., G.A. Silva and Oeh., Funneliformis mosseae (T.H. Nicolson and Gerd.) C. Walker and A. Schüssler. and Rhizoglomus intraradices (N.C. Schenck and G.S. Sm.) Sieverd., G.A. Silva and Oehl.), and a mixed inoculum of these AMF on root colonization, biomass...

Author(s): Fatoumata Fall,, Diégane Diouf,, Dioumacor Fall,, Ibrahima Ndoye,, Cheikh Ndiaye, Aboubacry Kane, and Amadou Mustapha Bâ,

Cooking and drying processes optimization of Pentadesma butyracea kernels during butter production

September 2015

The cooking and the drying of the Pentadesma butyracea kernels are the main steps in the traditional method of extracting P. butyracea butter. In this work, the Response Surface Method with Central composite design was used to optimize the cooking and drying of Pentadesma kernels during P. butyracea butter production. The cooking and drying times, as well as the drying temperature of Pentadesma kernels are considered as...

Author(s): Eric Badoussi, Paulin Azokpota, Yann E. Madodé, Fidèle P. Tchobo, Balbine Fagla Amoussou, Adéchola P. P. Kayodé, Mohamed M. Soumanou and D. Joseph Hounhouigan

Use of pectin in the storage of mangaba fruits (Hancorniaspeciosa Gomes) associated with refrigeration

September 2015

The objective of this study was to evaluate the storage potential of mangaba fruits coated with pectin biofilm stored in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (22 ± 1°C) under modified atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the physical and chemical changes, vitamin C content, soluble solid, titratable acidity and turgor pressure, and colour and physical structure of the fruits during...

Author(s): Plácido, G. R., Silva, R. M., Cagnin, C.,Silva, M. A. P., Soares, J. C. and Caliari, M.

Fermentable sugars and microbial inhibitors formation from two-stage pretreatment of corn stalk with variation in particle size and severity factor

September 2015

Microbial inhibitors including weak acids, furan derivatives and phenolic compounds are key problems of cellulosic bio-fuels production by fermentation. Most of these inhibitors are sugars and lignin degradation compounds, which are almost unavoidable during pretreatment processes. While, most of the one stage pretreatment has been conducted at high severity factors of 3.5 or more to get high sugar yield, with increase...

Author(s): Nawa Raj Baral, Jianzheng Li and Ajay Kumar Jha

Genetic variability of indigenous cowpea genotypes as determined using inter-simple sequence repeats markers

September 2015

Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is cultivated widely by small farmers in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil for subsistence purposes, especially to complement the family income. However, owing to the limited availability of water in this region, there is an urgent need for novel highly productive drought-tolerant cultivars. The aim of the present study was to establish the genetic variability of 14 cowpea...

Author(s): R. F. M. Mendes, F. B. Britto, F. R. Freire Filho and P. S. C. Lima

Preliminary characterization of residual biomass from Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces

September 2015

Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces are mainly used for different agro-food and beverages applications. The residual biomass generated contains various useful substances that were extracted and characterized. It contained 23% (w/w) soluble pectic material, a food additive, extracted with hot acidified water (80°C, pH = 1.5) and precipitated with ethanol. The molecular weight (28.5 and 109.7 kDa), the degree of methylation...

Author(s): Cheikh Beye, , Mario Aguedo, Serge Hiligsmann, Lat Souk Tounkara, Aurore Richel and Philippe Thonart

A study of the optimal conditions for glucoamylases obtained from Aspergillus niger using amylopectin from cassava starch as carbon source

September 2015

A fourteen day pilot study carried out showed that high glucoamylase activities were obtained on the 4 and 11th day of fermentation and the enzymes were harvested on the respective days giving the codes GluAgCSV4 and GluAgCSV11. The optimal pH and optimal temperatures for enzyme activities GluAgCSV4 and GluAgCSV11 were in a range of 6 to 7 and 50 to 55, using cassava, guinea corn and tiger nut starch as substrates,...

Author(s): Ezugwu, A. L., Eze, S. O. O. and Chilaka, F. C.

Anatomical and histochemical analysis of vegetative organs of Vernonia ferruginea Less. (Asteraceae)

September 2015

Vernonia ferruginea Less. is a perennial shrub species, present in several regions of Brazil, especially in the savanna. It is popularly used as a phytotherapic. This fact justifies the need to anatomically characterize the plant for its accurate identification and to conduct histochemical studies with the aim of identifying the chemical nature of its cellular constituents. The species-specific data will contribute...

Author(s): Oliveira, R. C. de, Vasconcelos Filho, S. C., Bastos, A. V. S., Vasconcelos, J. M. and Rodrigues, A. A.

Chemical composition and mutagenic assessment of petrochemical effluents on onion (Allium cepa) root tip mitosis

September 2015

The continous production and release of chemicals into the environment have led to the need to assess their chemical composition and genotoxic effects on cell reproduction. Two petrochemicals, air liquid and polyester resin effluents were assessed. The common onion of the purple variety was used as the test organism. The results of the chemical analysis of the wastewaters showed high concentration of some potentially...

Author(s): Abu, Ngozi E., Asomba, C. O. and Ubani, C.

Management of Fusarium Wilt using mycolytic enzymes produced by Trichoderma harzianum (Th. Azad)

September 2015

The main aim of this study was to isolate the best chitinase and glucanase enzyme producing Trichoderma strain to manage the Fusarium wilt disease of Cicer aritenum under in vitro conditions. We also studied the effect of Trichoderma strains on the growth and development of C. aritenum plants. Seven strains of Trichoderma were screened against the Fusarium pathogen to isolate the best biocontrol agent causing maximum...

Author(s): Mohammad Shahid, Mukesh Srivastava, Sonika Pandey, Vipul Kumar, Anuradha Singh, Shubha Trivedi, Y. K. Srivastava and Shiv Ram

β-Lactam and chloramphenicol-resistant enterobacteria in hospital surfaces

September 2015

The following study aimed to research the Enterobacteriaceae present on the material surfaces of a hospital environment in a Community Health Unit in Ceara-Brazil. Data was collected in 10 different rooms and facilities by rubbing sterile swabs in an enclosed area of 10 cm² for a minute. Bacterial growth was observed in all surveyed areas. However, Enterobacteriaceae were only found in surfaces from the kitchen and...

Author(s): Jean Linhares de Lima, Sara Edwirgens Costa Benicio Vasconcelos, Theodora Thays Arruda Cavalcante, and Renata Albuquerque Costa,

A direct and sensitive method for screening fructooligosaccharides-digesting microorganisms useful in food and health science

September 2015

Short-chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS) stimulate selectively the growth and activity of microorganisms in the colon providing positive health effects and well-being in humans and animals. The lack of accurate isolation methods, however, hampers the possibility of getting new potential fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)-fermenting yeast or bacterial strains. A valuable screening procedure to visually detect bacterial and...

Author(s): Trujillo L. E., Granda S., Ordoñez M. I., Ramos T. I. and Avalos R. 

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