African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12254

AJB Articles

August 2015

Status of cassava mosaic disease and whitefly population in Zambia

Cassava mosaic disease is the most important disease affecting cassava in Zambia. A study was conducted through a survey to determine the status of cassava mosaic disease incidence, severity and whitefly abundance in farmers’ fields in six provinces: Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Luapula, Eastern and Western between March and May 2014. The study reveals that cassava mosaic disease incidence was highest in...

Author(s): P. C. Chikoti, M. Tembo, M. Chisola, P. Ntawuruhunga and J. Ndunguru

August 2015

Polymers selection for a liquid inoculant of Azospirillum brasilense based on the Arrhenius thermodynamic model

Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) enhances the growth of their hosts and can protect them from biotic and abiotic stresses. Bacterial inoculants contain one or more of these beneficial strains in a carrier material, which must be able to maintain the viability of the cells during the time of storage, and also guarantee the biological activity of the strains once applied in the soil. These inoculants can be solid,...

Author(s): Cortés-Patiño Sandra and Bonilla Ruth Rebeca

August 2015

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by plants crude extracts and their characterization using UV, XRD, TEM and EDX

Plant extracts are very cost effective and eco-friendly, thus, can be an economic and efficient alternative for the large-scale synthesis of nanoparticles. The preparation of stable, uniform silver nanoparticles by reduction of silver ions with Emblica officinalis, Terminalia catappa and Eucalyptus hybrida extract is reported in the present paper. It is a simple process of global research interest for obtaining silver...

Author(s): Vishwajeet Singh, Ankita Shrivastava and Nitin Wahi

August 2015

Biochemical profile of cuttings used for in vitro organogenesis of Prunus africana: An endangered species in Cameroon

Prunus africana (Kanda stick) is a valuable medicinal tree classified as priority species for domestication in Cameroon. To measure the ability for developing axillary buds and multiple shoots in relation with the origin and state of explants, some biochemical parameters were assessed in eight types of single-node cuttings. These cuttings were treated with different concentrations of kinetin (kin) indole butyric acid...

Author(s): Justine Germo Nzweundji, Nicolas Niemenak, Doungous Oumar, Julie Judith Tsafack, Koffi Konan, Leopold Nyochembeng, Christelle Ngamegne Noumi, Nehemie Donfagsiteli Tchinda, and Denis Omokolo Ndoumou

August 2015

Liver histopathology in bovine Fascioliasis

The livers of slaughtered cattle were examined by visualization, palpation and incision. Macroscopically, some of the infected livers appeared to be slightly swollen with pale color at the round edges, while some appeared greatly swollen, with a few small irregular whitish areas indicating fibrosis over the parietal surface. In some cases, the capsule was thick and rough with whitish or reddish discoloration and...

Author(s): Okoye, I. C., Egbu, F. M. I., Ubachukwu, P. O and Obiezue, Nduka R.

August 2015

Assessing the genetic diversity of 48 groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes in the Guinea savanna agro-ecology of Ghana, using microsatellite-based markers

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the most important grain legume in Ghana. However, its production is constrained by a myriad of biotic and abiotic stresses which necessitate the development and use of superior varieties for increased yield. Germplasm characterisation both at the phenotypic and molecular level is important in all plant breeding programs. The aim of this study was to characterise selected advanced...

Author(s): Richard Oteng-Frimpong, Mandla Sriswathi, Bonny R Ntare and Felix D. Dakora

August 2015

Effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on morphological and physiological growth of cassava and its efficacy in controlling Zonocerus variegatus

Zonocerus variegatus infestation has been found to cause a lot of devastation in the production of cassava crop plants in tropical and subtropical areas. Understanding the efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on controlling Z. variegatus is desired. The present study was conducted in the Department of Crop Science experimental site, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nigeria, Nsukka to investigate the effects of...

Author(s): Uchenna Mabel Ndubuaku, Theophilus Chinyere Nkasiobi Ndubuaku, Emmanuel Ike and Peter Ikemefuna Ezeaku

August 2015

Anti-nutrient, vitamin and other phytochemical compositions of old and succulent moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam) leaves as influenced by poultry manure application

The study was carried out to determine the anti-nutrient, vitamin and other phytochemical compositions of old and succulent leaves of Moringa oleifera plants as influenced by poultry manure application. Three levels of poultry manure, that is, 0, 5 and 10 tonnes ha-1 were used for treatment. Poultry manure application insignificantly (p > 0.05) increased oxalate, phytate and saponin compositions of the leaves. The...

Author(s): Uchenna Mabel Ndubuaku, Nwankwo Vincent Uchenna, Kayode Paul Baiyeri and Juliana Ukonze

August 2015

Effects of ethylene inhibitors, silver nitrate (AgNO3), cobalt chloride (CoCl2) and aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), on in vitro shoot induction and rooting of banana (Musa acuminata L.)

Significant increase in shoot regeneration, leaf chlorophyll content and rooting occurred when silver nitrate (AgNO3), cobalt chloride (CoCl2) or aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) were added to banana culture medium. The highest numbers of shoots per explants shoot length and leaf surface area was obtained when media were supplemented with 10 mgl-1 AgNO3. Number of shoots per explants increased three fold, shoot length and leaf...

Author(s): Samih M. Tamimi

August 2015

Bacteriocinogenic potential and genotypic characterization of three Enterococcus faecium isolates from Algerian raw milk and traditional butter

The detection of bacteriocinogenic potential of Enterococcus sp. isolates from Algerian raw milk coded LO4 and LO12 and from traditional butter coded BRO2 was carried on M17 buffered medium. PCR amplification of Enterococcus sp. DNA using specific enterococcal primers gave 733 bp fragments. The phylogenetic analysis using the neighbour joining method further supported the identification of the three strains as...

Author(s): Louiza Lazreg, Fatiha Dalache, Halima Zadi-Karam and Nour-Eddine Karam

August 2015

Multiple protein-domain conservation architecture as a non-deterministic confounder of linear B cell epitopes

Epitope prediction is a critical step to diagnostic and vaccine discovery. Despite existence of some parameters for epitope discovery, this area remains inconclusive and wanting-for new complementary or stand-alone tools. The phenomenon of multiple protein-domain conservation architecture (MPDCA) as used here refers to homologous motifs unveiled by multiple sequence alignments across strain-variants of the same protein...

Author(s): Misaki Wayengera

August 2015

Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation and regeneration in elite rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar BRRI dhan56

Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar BRRI dhan56 was carried out in this study. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA 4404, which harbors the plasmid pIG121 that carries the genes for ß-glucuronidase gene, served as a reporter gene in the histochemical assay and the neomycin phosphotransferase ΙΙ (NPT ΙΙ) gene for the identification of resistance to...

Author(s): Md. Mahmudul Islam, Zahida Yesmin Roly, Mst. Zannatun Naim and Md. Khalekuzzaman

August 2015

Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth, fruit yield, nutritional and lycopene contents of three varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill) in Ogbomoso, Nigeria

Field experiments were carried out to assess the impact of 100% NPK fertilizer recommendation (300 kg NPK 20:10:10), 100% Tithonia compost (TC), 75% NPK + 25% TC, 50% NPK + 50% TC, 25% NPK + 75% TC and control (non-fertilized plant) on the growth, fruit yield, nutritional and lycopene contents of three tomato varieties (Raoma VF; Ogbomoso local and Califonia wonder). The experiment was a split plot fitted into a...

Author(s): Ilupeju, E. A. O, Akanbi, W. B., Olaniyi, J. O., Lawal, B. A., Ojo M. A. and Akintokun, P. O.

August 2015

Physiological and enzymatic changes in rice seeds stored at low temperatures

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of low temperatures on the physiological and enzymatic changes of rice seeds. The seeds were packed in airtight chambers and maintained at temperatures of 8 and -50°C for periods of 15, 30 , 45, 60, 75 and 90 days. The same procedure was adopted for the control treatment with the seeds kept at a temperature of 25°C. The seeds were evaluated regarding germination test;...

Author(s): Raimundo Wagner de Sousa Aguiar, Deyvid Rocha Brito, Magnólia de Mendonca Lopes, Gil Rodrigues dos Santos, Clovis Maurilio Sousa, Ezequiel Marcelino Marcelino da Silva and Julcemar Didonet

August 2015

The mineral composition of five insects as sold for human consumption in Southern Africa

Edible insects have been proposed as an alternative protein source that is economically and environmentally preferable to livestock, and certain species may be high in nutrients that benefit human health. We present data describing the mineral content of five edible insects as sold in South Africa and Zimbabwe. We report high variation between and within species, and note that these insects contain significant...

Author(s): Charlotte L. R. Payne, Mitsutoshi Umemura, Shadreck Dube, Asako Azuma, Chisato Takenaka and Kenichi Nonaka

August 2015

Comparative physico-chemical and proximate analysis of oils of Shea nut, Sesamum indicum, Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis melo seeds commonly cultivated in West Africa

In rural areas of developing countries like Burkina Faso, nutritive elements are mainly composed of vegetable source. Shea nut, seeds of Sesamum indicum, Cucumis melo and Cucurbita pepo, four species widely consumed were studied. The proximate parameters: moisture, proteins and fat were analysed. Saponification value, iodine value, acid value and peroxide value of selected nut and seeds oils and fatty acids were also...

Author(s): Cheik Amadou Tidiane OUATTARA, Marius Kounbèsiounè SOMDA, Rachel MOYEN and Alfred Sabedenedjo TRAORE

August 2015

Comparative study of bioethanol production from sugarcane molasses by using Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

The study was designed to compare the bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using molasses as production medium. The focus was on the retention time at lab scale. Bioethanol and petroleum blend can be used in existing gasoline engines. Present study showed a more cost-effective procedure for production of ethanol from sugar-cane molasses by using bacterial strain "Z....

Author(s): Asif H. Khoja, Ehsan Ali, Kashaf Zafar Abeera A. Ansari, Azra Nawar and Muneeb Qayyum

August 2015

Silica gel matrix immobilized Chlorophyta hydrodictyon africanum for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions: Equilibrium and kinetic studies

Chlorophyta hydrodictyon africanum was immobilized on a silica gel matrix to improve its mechanical properties. The algae-silica gel adsorbent was used for batch sorption studies of a cationic dye, methylene blue (MB). Optimum adsorption was obtained with a dosage of 0.8 g bio sorbent. Results from sorption studies show that 124.11 mg·g-1 of MB could be adsorbed at an optimum pH of 8 and immobilization of 300 mg...

Author(s): Muzarabani Norman, Mupa Mathew, Gwatidzo Luke and Machingauta Cleopas

August 2015

Characterization of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α-amylase

Saliva containing amylase was collected from an individual 5 min after a carbohydrate meal and filtered using a dialysis bag to remove starch particles. The filtered saliva was immobilized on calcium alginate beads. The effect of experimental parameters like pH, temperature and substrate concentration on the activity of the immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α-amylase was determined. The immobilized...

Author(s): Tatah, V.S. and Otitoju, O.

August 2015

Effect of DGAT1 gene mutation in sows of dam-line on the composition of the produced milk and piglet rearing during 21-day lactation

Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene (DGAT1) involved in the synthesis and transport of triglycerides is located on chromosome 4 in pigs, in the region with about 200 QTLs responsible among other things for: fat thickness, daily gains, fat content and composition of fatty acids. It is thus probable that the gene polymorphism (as in cows) may affect the fat content in colostrum and milk of sows. The objective of the...

Author(s): Magdalena Szyndler-Nędza and Katarzyna Piórkowska

July 2015

Sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region III of 400 Iraqi volunteers

The aims of this research were to study mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region III and establish the degree of variation characteristic of a fragment. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a small circular genome located within the mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the cell and a smaller 1.2 kb pair fragment, called the control region (D-loop). DNA was extracted from blood following a standard phenol-chloroform method....

Author(s): Hwazen Amer Shneewer, Nahla Ghazi Al-Loza, Muhanned Abdulhasan Kareem and Imad Hadi Hameed

July 2015

Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of Italian salami made of lamb and enriched with pequi (Caryocar brasiliense, Cambess)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the inclusion of different levels of pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense, Cambess) pulp in the processing of Italian salami made of lamb for the evaluation of their physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. Six formulations of Italian salamis were processed: no pequi pulp (control - treatment 1); 4% pequi pulp (treatment 2); 8% pequi pulp (treatment 3), 12% pequi...

Author(s): Beatriz Severino da Silva, Geovana Rocha Plácido, Suzana Rodrigues de Resende, Bruno De Sousa Carvalho, Wellingthon da Silva Guimarães Júnnyor, Marco Antônio Pereira de Silva and Julliane Carvalho Barros

July 2015

Grain yield and its components study and their association with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) under terminal water deficit and well-irrigated conditions in wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and Triticum aestivum L.)

Six genotype of Triticum aestivum L. in 1991 and one genotype of Triticum durum Desf. and three of T. aestivum L. in 1992 were studied under different water regimes: full irrigation (R1), mild water stress (R3) and severe water stress (R2) at Magneraud (France). Traits evaluated were grain yield and its components, stress susceptibility index (SSI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The analysis of...

Author(s): Mekliche A., Hanifi-Mekliche L., Aïdaoui A., Gate Ph., Bouthier A. and Monneveux Ph.

July 2015

Antimicrobial activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace polyphenols as a source of naturally occurring bioactive components

Grape pomace is a potential source of winery by-products having useful bioactive components. Antimicrobial activities of enzyme-assisted grape pomace polyphenols (GPP) were assessed against Escherichia coli IFO 3301 and Staphylococcus aureus IFO 12732 using plate count and spectrophotometry assays. GPP have shown credential growth inhibition against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. The higher growth inhibition was...

Author(s): Faisal Kabir, Mosammad Shahin Sultana and Heri Kurnianta

July 2015

Functional and catalytic active sites prediction and docking analysis of azoreductase enzyme in Pseudomonas putida with a variety of commercially available azodyes

The initial critical step of reduction of azo bond during the metabolism of azo dyes is catalysed by a group of NADH and FAD dependant enzyme called azoreductases. Although several azoreductases have been identified from microorganisms and partially characterized, very little is known about the structural basis of the substrate specificity and the nature of catalysis. Azoreductase enzyme of Pseudomonas putida has a...

Author(s): Bikash Thakuria, Chandra J Singha, Premchand Maisnam and Samrat Adhikari

July 2015

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria solani

Recently, biosynthesis of nanoparticles has attracted scientist’s attention because of the use of environmentally friendly nanoparticles that do not produce toxic wastes in their process of synthesis. In this study we investigated the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using three fungi: Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria solani. These silver nanoparticles were characterized by means of UV-vis...

Author(s): Amal Abdulaziz Abdullah Al juraifani and Azzah Ali Ghazwani

July 2015

DNA characterization and polymorphism of KISS1 gene in Egyptian small ruminant breeds

Genetic information especially of the Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) which affect different performance traits is considered one of the most effective tools in the breeding programs of livestock. Several genes were reported as candidate genes that effect litter size performance and one of these genes is the KISS1 which is considered as a regulator of puberty onset. The polymorphisms of KISS1 gene have some relationships...

Author(s): Othman E. Othman, Hassan R. Darwish, Ahmed Abou-Eisha, Adel E. El-Din and Mohamed F. Abdel-Samad

July 2015

Genetic analysis of eight x-chromosomal short tandem repeat loci in Iraqi population using the Mentype® Argus X-UL PCR amplification kit

X-Chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) typing can complement existing DNA profiling protocols and can also offer useful information in cases of complex kinship analysis. This is the first population study of 8 X-linked STRs in Iraq. The purpose of this work was to provide a basic data of allele and haplotype frequency for x-linked markers and methods that are commonly used to analyze microsatellites, and the subsequent...

Author(s): Imad Hadi Hameed, Mohammed Abdullah Jebor and Muhanned Abdulhasan Kareem

July 2015

Citrus tristeza virus: An increasing trend in the virus occurrence and distribution in citrus fruits of Northwest, Pakistan

Citrus tristeza clostervirus (CTV) is one of the most damaging fruit viruses playing havoc in citrus orchards around the world. Here, we report, an ELISA-based indexing of citrus trees over a period of eight years (2002 to 2010) in Northwest Pakistan, revealing that the incidence of CTV is increasing mainly with the distribution of infected rootstocks, putting citrus industry at the verge of complete annihilation. The...

Author(s): Muhammad Arif, Waseemullah Khan, Muhammad Ibrahim and Muhammad Fahim

July 2015

Estimation of optimal size of plots for experiments with radiometer in beans

An experimental error can lead to rework and, consequently, to the loss of financial and human resources. One way to reduce this problem is the estimation of the optimum size of experimental plot to carry out the treatments. The objective of this study was to estimate the optimal size of plots for reflectance measurements in beans by the modified maximum curvature method and the maximum distance method. Reflectance...

Author(s): Roger Nabeyama Michels, Marcelo Giovanetti Canteri, Ines Cristina de Batista Fonseca, Marcelo Augusto de Aguiar e Silva and Jose Alexandre de Franca

July 2015

Effect of some phytohormones on growth characteristics of Chlorella sorokiniana IAM-C212 under photoautotrophic conditions

The effects of some phytohormones [indole acetic acid (IAA), indole butyric acid (IBA), gibelleric acid (GA3), and kinetin] on cell dry weight, cell number, cell size, protein and chlorophyll contents of Chlorella sorokiniana IAM-C212 were investigated under photoautotrophic conditions. Treatment with IAA (15 mg/l) and IBA (15 mg/l) resulted in significantly higher dry cell weight and cell number than the control (P...

Author(s): Fabian U. Ozioko, Nneka V. Chiejina and James C. Ogbonna

July 2015

Fatty acid profile and bioactivity from Annona hypoglauca seeds oil

Plants from Annona (Annonaceae) genus are present in tropical regions, where they have economic and medicinal potential. Information on the fatty acids profile and bioactivity from seed oil of Annona species are incipient. The objective of this work was to investigate Annona hypoglauca seeds oil in terms of its yield, composition and biological activity (acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibition, bactericidal and...

Author(s): Ricardo Carvalho dos Santos, Antonio Alves de Melo Filho,, Edvan Alves Chagas, Jacqueline Aparecida Takahashi, Vany Perpetua Ferraz, Ane Karina Porto Costa, Ana Cristina Gonçalves Reis de Melo, Ismael Fernández Montero and Pedro Romulo Estevam Ribeiro

July 2015

Simulated inhibitory effects of typical byproducts of biomass pretreatment process on the viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bioethanol production yield

The abundance of second generation feedstock reinforces the consideration of biofuel over fossil fuel, as bioethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic materials. However, the pretreatment required for oxidation of lignocellulose into hexose often results in the production of inhibitors likely to impede the activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during bioethanol production. This study aimed to investigate the...

Author(s): Elvis Fosso-Kankeu, Sanette Marx and Anton Meyer

July 2015

Assessment of the safety of aqueous extract of Aloe vera on haematology of Wistar rats

Aloe vera is used both traditionally and packaged commercially in many regions of the world for several medicinal and or cosmetic purposes. It is claimed to have rejuvenating, moisturizing, healing or soothing properties on the skin and gastrointestinal tract. This study focused on assessment of the safety of A. vera on blood parameters: packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin concentration,...

Author(s): Bukola Ekanade, Olayinka Ayotunde Oridupa and Matthew Olugbenga Oyeyemi

July 2015

Biological, histological and ultra-structural studies of female mullet, Mugil cephalus, ovaries collected from different habitats during annual reproductive cycle

This study investigates some biological characters (oocyte diameter, fecundity, histological and ultra structural features) of female Mugil cephalus ovaries collected from three different natural habitats: marine (MW), brackish (BW) and fresh (FW) water. Monthly gonadosomatic index (GSI) values clearly showed that the time period of reproductive activity in female M. cephalus from marine and brackish water habitats was...

Author(s): Samira S. Assem, Soliman H. Abdel Rahman, Mohamed Abdel G. Al Absawey and Mona M. Mourad

July 2015

Rhodanese is a possible enzyme marker for cyanide environmental stress on aquatic life

Rhodanese is a cyanide detoxifying enzyme. The role of man through his anthropogenic activities in and around water bodies have increased in recent times. These have led to constant exposure of water body to cyanide and cyanide compounds with increase to loss of many aquatic lives. There are limited methods employed in quick detection of cyanide in water. The aim of this paper was to present rhodanese, an enzyme, as a...

Author(s): Okonji E. Raphael, Komolafe O. Olaniyi, Fagbohunka S. Bamidele and Adeoye O. Akinwunmi

July 2015

Authenticating the origin of different shrimp products on the Tunisian markets by PCR/RFLP method

This study describes a polymerase chain reaction using restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene to identify commercial food products of wide range of Penaeidae and Pandalidae shrimp species commercialised in the Tunisian market. Phylogenetic analyses on 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene were used to study the relationships among the considered species. Penaeidae shrimp...

Author(s): Nadia Besbes, Marc Jérôme, Jean-Pascal Bergé and Saloua Sadok

July 2015

Diversity analysis of the immunoglobulin M heavy chain gene in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus)

A full-length cDNA encoding the immunoglobulin (IgM) heavy chain gene of Nile tilapia was successfully cloned using the 5’ and 3’ RACE techniques. The complete cDNA of the Nile tilapia IgM heavy chain gene is 1,921 bp in length and has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,740 bp, which corresponds to 580 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Nile tilapia IgM heavy chain includes a typical...

Author(s): Chiraporn Phuyindee, Sasimanas Unajak and Prapansak Srisapoome,

July 2015

A valid measure to eliminate the influence of polysaccharides and polyphenols in recalcitrant longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) during DNA isolation

Large amounts of polysaccharides, polyphenols, tannins, proteins, and other secondary metabolites in recalcitrant longan leaves make it difficult to obtain high quality genomic DNA during extraction. To obtain good quality of nucleic acids from local longan leaves and for its downstream applications, a new protocol was developed. It consists of rapid isolation of stable nuclei, which hinders covalent interactions with...

Author(s): Qingzhi Liang†, Deqiang Gong†, Dingqing Wen and Libao Deng

July 2015

Hydroponic technology for lily flowers and bulbs production using rainwater and some common nutrient solutions

This experiment was carried out to investigate the potential of nutrient film technique (NFT) hydroponic system for flowers and bulbs production of the Asiatic hybrid lily cv. "Blackout" using rainwater and some common nutrient solutions (Hoagland No. 2 Basal Salt Mixture, Murashige and Skoog Basal Salt Mixture and White’s Basal Salt) with rock wool cubes as medium with or without removal of flower buds...

Author(s): Hassan M. Asker

July 2015

Chemical and quantitive study of hepatotoxins from fresh water cyanobacteria on vertebrate animals

Toxicity of the freeze-dried micro-aquatic planktonic cyanobacterium Oscillatoria agardhii, dominating and isolated from Makkah –KSA was studied. Microcystins were detected from freeze-dried cells using high pressure liquid chromatography HPLC. The histopathological examination of mice liver injected on week basis with diluted 1/5 of the lethal dose, (105 mg/ Kg body weight), of toxin extract revealed sever...

Author(s): Al-layl, K. and Mutwally, H.

July 2015

Biochemical and kinetic characterization of geranylgeraniol 18-hydroxylase (CYP97C27) from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba

Geranylgeraniol 18-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.13.110) that exists solely in Croton stellatopilosus Ohba catalyses the last committed step of plaunotol biosynthetic pathways by conversion of geranylgeraniol (GGOH) to plaunotol. This enzyme and its gene are an attractive target for development of plaunotol production and its detailed biochemical properties need to be understood.   Recently, even though the gene...

Author(s): Manee Chanama and Suchart Chanama

July 2015

Investigation of parietal polysaccharides from Retama raetam roots

This study characterizes the cell wall hemicellulose and pectins polymers of Retama raetam. This species develops a particularly important root system and is adapted to arid areas. The cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins were extracted. The cellulose remains the major component of the wall (27% for young roots and 80% for  adult roots), hemicelluloses (14.3% for young roots and 3.6%  for adult roots) and...

Author(s): BOKHARI-TAIEB BRAHIMI Hassiba, FAUGERON Céline, HACHEM Kadda, KAID-HARCHE Meriem and GLOAGUEN Vincent

July 2015

Connecting DNA origami structures using the biotin-streptavidin specific binding

This work made use of the strong interaction between biotin and streptavidin to connect designed DNA origami structures. The caDNAno software was used to design a 6 layer 3D origami cross-like structure. Selected DNA strands at the engineered attachment sites on the DNA origami structure were biotinylated. After folding of the origami structures, the biotinylated strands stick out of the attachment sites. Purified...

Author(s): Amoako George, , Ming Zhou Rian Ye, Mensah-Amoah Patrick, Twum Anthony and Sam Frederick

July 2015

Reproductive performance of dairy cows affected by endometritis, pododermatitis and mastitis

The effects of endometritis, pododermatitis and clinical mastitis on the conception rate and calving-conception interval of multiparous and primiparous cows after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) were evaluated. Clinical endometritis was diagnosed by ultrasonography 20-40 days postpartum upon observation of fluid in the uterine lumen. Cows with clinical endometritis were treated intramuscularly with 2 mg/kg...

Author(s): Thaisa Campos Marques, Karen Martins Leão, Moraima Castro Rodrigues, Natalia do Carmo Silva and Rossane Pereira da Silva

July 2015

Molecular cloning and expression of a novel gene related to legume lectin from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

Lectins have been well studied and proved to play important roles in plant defense but information of legume lectins from non-legume plants has been rarely reported. A new legume lectin gene, designated as SmL1, was cloned from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, a famous traditional Chinese medicinal plant. The cDNA of SmL1 was 919 bp in length and contained an 822 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative lectin...

Author(s): Wenping Hua, Limin Han, and Zhezhi Wang

July 2015

Molecular screening for erythromycin resistance genes in Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from Iraqi patients with tonsilo-pharyngites

Streptococcus pyogenes is the leading cause of uncomplicated bacterial pharyngitis and tonsillitis commonly referred to as strep throat. Erythromycin is administered for patients allergy to penicillin. In this study, 125 throat swab samples were collected from children between 2-12 years old with tonsillo-pharyngitis attended to at the AL-Imammain AL-Kadhimain Medical City-Baghdad-Iraq and Pediatric...

Author(s): Hassan N. Ali, Maysaa A. R. Dhahi and Abdul Kareem H. Abd

July 2015

Antifungal, acute toxicity and mutagenicity activity of extracts from Datura stramonium, Jacquinia macrocarpa and Krameria erecta on Fusarium verticillioides

The effect of Baccharis glutinosa, Jacquinia macrocarpa, and Krameria erecta extracts was investigated on the growth and the spore germination of Fusarium verticillioides (ATCC 52539). Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was used to evaluate the potential acute toxicity of the fractions obtained from plant extracts. The butanol fraction of J. macrocarpa totally inhibited the radial growth for 144 h and up to 95% after 168 h....

Author(s): M. P. Frías-Escalante, A. Burgos-Hernández, M. Plascencia-Jatomea, M. L. Aldana-Madrid and M. O. Cortez-Rocha

July 2015

Y-Chromosome short tandem repeat, typing technology, locus information and allele frequency in different population: A review

Chromosome Y microsatellites seem to be ideal markers to delineate differences between human populations. They are transmitted in uniparental and they are very sensitive for genetic drift. This review will highlight the importance of the Y- Chromosome as a tool for tracing human evolution and describes some details of Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. Among them are: microsatellites, amplification using...

Author(s): Muhanned Abdulhasan Kareem, Ameera Omran Hussein and Imad Hadi Hameed

July 2015

In vitro embryo rescue and plant regeneration following self-pollination with irradiated pollen in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

Cassava is a highly heterozygous species; hence, current methods used in classical cassava breeding cannot match the urgent need to high yielding varieties. Recently, progress was made through androgenesis and gynogenesis as pathways for raising doubled cassava haploid lines to overcome problems associated with cassava’s inherent reproductive biology, but these efforts were limited (no candidate cassava plantlets...

Author(s): Mary Buttibwa, Robert S. Kawuki,  Arthur K. Tugume, Jacinta Akol, Stephen Magambo, Hellen Apio, Erwin Heberle-Bors, Maria Wedzony, Hernán Ceballos, Clair Hershey and Yona Baguma

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