African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12267

AJB Articles

Genetic variation of 12 rice cultivars grown in Brunei Darussalam and assessment of their tolerance to saline environment

March 2015

Genetic variations of 12 different rice cultivars in Brunei Darussalam were studied using 15 different SSR markers and their salinity tolerance mechanism was also assessed. Eight SSR markers, RM 151, 187, 206, 226, 276, 310, 320 and 334, showed polymorphic alleles while the other seven were monomorphic. A total of 158 alleles were amplified for all these rice cultivars using 15 SSR markers, with an average of 10.53. The...

Author(s): Nurul Kahrani Ishak, Zohrah Sulaiman, Kushan U. Tennakoon

Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of Algerian citrus

March 2015

The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of Algerian citrus. They were extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves of citrus species (orange, Bigaradier, mandarin and lemon), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Their chemical composition and antifungal activity against four phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., albedinis sp, Penicelium sp.,...

Author(s): Hamdani Fatima Zohra, Allem Rachida , Meziane Malika,  Setti Benali, Ali Arous Samir and Bourai Meriem

Chemical composition and anti-diabetic properties of Jatropha curcas leaves extract on alloxan induced diabetic wistar rats

March 2015

This study evaluates the chemical composition and anti-diabetic properties of fresh and shade dried Jatropha curcas aqueous leaves extracts (JCLE) on alloxan induced diabetic female wistar rats. Seven (7) kg of J. curcas leaves were pulverized and aqueous extracts produced. Thirty five (35) mature female rats were grouped into seven of five animals per group according to their body weights. Blood samples were collected...

Author(s): Nwamarah, J. U., Otitoju, O. and Otitoju, G. T. O.

Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts and chromatographic fractions of Adenanthera pavonina Linn (Leguminosae) seeds

March 2015

Most available reports on the biological activity of Adenanthera pavonina (AP) are on the bark or leaves and very few are on the seeds. In particular, there are no reports on the biological effects of the chromatographic fractions of A. pavonina seeds hence the present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the crude extract and chromatographic fractions of A. pavonina seeds. The methanolic extract was...

Author(s): Oluwatofunmilayo A. Adeyemi, Aduragbenro D. Adedapo, Adeolu A. Adedapo and Jones O. Moody

Bioepoxidation of isosafrol catalyzed by radish and turnip peroxidases

March 2015

Peroxidases (PODs) from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and turnip (Brassica napus L.) were extracted and precipitated with ammonium sulfate using a simple, low cost and quick method. The activities of all steps performed by the vegetable PODs were measured via guaiacol assay. The epoxidation of isosafrol, catalyzed by radish (R. sativus L.) and turnip (B. napus L.) peroxidases was conducted in 20% (v/v) aqueous ethanol...

Author(s): Micael Nunes Melo, Lucas Costa Lopes, Cláudio Dariva, Jonathan dos Santos Girardi, Angélica Maria Lucchese, Heiddy Marquez Alvarez and Alini T. Fricks

Extra-pulmonary oxidative stress investigations of an over-the-counter pyrethroid insecticide product in rats

March 2015

Extra-pulmonary oxidative stress investigations of exposure to aerosol, of an over-the-counter pyrethroid insecticide product in Nigeria in Wistar rats were carried out. Four groups of five animals each were used in this study, and were exposed to different concentrations of the insecticide aerosol. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations were determined in the liver, kidney and testes, while...

Author(s): Oluwatobi Temitope Somade, Ayobami Emmanuel Odekunle, Olaide Oluwasaanu and Nkoyo Michael Umanah

Genetic diversity of endangered populations of Butia capitata: Implications for conservation

March 2015

The flora and fauna of the Cerrado biome in central Brazil both show great diversity and high levels of endemism. Butia capitata is a palm native to this biome that has significant economic, social, and environmental value. We sought to identify and quantify the genetic diversity of four fragmented populations of B. capitata growing in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, as well as one located at the Institute of...

Author(s): Helida Mara Magalhaes, Lucas Rezende Pinheiro, Flavia Aparecida Silveira, Mariney de Menezes, Joao Bosco dos Santos, Luciane Vilela Resende and Moacir Pasqual

Modulation of the transcriptional activity of the AP2/ERF family (DREB genes) in orange (Citrus sinensis) leaves subjected to drought stress

March 2015

Ethylene response factor (ERF) play important role in the development and expression of genes that regulate plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, six Citrus sinensis genes belonging to AP2/ERF family, dehydration-responsive element-binding protein (DREB) genes, (CitsERF01 to CitsERF06) were identified and five of them had their expression pattern evaluated in leaves of 18 month-seedling orange...

Author(s): Tania Mayumi Ito, Maria Caroline Rampim, Crislaine Emídio Vieira, Polyana Barros Polido, Glaciela Kaschuk and Silvia Graciele Hülse de Souza

The impact of aeration on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) minituber production under soilless conditions

March 2015

Aeroponic systems are more effective than hydroponics for minituber production, as provided by the optimal system for root oxygenation. The study was conducted to improve conventional hydroponic systems by applying aeration so as to enhance potato minituber production yield via providing adequate oxygen in the root zone. The responses of Agria and Sante cultivars to different levels of aeration [0 as control, 12.5, 25...

Author(s): Saeid Hassanzadeh Mobini, Mohd Razi Ismail and Hossein Arouiee

Desiccation tolerance of embryos of Syagrus oleracea, a cerrado native bitter palm heart

March 2015

There is great interest in seedling production of plant species with ornamental and food potential; however, there is great difficulty in propagating this species. A method of fruit drying was proposed with the goal of evaluating the desiccation tolerance of embryos of guariroba palm Syagrus oleracea. Tissue culture was used to test the effect of different fruit drying times (0, 4, 8 and 12 days) on embryo viability and...

Author(s): Aurelio Rubio Neto, Jehane Cristina De Oliveira, Bethania Moraes Silva de Freitas, Leticia Rigonato de Lima, Jessica Leal Freitas e Souza and Juliana De Fatima Sales

Biological treatment of drinking water by chitosan based nanocomposites

March 2015

  Nanotechnology is a promising interdisciplinary area that is likely to have wide ranging implications in all fields of science and technology. The rapid growth in nanotechnology has significant interest in the environmental application of nanomaterials. One of the latent applications of antimicrobial nanomaterials is their use in decentralized or point- of- use water treatment. The present study focuses on...

Author(s): R. Rajendran, M. Abirami, P. Prabhavathi, P. Premasudha, B. Kanimozhi and A. Manikandan

A biocoagulant slow sand filtration for disinfection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from Mezam River in Bamenda, Cameroon

March 2015

An integrated low-tech biocoagulant-sand filter drum for disinfection of oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii targeted for developing countries was evaluated. Dirty and turbid water (130.3 NTU) from Mezam River and leachates from dump sites and stagnant water in Bamenda, Cameroon, was analyzed microscopically after centrifugation for oocyst of T. gondii. Leachates from dump sites and stagnant water in Bamenda city had a very...

Author(s): Kenneth A. Yongabi and Laura Knoll

Isolation and characterization of culturable bacteria from bulk soil samples and the rhizosphere of arid-adapted Tylosema esculentum (Burchell). A. Schreiber (Marama bean) in Namibia

March 2015

Plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria are microorganisms living in association with plants. PGP bacteria have various physiological activities that they perform which are beneficial to plants. For example, phosphate solubilisation, nitrogen fixation, phytostimulation and formation of siderophores. The aim of this investigation was to determine the diversity of PGP bacteria and to characterise them for possible promotion...

Author(s): Olaf S. Kandjimi, Jean-Damascene Uzabakiriho and Percy M. Chimwamurombe

Synthesis of copolymer from lactic acid-polyethylene terephthalate (LA-PET) copolymerization

March 2015

Bio-plastic has been a need of the hour for the past few decades and the usage of lactic acid (LA) in the production of bio plastic opens a new window to the field. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) thermoplastic polyester with excellent tensile and impact strength, chemical resistance, clarity, process ability, and transparency has become a bane to the society. The co polymerization increases the mechanical strength of...

Author(s): Santanu Sasidharan, Thejus Achuthan, Elakkiya Tamilselvan, Sowmiya Raju, and Balakrishnaraja Rengaraju

Effects of submerged and anaerobic fermentations on cassava flour (Lafun)

March 2015

Cassava tubers for processing into cassava flour, Lafun a Nigerian locally fermented product was subjected to two different types of fermentations: submerged and anaerobic fermentation for 72 h. Physicochemical changes that occurred during fermentation and their influence on the functional, rheological and sensory properties of the resulting flour were investigated. There was no significant difference in rate of...

Author(s): Ogunnaike, A. M., Adepoju, P. A., Longe, A. O., Elemo, G. N. and Oke, O. V.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex identification by polymerase chain reaction from positive culture in patients from Jamot and Mbalmayo district hospitals

March 2015

Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious and infectious disease of which the causative agents are mycobacteria. Up to one third of the world’s population is infected by these bacteria. Its control and follow up treatment are achieved by the use of antituberculosis drugs after tests and diagnosis. The last two decades have been marked by the development of new techniques for detection and characterization of Mycobacterium...

Author(s): Serges Tchatchouang, AnneLaure Wetewale Tchokoté, Gaelle Murielle Makafé Guiewi,Larissa Kamgue Sidze, Emmanuel Mouafo Tekwu, Jean-Claude Tedom, Jean-Paul Assam Assam, and Véronique N. Penlap Beng

Novel lipid-based dermal microgels of Neobacin®

March 2015

This study investigates the potential of novel microgles based on solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) as a sustained delivery system for neobacin®, a topical antibiotic drug powder. Matrices generated from sunseed oil and goat fat (1:9, 2:8 and 3:7) was surface-modified with Phospholipon® 90G and employed to formulate SLM-based microgels. The microgels were characterized in terms of in vivo wound healing in rats,...

Author(s): Petra Obioma Nnamani, Esther Uju Dibua, Franklin Chimaobi Kenechukwu, Celestine Chidi Ogbonna, , Chinwe Onyemaechi and Anthony Amaechi Attama

Analysis of mtDNA hypervariable region II for increasing the discrimination power from Middle and South of Iraq

March 2015

Mitochondrial DNA is a useful genetic marker for answering evolutionary questions due to its high copy number, maternal mode of inheritance, and its high rate of evolution. The aims of this research were to study the mitochondria noncoding region by using the sanger sequencing technique and establish the degree of variation characteristic of a fragment FTA® Technology (FTA™ paper DNA extraction) utilized to...

Author(s): Ameera Omran Hussein, Muhanned Abdulhasan Kareem and Imad Hadi Hameed

Allele frequency present within the DYS635, DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, YGATA H4, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS19, DYS391, DYS438, DYS390, DYS439, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a and DYS385b of unrelated individuals in Iraq

March 2015

The Y chromosome is becoming a useful tool for tracing human evolution through male lineages marker. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic structure in Babylon province in Iraq and evaluate the importance of these STRs  loci for forensic genetic applications. FTA® Technology was utilized to extract DNA from blood collected on FTA™ paper. We have analyzed 17 Y chromosomal STR loci (DYS635,...

Author(s): Muhanned Abdulhasan Kareem, Mohammed Abdullah Jebor and Imad Hadi Hameed

Preliminary assessment of insecticidal activity of Moroccan actinobacteria isolates against mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata)

March 2015

Microbial insecticides are considered as the most sustainable and ecologically acceptable means of crop protection. Here we report the ability of some Moroccan actinobacteria isolates to produce larvicidal compounds against the Medfly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.). Thus, actinobacteria isolates were tested for their insecticidal activity through biological and chemical screening. The primary biological screening using the...

Author(s): Salah Eddine Samri, Mohamed Baz, Abdelmounaim Jamjari, Houda Aboussaid, Said El Messoussi, Abdellatif El Meziane and Mustapha Barakate

Antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from conifer needles

March 2015

Fungi, in particular endophytes are a promising source of new antimicrobial compounds. The aim of this study was to screen the extracts of conifer needle fungal endophytes for antimicrobial activity and taxonomically place fungi producing ones to determined active metabolites. Seventy three strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from plant samples, mainly from needles of conifers, and cultured. Extracts of cultured...

Author(s): Matjaž Ravnikar, Matic Terčelj, Damjan Janeš, Borut Štrukelj and Samo Kreft

Pathogenic, cultural, morphological and molecular variability among eight isolates of Alternaria solani, causing early blight of tomato

March 2015

Among the fungal diseases infecting tomato crops, early blight caused by Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) Jones and Grout is one of the most catastrophic disease causing accountable losses. Further, all of the tomato cultivars presently under cultivation have succumb more or less to early blight disease. Therefore, the present studies were undertaken for the pathogenic, cultural, morphological and molecular...

Author(s): P. S. Nikam, A. P. Suryawanshi and A. A. Chavan

Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) detection of arsenic and cadmium in himematsutake mushroom

March 2015

The distribution of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in himematsutake was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). The atomic percentage of the metals was confirmed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Results show that the accumulation of As in pileus was higher than that in stipe by both SEM-EDX and ICP-MS analyses. The Cd level in pileus was higher...

Author(s): Chun-Yen Liu, Chao-Jen Wang, Wen-Chuan Chung, Chien Chu, Wan-Yu Lin and Wen-Hsin Chung

Status and implementation of reproductive technologies in goats in emerging countries

March 2015

In modern cattle breeding, assisted reproductive technologies in small ruminants have been used even out-of-season breeding, but in emerging countries these technologies have been mainly used for estrous synchronization and artificial insemination. However, in the last 30 years, significant progress in the matter of transfers of in vivo derived and in vitro produced embryos has been achieved. Currently, eight donor...

Author(s): Aime J. Garza Arredondo, Adan González Gómez, José Fernando Vázquez-Armijo, Rogelio Alejandro Ledezma-Torres, Hugo Bernal-Barragán and Fernando Sánchez-Dávila

The nutritional efficiency of Coffea spp. A review

March 2015

Reduced soil fertility has been surpassed by the supply of mineral nutrients, which results in increased rates of plant production and costs. In this context, the optimization of plants’ nutritional efficiency is critical to increase productivity and reduce the cost of agricultural production systems. The nutritional efficiency of plants is conditioned by numerous factors and the growing environment. Therefore,...

Author(s): Lima Deleon Martins, Lindomar de Souza Machado, Marcelo Antonio Tomaz and José Francisco Teixeira do Amaral

Recent characterization of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) in Bahia State, Brazil, suggests potential regional isolation

March 2015

Woodiness disease is the most important disorder of passion fruit worldwide. The causal agent in Brazil is the Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), and despite the economic relevance of passion fruit for agriculture there have been recently very few studies about this virus in Brazil and worldwide. This work reveals the phylogenetic relationships of 10 newly identified CABMV isolates from Bahia State, the region...

Author(s): José Romário Fernandes de Melo, Antonia dos Reis Figueira, Charles Neris Moreira, and Antonio Carlos de Oliveira

Validation of a reference gene for transcript analysis in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its application in analysis of linamarase and α-hydroxynitrile lyase expression at different growth stages

March 2015

Relative real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a well-established method for the precise quantification of gene expression. For accurate relative real-time RT-qPCR analysis, validation of the expression of an appropriate reference gene is required. In this study, the expression of six commonly used reference genes, namely 40S ribosomal protein (40S), actin (ACT), cyclophilin...

Author(s): Sukhuman Whankaew, Supajit Sraphet, Ratchadaporn Thaikert, Opas Boonseng, Duncan R. Smith and Kanokporn Triwitayakorn

Detection of MspI polymorphism and the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of GH gene in camel breeds reared in Egypt

March 2015

Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic hormone synthesized and secreted by the somatotroph cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in a circadian and pulsatile manner, the pattern of which plays an important role in postnatal longitudinal growth and development, tissue growth, lactation, reproduction as well as protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The aim of this study was to detect the genetic polymorphism...

Author(s): Sekena H. Abd El-Aziem, Heba A.M. Abd El-Kader, Sally S. Alam and Othman E. Othman

Characterization of cathelicidin gene from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

March 2015

Wide spread and indiscriminate use of antibiotics is accompanied by the emergence of microorganism that are resistant to these agents. Therefore, new approaches are required to address the problem of antimicrobial resistance. Epithelial linings of living organisms are the source of various antimicrobial peptides. Keeping this in view, the present experiment was designed to characterize one of the important natural...

Author(s): Dhruba Jyoti Kalita

Bacterial mediated amelioration of drought stress in drought tolerant and susceptible cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

March 2015

In the present study, plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains Pseudomonas fluorescence strain P2, Pseudomonas jessenii R62, Pseudomonas synxantha R81, Bacillus cereus BSB 38 (14B), Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus strainYB3 and strain YB5 were tested for their role in enhancing plant growth and induction of stress related enzymes in Sahbhagi (drought tolerance) and IR-64 (drought sensitive) cultivars of rice...

Author(s): Yogendra Singh Gusain, U. S. Singh and A. K. Sharma

The efficacy of four gametocides for induction of pollen sterility in Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter

March 2015

Effective chemical hybridizing agents (CHAs) or male gametocides enhance cross pollination in plant breeding and genetic analysis of traits. The present study examined the efficacy and optimum concentration of four CHAs, namely: 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid (Ethrel), ethyl 4'-fluorooxanilate (E4FO), 2, 4-dichlorphenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) and Promalin® (1.8% GA47 – gibberellins A4+A7 and 1.8%...

Author(s): Habteab Ghebrehiwot, Richard Burgdorf, Shimelis Hussein and Mark Laing,

Genetic diversity of sweet yam “Dioscorea dumetorum “(Kunth) Pax revealed by morphological traits in two agro-ecological zones of Cameroon

March 2015

Genetic diversity of 43 Dioscorea dumetorum accessions and two of Dioscorea cayenensis Lam as out-group species was evaluated for qualitative and quantitative traits in two different agro-climatic zones Baham (05°20.040' N/010°22.572’ E and 1634±3 masl, agro-ecological zone III with rainfall of 1500 to 2000 mm, and mean annual temperature of 19°C) and Ekona...

Author(s): Christian Siadjeu, Gabriel MahbouSomoToukam, Joseph Martin Bell and S. Nkwate

Isolation and characterization of some drought-related ESTs from barley

March 2015

Drought is one of the main constraints facing crops and affecting their production. In a trial to investigate and understand drought effect, differential display experiments were performed where; about 107 DD-fragments have been isolated from wild barley plants subjected to drought treatment. These fragments were categorized according to their gene expression into four categories: 1) up regulated genes; 2) up and down...

Author(s): Alzahraa Radwan, Rania M. I. Abou Ali, Ahmed Nada, Wardaa Hashem, Shireen Assem and Ebtissam Husein

Metabolic and biofungicidal properties of maize rhizobacteria for growth promotion and plant disease resistance

March 2015

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to influence plant growing both by direct and/or indirect mechanisms. This study aimed to establish PGPR profile of 15 bacteria isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) rhizosphere in Benin. These rhizobacteria were screened in vitro for the  plant growth promoting traits like production of indole acetic acid (IAA), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), catalase,...

Author(s): Pacôme A. Noumavo, Nadège A. Agbodjato, Emma W. Gachomo, Hafiz A. Salami, Farid Baba-Moussa, Adolphe Adjanohoun, Simeon O. Kotchoni, and Lamine Baba-Moussa

High-level lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 under solid state fermentation (SSF) using waste from Siagrus coronata (Martius) Becari

March 2015

The current study evaluated lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 through solid state fermentation (SSF) by using almond bran licuri as a new substrate. The microorganism produced high levels of the enzyme (395.105 U gds-1), thus surpassing those previously reported in the literature. The variable moisture content, the inductor concentration, temperature and pH were analyzed. The best production conditions...

Author(s): Cyndy Mary Farias, Odacy Camilo de Souza, Minelli Albuquerque Sousa, Roberta Cruz, Oliane Maria Correia Magalhães, Érika Valente de Medeiros, Keila Aparecida Moreira and Cristina Maria de Souza-Motta

Effects of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) component upon Aedes aegypti Lin. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae’s midgut

March 2015

The cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) has been associated with a number of biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal potential caused by CNSL from Anacardium occidentalle L. (Anacardiaceae) upon Aedes aegypti and verify histomorphological alterations in the larval midgut. The experiments were carried out using third instar A. aegypti larvae, exposed to CNSL at different concentrations....

Author(s): Doroty  Mesquita Dourado, Ana Carolina Rosa, Karla Rejane de Andrade Porto, Antonia Railda Roel, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Silvio Favero, Jislaine Guilhermino, Rosemary Matias

In vitro dilutions of thioridaxine with potential to enhance antibiotic sensitivity in a multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus uropathogen

March 2015

This research effort seeks to use doses of thioridaxine to enhance antibiotic sensitivity in a multidrug resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus strain. Five axenic (pure) strains of S. aureus coded SA1 to SA5 were obtained from five infected midstream urine samples, inoculated on sterile cystine lactose electrolyte deficient (CLED) agar and stocked on sterile nutrient agar slants at 4°C in a refrigerator. Bacteria...

Author(s): Otajevwo, F. D.

Properties of Brazil nuts: A review

February 2015

  Brazil nut is a seed with high nutritional value and of great economic importance to the Northern region of Brazil. In addition to enabling direct consumption, its nutritional potential enables the development of various products. Among its nutrients, emphasis is given to the amino acid-rich proteins, lipid content and selenium, which exhibits antioxidant properties. This review addresses the nutritional...

Author(s): Ariane Mendonça KLUCZKOVSKI, Maristela MARTINS, Silmara Miranda MUNDIM, Renata Hanan SIMÕES, Karine Silveira NASCIMENTO, Helyde Albuquerque MARINHO and Augusto KLUCZKOVSKI JUNIOR

Rapid analysis for the identification of the seagrass Halophila ovalis (Hydrocharitaceae)

February 2015

  Seagrasses are considered as one of the most important species as they play key ecological roles in various types of ecosystems and also provide a food source for endangered animal species. There are two main characteristics of seagrasses that hinder efforts to correctly identify species based on conventional identification keys alone: i) the variability of morphological characteristics and ii) lack of needed...

Author(s):   Maslin Osathanunkul, Chatmongkon Suwannapoom, Sahachat Singtonat, Nipaporn Poomipoo, Arunothai Jampeetong and Panagiotis Madesis

Optimization of explants surface sterilization condition for field grown peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch. Cv. Garnem) intended for in vitro culture

February 2015

  The aim of this work was to sterilize nodal explants, so as to mitigate microbial contamination in peach micropropagation. The nodal explants were treated with three concentrations levels (0.15, 0.25 and 0.5% (w/v) active ingredient of chlorine) of locally produced bleach, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for varying exposure times (10, 15 and 20 min). These treatments were carried out in randomized complete...

Author(s):   Wegayehu Felek, Firew Mekibib and Belayneh Admassu

Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spent and fresh cutting fluids contaminated soils by Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries). Quelet and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) Fr. P. Kumm

February 2015

The potential of Pleurotus pulmonarius and Pleurotus ostreatus on the degradation of PAHs in spent and fresh cutting fluids (SCF and FCF) contaminated soils was investigated. Different weights of soil samples were contaminated with varying composition (10, 20 or 30%) of spent and fresh cutting fluids separately then inoculated each sample with P. pulmonarius and P. ostreatus separately and incubated at 28 ±...

Author(s): Adenipekun, C. O., Ipeaiyeda, A. R., Olayonwa, A. J. and Egbewale, S. O.

Production and antagonistic effect of Trichoderma spp. on pathogenic microorganisms (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporium, Macrophomina phasealina and Rhizoctonia solani)

February 2015

  Trichoderma spp. are widely used as bio-fungicides in agriculture. Induction of plant defense and mycoparasitism (killing of one fungus by another) are considered to be the most important mechanisms of Trichoderma-mediated biological control. This study is based on the optimized production of Trichoderma viride. The media used for the economical production of T. viride conidia contain 5% jaggery and 0.5%...

Author(s):   Sridhar Goud Talla, A. S. R. Raju, Satyanagalakshmi Karri and Y. Suman Kumar

Nutritional composition, phytochemicals and microbiological quality of the legume, Mucuna pruriens

February 2015

The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and phytochemical compositions and microbiological quality of seeds of the legume Mucuna pruriens (MP) grown in northeastern Brazil. MP flour and extract were produced and evaluated for proximate, mineral, and phytochemical compositions, fatty acid profile, and microbiological quality. MP flour and seed extract showed 43.12 and 43.4% of protein, 7 and 7.6% lipid...

Author(s): Renata Leite Tavares, Alexandre Sérgio Silva, Ana Regina Nascimento Campos, Alexandre Ricardo Pereira Schuler and Jailane de Souza Aquino

Nutritional, antinutritional and phytochemical status of okra leaves (Abelmoschus esculentus) subjected to different processes

February 2015

The aim of this study was to analyze the nutritional quality and antinutritional factors of okra leaves subjected to different process. Proximate composition, calcium, magnesium, potassium were determined, as well as lectin, tannin, saponin and total phenolic compounds. The okra leaves showed a predominance of carbohydrates, fibers and proteins that were not significantly affected by process, being also considered...

Author(s):   Maria Emilia Evaristo Caluête, Luciana Maria Pereira de Souza, Elba dos Santos Ferreira, Amanda Pereira de França, Carlos Alberto de Almeida Gadelha, Jailane de Souza Aquino and Tatiane Santi-Gadelha

Effects of ethanolic extract of garlic, roselle and ginger on quality attributes of chicken patties

February 2015

  Efficiency of ethanolic extracts of garlic, ginger and roselle on quality attributes of chicken patties was investigated. Sensorial qualities were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. Lipid oxidation was assessed by monitoring malondialdehyde formation with 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) assay. Total plate count (log10CFU/g) and Warmed Over Flavour (WOF) were determined on days 0, 7 and 14 of refrigerated...

Author(s):   Omojola Andrew Babatunde and Adediran Opeyemi Adewumi

Effect of methotrexate combined with ginger, silymarin or propolis on the mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), caspase 3 (CASP-3) and interlukin 6 (IL-6)

February 2015

  The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of three natural antioxidants on the adverse effect of methotrexate (MTX) in normal liver cells. TaqMan RT-PCR technology was used to estimate the mRNA expression levels for three genes after rats injection with a single dose of 20 mg/kg b.w MTX or the same MTX dose combined with ginger, silymarin or propolis oral administration. The doses of ginger,...

Author(s):   Amal A. M. Hassan, Manal F. Ismail and Hanaa M. Mohamed

Characterisation of botanical starches as potential substitutes of agar in tissue culture media

February 2015

  Seven botanical starches; cassava, sweet potato, Irish potato, maize, rice, wheat and sorghum were characterized to determine physicochemical properties influencing gel formation for preparation of tissue culture media. Total starch, protein, fat, amylose content, swelling power and pH were determined using acid hydrolysis, enzymic and spectrophotmetric methods. Each type of starch was tested for ability to...

Author(s):   Richard  Madege, Emarold  Mneney, Robert  Misangu and Amon  Maerere

Polymorphism of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor gene (rs1042044) is associated with bone mineral density in Chinese Han postmenopausal women

February 2015

  Previous investigations indicated that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) played important roles in bone turnover via GLP-1 receptors (GLP1Rs) in postmenopausal state. Furthermore, polymorphisms in GLP1R gene were suggested to affect the function of GLP1Rs and be associated with many diseases. However, the relationships between GLP1R polymorphisms and osteoporosis susceptibility and bone strength remain...

Author(s):   Suo-Chao Fu, Wen-Mang Xu, Ying Zhang, Zeng-Hui Wu, Hong Xia, Gong-Hao He and Qing-Shui Yin

X-Chromosome short tandem repeat, advantages and typing technology review

February 2015

  Microsatellites of the X-chromosome have been increasingly studied in recent years as a useful tool in forensic analysis. This review describes some details of X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. Among them are: microsatellites, amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of STRs, PCR product evaluation, PCR product purification, separation and detection, data analysis of STR by Identity...

Author(s):   Imad Hadi Hameed, Muhanned Abdulhasan Kareem and Rafid H.H

Bayoud disease of date palm in Algeria: History, epidemiology and integrated disease management

February 2015

  The bayoud is transmitted by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, which causes drying and rapid die back. To date, the disease has destroyed more than 12 million date palms in Morocco, or two-thirds of the producers of the best dates trees in this country, and three million of palm trees in Algeria with the threat of the spread of this disease to oasis southeast of Algeria. The research on this...

Author(s):   Ibrahim Elkhalil Benzohra, Mohamed Megateli and Rafik Berdja

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