African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12258

AJB Articles

Lipid profile and levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids present in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Lam. (Moraceae) seeds and variation in different treatments

April 2015

The intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids especially omega-3 is projected to be way below the recommended intake in Kenya. Thus, there is need to find other sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This study screened for the lipid profile and levels of omega-3 PUFAs in jackfruit and explored the variation in lipid profile of jackfruit seeds in different areas and treatments. The extracted lipids were...

Author(s): Redemtor Awuor Ojwang, Steven, M. Runo, Mwanza Ben and Dorington, O. Ogoyi

High proportion of mosquito vectors in Zika forest, Uganda, feeding on humans has implications for the spread of new arbovirus pathogens

April 2015

There is a steady increase in the contact between humans and wildlife, brought about by encroachment, destruction of natural forests, climatic and environmental changes. Mosquitoes get exposed to hosts and pathogens; creating possibilities for new disease patterns. Therefore, the identification of blood-meal sources is important to determine the linkages between hosts and vectors. Engorged mosquitoes were collected in...

Author(s): Kaddumukasa A. Martha, Kayondo K. Jonathan, Masiga Daniel, Akol M. Anne, Lutwama J. Julius and Masembe Charles

An overview of the role of rumen methanogens in methane emission and its reduction strategies

April 2015

Methane is the most effective global warming greenhouse gas and methanogens are the key microbiota in methane emission. Emerging research focuses on ruminant methanogens due to their emission of methane globally; of which around 20% is from livestock. Enhanced techniques revealed the methangens diversity, adaptation in rumen, methanogenesis and their reduction strategies. Based on diet, geographical location, type of...

Author(s): Satyanagalakshmi Karri, Sridhar Goud Talla and Sirohi S. K.

Production of lignocellulolytic enzymes from three white-rot fungi by solid-state fermentation and mathematical modeling

April 2015

Three species of white rot-fungi (Pleurotus ostreatus, Coriolus versicolor, and Lentinula edodes) were grown on 12 solid media based on several lignocellulosic materials (oak sawdust, coconut husks, coffee husks and corn bran) during 49 days. The media had varied carbon/nitrogen ratios and CuSO4 content. The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of the media formulation on the production of lignocellulolytic...

Author(s): Sandra Montoya, Óscar J. Sánchez and Laura Levin

Allelic frequencies for the seventeen Y-STR loci observed in Iraqi male patients with prostate cancer

April 2015

Prostate cancer is a significant disease in men and a large number of individuals would benefit if risk factors that increase the susceptibility to develop this neoplasia could be established, which could aid in the early detection of the disease that is crucial for successful treatment. The first objective of this study was detection of allelic frequencies of 17 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat loci from Iraqian...

Author(s): Imad Hadi Hameed, Mohammed Abdullah Jebor and Muhanned Abdulhasan Kareem

Morphological and RAPD-marker characterization of Melia volkensii (Gürke) in vitro plants regenerated via direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis

April 2015

Somaclonal variation induced in vitro during tissue culture can be a problem in clonal micropropagation of elite plants. This study investigated the extent of morphological and genetic similarity or dissimilarity between Melia volkensii in vitro plants (somatic seedlings) obtained via somatic embryogenesis and normal seedlings. Comparisons were made between in vitro plants regenerated directly from cotyledon explants,...

Author(s): Eliud Sagwa Mulanda, Yeremia Chuhila, Ryan Musumba Awori, Mark Ochieng Adero, Nelson Onzere Amugune, Elijah Akunda and Jenesio Ikindu Kinyamario

Effect of temperature, salinity, light and time of dehiscence on seed germination and seedling morphology of Calotropis procera from urban habitats

April 2015

Calotropis procera (giant milkweed) is a hardy xerophytic plant, which is distributed globally in many countries and has important economic and ecological functions. The present study aimed at estimating the effect of temperature, salinity and time of fruit dehiscence on the seed germination and seedling morphology of giant milkweed in urban habitats. Seeds were collected early (in June) and late (in December) from...

Author(s): Tarek M. Galal, Emad A. Farahat, Maha M. El-Midany and Loutfy M. Hassan

Influence of various carbohydrates on the in vitro micropropagation of Nauclea diderrichii (De Wild &T. Durand) Merrill, an endangered forest species in Togo

April 2015

The over exploitation of Nauclea diderrichii, for its very resistant wood against the attacks of fungus (Coriolus versicolor), Lyctus, termites (Reticulitermes santonensis) and marine borers, leads to its disappearance in Togo. This forest species produces many fruits containing numerous seeds; unfortunately their seedling is laborious in its biotope. In vitro micropropagation trials were carried out for a faster and...

Author(s): PITEKELABOU Rassimwaï, , AÏDAM Atsou Vincent and KOKOU Kouami

Establishment of an efficient callus induction method from leaf and stem in kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) and citron (Citrus medica L.)

April 2015

Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) is a highly adaptable variety among citrus cultivars in the climate of the region of Panjab, Pakistan and citron (Citrus medica L.) was the first of the citrus fruits known to become visible in the Mediterranean Basin. In Sylhet region of Bangladesh, it is commonly known as Zara lemon. The establishment of in vitro technique for seed germination and callus induction has been...

Author(s): Mohammad Kamruzzaman, Arfa Akther, Md. Omar Faruq, Afroza Pervin, Sanat Myti and Shamsul H. Prodhan

Synthesis and characterization of 2-mercapto-N-methyl imidazole substituted benzimidazole derivatives and investigation of their effect on production of plantlets in Oncidium Gower Ramsey

April 2015

A series of benzimidazole derivatives (5a-c) were synthesized by coupling 5-substituted 2-chloromethyl benzimidazole (3a-c) with 2-mercapto-N-methyl imidazole. The synthesized compounds were characterized by infra-red (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and elemental analyses. Further, the synthesized compounds were tested on plantlet production from protocorm like bodies (PLBs) sections of Oncidium. PLBs sections...

Author(s): Mahesh R,#, Ramya K,#, Ashok Kumar HG,# and Satyanarayana S,

Assessment of acute toxicity profile of Lasianthera africana leaf extract in normal rats and its ameliorative effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

April 2015

The present study evaluated the acute toxicity effect of Lasianthera africana leaf extract on normal rats and effect of the extract on the hepatic and renal function indices in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In the acute toxicity test, male Wister rats received orally four different single dose of the extract and were kept under observation for 14 days. The result indicates that LD50 of the extract is higher than 5,000...

Author(s): U. E. Inyang, P. A. Nwafor and U. N. Asamudo

Electrophoretic analysis of proteins from different date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars in Saudi Arabia

April 2015

Fifteen (15) samples of different date palm cultivars were collected from different locations in Al-Ahsa oasis in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Extracted proteins from these samples were analyzed by electrophoresis, and clustered according to the average linkage between groups hierarchical clustering method. The results reveal high degree of similarity based on Jaccard`s similarity method on the basis of...

Author(s): Al-Issa Adil Mohammad

Influence of breeds genetic composition on the quality of milk from primiparous cows

April 2015

Forty-four crossbred primiparous cows participated in this study, namely: 15 1/2 animals corresponding to 1/2 Holstein (HO) x 1/2 Gyr; 15 3/4 animals corresponding to (3/4 HO x 1/4 Gyr) and 14 7/8 animals corresponding to (7/8 HO x 1/8 Gyr) raised under similar handling and feeding conditions. The sample collection was carried out between January and March 2013. To compare the quality of milk among breeds genetic...

Author(s): Melo, A. F., Silva, M. A. P., Silva, F. R., Carmo, R. M., Neves, R. B. S., Nicolau, E. S. and Lage, M. E.

First detection of bla TEM, SHV and CTX-M among Gram negative bacilli exhibiting extended spectrum β-lactamase phenotype isolated at University Hospital Center, Yalgado Ouedraogo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

April 2015

Resistance to a wide variety of common antimicrobials is observed among clinical strains designed as extended spectrum β-lactmase (ESBL) producers. They produce enzymatic protein which inactivates efficiently oxyimino cephalosporin and constitutes a serious global health concern that has complicated treatment strategies. Many studies report high prevalence of ESBL producers among Gram negative bacilli. The aim of...

Author(s): K. J. Zongo, A. Metuor Dabire, L. G. Compaore, I. Sanou, L. Sangare, J. Simpore and B. Zeba

Detection of Pseudomonas fluorescens from broth, water and infected tissues by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method

April 2015

Loop mediated isothermal amplification is rapid, highly sensitive and specifically developed method for detection of bacterial infections. AprX gene for alkaline metalloprotease of Pseudomonas fluorescens was used to design four primers and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) conditions were standardized for amplification of DNA. LAMP primers successfully amplified P. fluorescens from DNA and bacterial cells...

Author(s): Pooja Saharan, Joginder S. Duhan and Suresh K. Gahlawat

Detection of novel polymorphisms in the mitochondrial DNA D-Loop hypervariable region HVI from 400 healthy unrelated individuals from central and North-central Iraq

April 2015

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a small circular genome located within the mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the cell and a smaller 1.2 kilobase pair fragment, called the control region (D-loop). The aims of this research were to study this region by using the Sanger sequencing technique and establish the degree of variation characteristic of a fragment. FTA® Technology (FTA™ paper DNA extraction) was utilized...

Author(s): Ameera, Omran Hussein, Imad, Hadi Hameed and Muhanned, Abdulhasan Kareem

Oil palm fruit fibre promotes the yield and quality of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer, an edible Nigerian mushroom

April 2015

Agricultural production and the agro-food industry furnish large volumes of solid wastes, which when unutilized could lead to environmental pollution. An attempt was made to utilize wastes from the oil palm and timber industries for the cultivation of Lentinus squarrosulus, a Nigerian edible mushroom. Mahogany sawdust (MSD), Gmelina sawdust (GSD), oil palm fruit fibre (OPFF) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB)...

Author(s): Chiejina, Nneka Virginia and Osibe, Dandy Ahamefula,

Catalase activity of cassava (Manihot esculenta) plant under African cassava mosaic virus infection in Cape coast, Ghana

April 2015

African cassava mosaic virus has caused an immersed low yield of the cassava crop. The virus impacts stress on the cellular metabolism of the plant producing a lot of reactive oxygen species and increases the expression of the antioxidant enzymes. The activity of catalase as a response to oxidative stress was investigated in this research. Cassava leaf extract infected with the African cassava mosaic virus and...

Author(s): Sabastina Amoako, Adams Yahaya and Justice Kwabena Sarfo

Effect of collection time on the viability of banana pollen grains

April 2015

The objective of this study was to assess the pollen viability of six improved diploid banana plants (AA) collected in different periods of the day, in two seasons of the year (winter and summer), using in vitro germination test and staining. Pollen grains collected at 8 am (anthesis), 10 am, 12 pm, 2 pm and 4 pm were evaluated. We used a culture medium for pollen germination containing 15% sucrose, 0.01% H3BO3, 0.01%...

Author(s): Taliane Leila Soares, Everton Hilo de Souza, Laecio Fernandes Souza Sampaio, Maria Angélica Pereira de Carvalho Costa, Sebastião de Oliveira e Silva and Janay Almeida dos Santos-Serejo

Bioprospecting of yeasts for amylase production in solid state fermentation and evaluation of the catalytic properties of enzymatic extracts

April 2015

Profiling microorganisms with potential for amylase production in low cost culture media has been widely recognized due to its broad applicability. The aim of this study was to select yeast strains with potential to produce amylolytic enzymes by solid state fermentation. Fifty-four (54) strains were assessed and three exhibited ability to produce amylases: Candida parapsilosis with 14.68 U/mL (146.8 U/g substrate);...

Author(s): Ana Paula Aguero de Oliveira, Maria Alice Silvestre, Heloíza Ferreira Alves-Prado, André Rodrigues, Marcelo Fossa da Paz, Gustavo Graciano Fonseca and Rodrigo Simões Ribeiro Leite

Antibacterial activity of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seed against selected microorganisms

April 2015

This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of extraction methods on the antibacterial activity of Citrullus lanatus seed extract. C. lanatus (watermelon) is a popular fruit consumed all over the world. Three solvents were used for the extraction process: chloroform, methanol and distilled water while two extraction conditions- cold extraction and Soxhlet extraction (coded as hot in this study) were employed....

Author(s): Adelani-Akande Tabitha Adunola, Ajiba Lilian Chidimma, Dahunsi Samuel Olatunde and Oluyori Abimbola Peter

Chemical characterization of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) seeds

April 2015

The aim of this study was to determine the chemical characteristics of passion fruit seeds and their oil for possible use in human food and reduction of organic waste from fruit industrialization. Passion fruit seeds were analyzed for moisture, lipids, proteins, ash, fibers, titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids and antioxidant activity. The oil was characterized for parameters such as acid value, saponification,...

Author(s): Silva, R. M., Placido, G. R., Silva, M. A. P., Castro, C. F. S., Lima, M. S. and Caliari, M.

Mycosynthesis of iron nanoparticles by Alternaria alternata and its antibacterial activity

April 2015

Nanotechnology is one of the most emerging fields in the recent years. In the current investigation, we report the biosynthesis of iron nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) employing Alternaria alternata fungus, which is an eco-friendly process for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. Fe-NPs were synthesized through the reduction of aqueous Fe3+ ion in the dark conditions. Ultraviolet–visible spectrum of the...

Author(s): Mohamed, Y. M., Azzam, A. M., Amin, B. H. and Safwat, N. A.

Physicochemical parameters and antibiotics residuals in Algerian honey

April 2015

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the quality of 36 samples of different honey type supplied by local producers from Algeria in order to verify its compliance with the standards of Codex Alimentarius and European Union (EU). For that, five physicochemical parameters were analyzed using the HPLC method: hydroxyl-methyl furfural (HMF), sugars, diastase activity and search of antibiotic contamination with...

Author(s): Radia DRAIAIA, Azzedine CHEFROUR, Nicoletta DAINESE, Alice BORIN, Chiara MANZINELLO , Albino GALLINA and Franco MUTINELLI

GC-MS analysis of pesticidal essential oils from four Kenyan plants

April 2015

Essential oils are complex mixtures of odours and steam volatile compounds which are deposited by plants in the subcuticular space of glandular hairs, in excretory cavities and canals or exceptionally in heart wood. Essential oils have been found to have no specific biological functions in plants, but constitute many compounds that are insect repellents or act to alter insect feeding behavior, growth and development,...

Author(s): Gladys Kemunto Onyambu, Rosebellah Maranga, Mary Ndungu, Gerald M. Mkoji,Kareru P. G. and Anthony Wanjoya

A comparison of nrDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) loci for phylogenetic inference and authentication among Cinnamomum osmophloeum and related species in Taiwan

April 2015

Cinnamomum osmophloeum, an indigenous species of Taiwan, can be utilized for valuable products such as a food, a spice and a traditional Chinese medicine. This study compares the ribosomal DNA (nr DNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of C. osmophloeum to that of several other species with similar external morphology, such as Cinnamomum burmannii, Cinnamomum insularimontanum, Cinnamomum macrostemon and...

Author(s): Kuen-Yih HO, Shih-Chieh LEE, Shr-Wei SHIUE and Chung-Chi HWANG

Relative efficiency of RAPD and ISSR markers in assessment of DNA polymorphism and genetic diversity among Pseudomonas strains

April 2015

This study presents the results from comparison of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and RAPD-ISSR markers together in determining the genetic diversity and polymorphism among strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas. In order to compare the efficiencies of these markers, 17 different isolates were investigated using RAPD and ISSR. In RAPD marker analysis, 147 out of 222 bands...

Author(s): Jaipreet Kaur Rayar, Mohammad Arif and Uma Shankar Singh,

Genetic diversity of Przewalski’s gazelle using noninvasive DNA and its implications for conservation

April 2015

The Przewalski’s gazelle (Procapra przewalskii) is endemic to China and the total current population of the species is only about several hundred. In order to understand the genetic structure and diversity of the Przewalski’s gazelle in China for the purpose of guiding conservation initiatives, we examined the genetic variability and differentiation based on microsatellite loci, using noninvasive genetic...

Author(s): Hairui Duo, Li Na, Yanyun Hong,Yuguang Zhang and Diqiang Li

Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin application intervals on Girolando cows’ milk production and composition

April 2015

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) application intervals on chemical composition of milk from Girolando cows with productivity below 20 L/milk/day and animals with productivity above 20.1 liters/milk/day. The study included 30 Girolando cows with production ranging from 13 to 28 L/milk/day. Cows were submitted to two milkings: 06:00 am and 04:00 pm. Milk samples...

Author(s): Thiago S. Carvalho, Marco Antônio P. da Silva, Jakeline F. Cabral, Rafaella B. Brasil, Lígia C. de Moura, Cristiane I. Giovannini and Rodrigo Balduíno S. Neves.

Efficient micropropagation of Epidendrum secundum Jacq. from leaves and protocorms

April 2015

An efficient method for the large-scale propagation of Epidendrum secundum using protocorms and leaves from in vitro germination was established. Explants were inoculated in Woody Plant Medium (WPM) supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (BA) (1.0–40.0 µM) for 60 days and cultured in a growth room in darkness (30 days) or with a 16 h photoperiod. Protocorms were most effective for regenerating protocorm-like...

Author(s): Danielle Lopes Ferreira, Eric de Camargo Smidt and Luciana Lopes Fortes Ribas

In vitro regeneration and induction of multiple shooting in Cicer arietinum L. using cotyledonary nodal explants

April 2015

Chickpea, a temperate crop, is the world’s third most important pulse crop and India produces 75% of world’s supply. The two most common types of Chickpea are the white-seeded "Kabuli" and the "Desi "variety. In vitro regeneration was achieved using cotyledonary nodal explants using desi variety seeds of cultivar K850 of Cicer arietinum. The multiple shoot induction was observed with...

Author(s): Sruthi Prema Sunil, J. Philip Robinson, S. S. KarthickBalan, M. Anandhaprabhakaran and V. Balakrishnan

In-vitro evaluation of plant extracts against Lasiodiplodia theobromae causing cashew inflorescent blight

April 2015

Extracts of four plant species, red acalypha (Acalypha hispida), siam weed (Chromolaena odorata), aidan (Tetrapleura tetraptera), and neem (Azadirachta indica) were screened in-vitro for fungitoxicity against Lasiodiplodia theobromae (cashew inflorescence blight pathogen) at four different concentrations viz., 10, 20, 40 and 80%. The result shows that the plants extracts significantly (P < 0.05) reduced mycelia...

Author(s): Dele Omoyele Adeniyi and Abiodun Joseph

Biosorption of hexavalent chromium (chromium (VI) ion from industrial tannery effluent using filamentous fungi on modified rice husk medium/potato dextrose medium (MRHM/PDM)

April 2015

An experimental effluent analysis was conducted in conjunction with bioremediation process from Mario-jose tannery industry, stream and reference water samples from well (Yandoka), respectively, were collected from the industrial areas. Physiochemical characteristic of these samples were determined viz; chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), pH, temperature etc. The effluent values were mostly...

Author(s): S. D. Emmanuel, I. K. Adamu, A. Ejila, M. I. Ja’afaru, Y. Amos, M. Abubakar and O. Agbor

Phytotoxicity of cadmium on peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities in growing peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

April 2015

A pot experiment treated with cadmium (Cd) was conducted to evaluate the physiological and yield responses of peanut to cadmium in different growth stages. The results indicated that the peanut treated with cadmium level of 12 mg/kg did not cause obvious visible toxic symptoms, while the antioxidant enzymes activities concluding superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) showed significant decrease in...

Author(s): Chun-juan Li, Cai-xia Yan, Yu Liu,Ting-ting Zhang, Shu-bo Wan and Shi-hua Shan

Potential proliferative effect of lipopolysaccharide preconditioning on human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells

April 2015

Endothelial progenitors cells (EPCs) are important for the development of cell therapies for various diseases. However, the major obstacles in developing such therapies are low quantities of EPCs that can be generated from the patient and the lack of adequate non-invasive imaging approach for in vivo monitoring of transplanted cells. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a key mediator in the vascular leak syndromes...

Author(s): Sahar H. Ahmed, Dina Sabry, Olfat Noh and Mai Samir

Genetic diversity of grape germplasm as revealed by microsatellite (SSR) markers

March 2015

In this work, cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to study the genetic diversity and relationships among 49 grape germplasm accessions analyzed with 19 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. In total, 139 polymorphic loci were detected among these accessions with an average of 7.32 polymorphic loci per SSR primer pair. The average values for the effective number of alleles, Nei’s...

Author(s): Lei Wang, Juan Zhang, Linde Liu, Li Zhang, Lijuan Wei and Dechang Hu

Germination and in vitro multiplication of Helianthemum kahiricum, a threatened plant in Tunisia arid areas

March 2015

Seeds of Helianthemum kahiricum have an excellent germination rate extending to about 90% within short time not more than four days after scarification (mechanical treatment) and a good protocol of disinfection. A high frequency of sprouting and shoot differentiation was observed in the primary cultures of nodal explants of H. kahiricum on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) free growth...

Author(s): HAMZA Amina and NEFFATI Mohamed

Characterization of a hemorrhage-inducing component present in Bitis arietans venom

March 2015

Better characterization of individual snake venom toxins is useful for analyzing the association of their toxic domains and relevant antigenic epitopes. Here we analyzed the Bitis arietans hemorrhagic-inducing toxin present in a representative venom sample. Among the 1´ to 5´ protein peaks isolated using a Sephacryl S 100 HR chromatography column, hemorrhagic activity was expressed by all according to the...

Author(s): Tahís Louvain de Souza, Fábio C. Magnoli and Wilmar Dias da Silva

Effects of temperature, light, desiccation and cold storage on germination of Sophora tonkinensis (Leguminosae) seeds

March 2015

Identification of the seed storage behaviour of a target species is essential prior to seed storage so that suitable storage strategies are taken. In the present experiments, germination characteristics, desiccation, and low temperature tolerance of seeds of Sophora tonkinensis was studied; a traditional Chinese medicine on the edge of extinction, were investigated for the first time in attempt to interpret their...

Author(s): X. Pu, Y.F. Huang, C.L. Pan, L. Yao, X.R. Ai and Z. J. Deng,

Effect of water deficit on Argan tree seedlings (Argania spinosa L. Skeels): Morphological and physiological aspect

March 2015

The Argan tree, Argania spinosa L., Skeels, is an endemic species in North-West Africa perfectly adapted to aridity and drought. It is in this context that we studied the physiological impact of water deficit on the Argan tree seedlings for eight weeks at a field capacity of 30%. The obtained results reveal that the stressed seedlings manifested by the strategy of the root elongation from the second week, the roots...

Author(s): MESLEM Halima, DJABEUR Abderezzak, KHAROUBI Omar and KAID-HARCHE Meriem

Effect of artificially-generated wind on removing guttation and dew droplets from rice leaf surface for controlling rice blast disease

March 2015

The incidence and severity of leaf and panicle blasts were efficiently reduced in the wind-treated fields. Artificially-generated wind was performed on rice paddy field in order to measure the changes in temperature and humidity during and after the blowing process and to investigate the effects of sending wind on the formation and removal of guttation and dew droplets on rice leaves. A large electric fan was used to...

Author(s): Yoshihiro Taguchi, Mohsen Mohamed Elsharkawy and Mitsuro Hyakumachi

Genetic variation of 12 rice cultivars grown in Brunei Darussalam and assessment of their tolerance to saline environment

March 2015

Genetic variations of 12 different rice cultivars in Brunei Darussalam were studied using 15 different SSR markers and their salinity tolerance mechanism was also assessed. Eight SSR markers, RM 151, 187, 206, 226, 276, 310, 320 and 334, showed polymorphic alleles while the other seven were monomorphic. A total of 158 alleles were amplified for all these rice cultivars using 15 SSR markers, with an average of 10.53. The...

Author(s): Nurul Kahrani Ishak, Zohrah Sulaiman, Kushan U. Tennakoon

Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of Algerian citrus

March 2015

The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of Algerian citrus. They were extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves of citrus species (orange, Bigaradier, mandarin and lemon), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Their chemical composition and antifungal activity against four phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., albedinis sp, Penicelium sp.,...

Author(s): Hamdani Fatima Zohra, Allem Rachida , Meziane Malika,  Setti Benali, Ali Arous Samir and Bourai Meriem

Chemical composition and anti-diabetic properties of Jatropha curcas leaves extract on alloxan induced diabetic wistar rats

March 2015

This study evaluates the chemical composition and anti-diabetic properties of fresh and shade dried Jatropha curcas aqueous leaves extracts (JCLE) on alloxan induced diabetic female wistar rats. Seven (7) kg of J. curcas leaves were pulverized and aqueous extracts produced. Thirty five (35) mature female rats were grouped into seven of five animals per group according to their body weights. Blood samples were collected...

Author(s): Nwamarah, J. U., Otitoju, O. and Otitoju, G. T. O.

Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts and chromatographic fractions of Adenanthera pavonina Linn (Leguminosae) seeds

March 2015

Most available reports on the biological activity of Adenanthera pavonina (AP) are on the bark or leaves and very few are on the seeds. In particular, there are no reports on the biological effects of the chromatographic fractions of A. pavonina seeds hence the present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the crude extract and chromatographic fractions of A. pavonina seeds. The methanolic extract was...

Author(s): Oluwatofunmilayo A. Adeyemi, Aduragbenro D. Adedapo, Adeolu A. Adedapo and Jones O. Moody

Bioepoxidation of isosafrol catalyzed by radish and turnip peroxidases

March 2015

Peroxidases (PODs) from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and turnip (Brassica napus L.) were extracted and precipitated with ammonium sulfate using a simple, low cost and quick method. The activities of all steps performed by the vegetable PODs were measured via guaiacol assay. The epoxidation of isosafrol, catalyzed by radish (R. sativus L.) and turnip (B. napus L.) peroxidases was conducted in 20% (v/v) aqueous ethanol...

Author(s): Micael Nunes Melo, Lucas Costa Lopes, Cláudio Dariva, Jonathan dos Santos Girardi, Angélica Maria Lucchese, Heiddy Marquez Alvarez and Alini T. Fricks

Extra-pulmonary oxidative stress investigations of an over-the-counter pyrethroid insecticide product in rats

March 2015

Extra-pulmonary oxidative stress investigations of exposure to aerosol, of an over-the-counter pyrethroid insecticide product in Nigeria in Wistar rats were carried out. Four groups of five animals each were used in this study, and were exposed to different concentrations of the insecticide aerosol. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations were determined in the liver, kidney and testes, while...

Author(s): Oluwatobi Temitope Somade, Ayobami Emmanuel Odekunle, Olaide Oluwasaanu and Nkoyo Michael Umanah

Genetic diversity of endangered populations of Butia capitata: Implications for conservation

March 2015

The flora and fauna of the Cerrado biome in central Brazil both show great diversity and high levels of endemism. Butia capitata is a palm native to this biome that has significant economic, social, and environmental value. We sought to identify and quantify the genetic diversity of four fragmented populations of B. capitata growing in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, as well as one located at the Institute of...

Author(s): Helida Mara Magalhaes, Lucas Rezende Pinheiro, Flavia Aparecida Silveira, Mariney de Menezes, Joao Bosco dos Santos, Luciane Vilela Resende and Moacir Pasqual

Modulation of the transcriptional activity of the AP2/ERF family (DREB genes) in orange (Citrus sinensis) leaves subjected to drought stress

March 2015

Ethylene response factor (ERF) play important role in the development and expression of genes that regulate plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, six Citrus sinensis genes belonging to AP2/ERF family, dehydration-responsive element-binding protein (DREB) genes, (CitsERF01 to CitsERF06) were identified and five of them had their expression pattern evaluated in leaves of 18 month-seedling orange...

Author(s): Tania Mayumi Ito, Maria Caroline Rampim, Crislaine Emídio Vieira, Polyana Barros Polido, Glaciela Kaschuk and Silvia Graciele Hülse de Souza

The impact of aeration on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) minituber production under soilless conditions

March 2015

Aeroponic systems are more effective than hydroponics for minituber production, as provided by the optimal system for root oxygenation. The study was conducted to improve conventional hydroponic systems by applying aeration so as to enhance potato minituber production yield via providing adequate oxygen in the root zone. The responses of Agria and Sante cultivars to different levels of aeration [0 as control, 12.5, 25...

Author(s): Saeid Hassanzadeh Mobini, Mohd Razi Ismail and Hossein Arouiee

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