African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12269

AJB Articles

Antenna elicitation and behavioral responses of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, to allyl cinnamate

December 2014

Female sex pheromones have been used in pest control since the 90s; attracting males to baited traps (mass-trapping and monitoring) or avoiding (or reducing) mating in fields under mating disruption. By contrast, little is done among the use of male sex pheromones in pest control. Allyl cinnamate was evaluated as potential oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta, Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) behaviour modifier,...

Author(s): M. Giner, M. Balcells and J. Avilla,

Phytochemical, proximate and anti-nutrient compositions of four leafy vegetables used in South Eastern Nigeria

December 2014

Chemical constituents of plants are influenced by environmental factors and fluctuations just as many other polygenic traits. Four different green leafy vegetables commonly used in the diets of South Eastern Nigeria were analyzed with a view to determine the phytochemicals, proximate and anti-nutrient compositions of these ecotypes. The vegetables, of which three are spices, are scent leaf (Ocimum gratissimum L.),...

Author(s): Abu Ngozi E., Ozoagudike Chinenye M. and Akaneme Florence I.

Physicochemical, organoleptic and nutritional characteristics of four sweet cassava (Manihot opi) varieties

December 2014

There exist a wide variety of tropical tubercles in Martinique French West Indies (F.W.I.). This study was carried out in order to investigate the development of local varieties of sweet cassava (Manihot opi). The purpose of this research was to enhance knowledge of the nutritional and agricultural characteristics of these tubers. The first step in the research project was to carry out a survey and screening of selected...

Author(s): E. Njoh Ellong, C. Billard and S. Adenet

Seed pre-treatment methods for improving germination of Acacia tortilis

December 2014

Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne is considered as an important dryland tree species in Africa and Middle East, and establishing an effective and efficient seed-germination method is considered necessary for producing planting materials. In this study, new germination method was compared with some of the previously reported methods and evaluated in A. tortilis. In the new method, root setting was observed within 3 days and...

Author(s): So Hanaoka, Norio Nakawa, Norihisa Okubo, Stephen Fredrick Omondi and Jason Kariuki

Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on soybean treated with resistance inducers

December 2014

Plant resistance levels can be boosted to enable better pest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate resistance interaction between four soybean genotypes and three inducers resistant to integrated management of Chrysodeixis includens. The assays were performed in the entomology laboratory. The soybean genotypes were seeded and plants were treated with calcium and magnesium silicate on soil and...

Author(s): Paulo Vinicius de Souza, Bruna Ribeiro Machado, Marcelo Mueller de Freitas, Fernanda Correa, André Cirilo de Sousa Almeida and Flávio Gonçalves de Jesus

Novel carrier system for enhancing oral delivery of metformin

December 2014

This study was designed to evaluate the potential of PEGylated lipospheres as carriers for improved oral delivery of metformin hydrochloride. Lipospheres were prepared by melt-emulsification method using Phospholipon® 90H in beeswax (30%w/w) as the lipid matrix containing increasing quantities of PEG 4000 and characterized. The in vitro and in vivo release of the formulations was evaluated. Results show that the...

Author(s): Adedokun, M. O., Momoh, M. A., Kenechukwu, F. C., Umeh, O. N. C., Okpalanedu, C. M. J. and Ofokansi, K. C.

Differential responses of growth, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation and accumulation of compatible solutes to salt stress in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars

December 2014

The present study was aimed to compare differential responses of growth, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation and accumulation of compatible solutes in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars: Fleur 11 (salt-tolerant), Mbiah and PC 79-79 (moderately-tolerant) and Vanda (salt-sensitive) at the vegetative growth stage, under greenhouse conditions, in the presence of 0, 50, 100 or 200 mM NaCl. The root dry weight (RDW)...

Author(s): Meguekam Liliane Tekam, Taffouo Victor Désiré, Grigore Marius-Nicusor, Zamfirache Magdalena Maria, Youmbi Emmanuel and Amougou Akoa

Antidiabetic activity and acute toxicity evaluation of aqueous leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina

December 2014

The present study was aimed to explore the therapeutic dose for antidiabetic activity and toxicological evaluation of Vernonia amygdalina (Va) aqueous extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Aqueous extract of leaves of Va was administered to alloxan induced diabetic rats in a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg (orally) daily for 14 days. After this period, blood glucose level, haematological parameters and liver enzymes...

Author(s): M. A. Momoh, M. O. Adedokun, A. T.  Mora and A. A. Agboke

Effects of lycopene on hydroponic growth and productivity of Amaranthus hybridus L. under aluminium toxicity induced stress

December 2014

Aluminium (Al) toxicity is an important stress factor for plants in acidic environments. Currently, there exists a dearth of research information on sustainable approaches that can mitigate the problem of Al toxicity in sub Saharan Africa. It is often assumed that since plants have the ability to synthesize their native antioxidants, they may not need supplementation to cope with stresses. To challenge this assumption,...

Author(s): Udengwu Obi Sergius and Egedigwe Uchenna Oliver

Response of stay-green quantitative trait locus (QTL) introgression sorghum lines to post-anthesis drought stress

December 2014

An experiment was carried out to evaluate the response of sorghum stay-green quantitative trait locus (QTL) introgression lines under induced post-flowering drought stress. The QTL introgression was done in 2006 to 2008 from known stay-green lines to the locally adapted varieties through marker assisted backcrossing. The field experiment was carried out in 2009/2010 and involved two irrigation levels and 14 genotypes...

Author(s): Asfaw Adugna and Alemu Tirfessa

Synergistic action of Azospirillum brasilense combined with thiamethoxam on the physiological quality of maize seedlings

December 2014

Plant growth promoting substances, either from biological or chemical origin, are widely used in modern agriculture. In this context, this study evaluated the physiological quality of maize seed treated with thiamethoxam and inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense. Initially, we tested bacterial growth on medium with increasing concentrations of thiamethoxam. We also evaluated the physiological quality of seeds through...

Author(s): Andre Gustavo Battistus, Tiago Luan Hachmann, Thaísa Muriel Mioranza, Mônica Anghinoni Müller, Tiago Madalosso, Patricia Aparecida Favorito, Vandeir Francisco Guimarães, Jeferson Klein, Débora Kestring, Adriano Mitio Inagaki and Lucas Guilherme Bulegon

Optimization of in vitro regeneration and microcorm induction in elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius)

December 2014

Elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius) is a vegetatively propagated stem tuber crop. In this investigation we describe a highly competent and reproducible in vitro propagation of the plant from corm bud, petiole and young leaf explants. Friable callus was initiated from all the explants on modified MS medium (half the concentration of NH4NO3 and KNO3) supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 each of benzyl amino purine...

Author(s): S. Kamala and T. Makeshkumar

Antioxidant activity, phenols and flavonoids contents and antibacterial activity of some Moroccan medicinal plants against tomato bacterial canker agent

December 2014

Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP) belonging to 16 species, currently used in southern Moroccan traditional medicine, were evaluated here, firstly, for the action of their aqueous extracts against the bacterial canker agent of tomato in vitro. Then the phenolic contents, flavonoids contents and antioxidant capacities of these MAP extracts were estimated. Results obtained show that tested species exhibited biological...

Author(s): Amkraz, N., Talibi, I., Boubaker, H., Msanda, F., Saadi, B., Boudyach, E. H. and Ait Benaoumar, A.

Biological active compounds from actinomycetes isolated from soil of Langkawi Island, Malaysia

December 2014

Actinomycetes which were categorised as beneficial microorganisms have long been studied for their potential in producing secondary metabolites either for pharmaceutical or agricultural industries. In this study, 160 isolates of actinomycetes had been isolated using soil suspension method. All the 160 isolates were later tested for their potential to secrete secondary metabolites such as cellulases, mannanases,...

Author(s): Jeffrey Lim Seng Heng and Halizah Hamzah

Production and evaluation of instant emulsion base (“ncha”) from oil palm biogenic waste

December 2014

Instant emulsion base (“ncha”) was produced from oil palm biogenic waste by extraction, concentration and encapsulation. Traditional products which were prepared and commercial product served as controls. The formulated instant product and the controls were analyzed for compositions, selected physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties. Instant formulated product (IP) showed significantly...

Author(s): Eunice Uzodinma, O., Jane Onweluzo, C. and Sarah Abugu, N.

Minituber production potential of selected Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes in different propagation media

November 2014

Potato farmers in Malawi and other developing countries lack healthy and quality potato seed. This is mainly due to limited seed multiplication programmes to provide farmers with clean potato seed. A study to evaluate minituber production potential for selected genotypes in different media types would assist in planning for future selection of good high yielding varieties. It will also assist in planning for rapid seed...

Author(s): Sibongile C. Zimba, Joyce P. Njoloma, Jacinta A. Nyaika, Weston F. Mwase, Moses F. Maliro, James M. Bokosi and Moses B. Kwapata

In vitro propagation of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. BRAUN)

November 2014

Brassica carinata (A. Braun) is an amphi-diploid species that originated from interspecific hybridization between Brassica nigra and Brassica oleracea in the highlands of Ethiopia. The crop has many desirable agronomic traits but with oil quality constraints like high erucic acid and glucosinolate contents. In this study, two genotypes and two types of explants were tested for callus induction, shoot and root...

Author(s): Getachew Tafere Abrha, Firew Mekbib and Belayneh Admassu

Isolation and partial characterization of the active metabolite of ascidian, Polyclinum madrasensis from the Palk Bay Region, Southeast coast of India

November 2014

Ascidians are rich source of bioactive agents which could be used for novel antimicrobial drugs. The present investigation inspects the antibacterial potential of ascidian, Polyclinum madrasensis collected from Mandapam, the Palk Bay region, Southeast coast of India. The crude extracts were tested for inhibition of bacterial growth against human pathogens.  Antibacterial assay was carried out by agar well diffusion...

Author(s): Kathirvel Iyappan and Gnanakkan Ananthan

Addressing the issue of horizontal gene transfer from a diet containing genetically modified components into rat tissues

November 2014

Genetically modified (GM) food crops are considered to have the potential of providing food security especially in developing countries. Scientists have raised concern over the hazards associated with the consumption of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). One of these hazards, which have great controversy reports, is the possible horizontal gene transfer from GM-food or feed to human or animal tissues. Many...

Author(s): Hanaa A. S. Oraby, Mahrousa M. H. Kandil, Amal A. M. Hassan and Hayam A. Al-Sharawi

Screening of Abelmoschus esculentus and Abelmoschus callei cultivars for resistance against okra leaf curl and okra mosaic viral diseases, under field conditions in South Eastern Nigeria

November 2014

Of all the several factors that limit okra production in West Africa, okra mosaic virus disease (OMVD) and okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) are rank among the most severe. Twenty three (23) Abelmoschus esculentus and Abelmoschus callei cultivars retrieved from the local farmers were screened in the open field for the resistance against OMVD and OLCD over two cropping seasons in Nsukka, South Eastern Nigeria. The degree of...

Author(s): Udengwu Obi Sergius and Dibua Uju Esther

Optimization of extracellular polysaccharide production in Halobacillus trueperi AJSK using response surface methodology

November 2014

The present study was conducted to optimize the media composition through response surface methodology (RSM) for extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production in Halobacillus trueperi AJSK strain isolated from the salt pan. Halobacillus trueperi was identified with morphological, biochemical characteristics as well as 16S rRNA gene sequencing method. Production medium was optimized through central composite design. In...

Author(s): Jeganathan Arun, Ramamoorthy Sathishkumar and Thillaichidambaram Muneeswaran

Characterisation and evaluation of the efficiency of petroleum degrading bacteria isolated from soils around the oil exploration areas in western Uganda

November 2014

Contamination with petroleum and its products is an environmental threat in oil producing countries. Microbes have been used to clean up petroleum contaminated environments, which has been demonstrated to be an appropriate and more practical alternative compared to the mechanical and chemical techniques. In this study, crude oil degrading indigenous bacteria were isolated from soils around the oil exploration sites in...

Author(s): Andrew Wedulo, David Kalenzi Atuhaire, Sylvester Ochwo, Vincent Muwanika, Abel John Julian Rwendeire and Jesca Lukanga Nakavuma

Seed salt-soluble protein expression as marker of local Medicago ciliaris populations adapted to highly salted region from Algeria (Oran Great Sebkha)

November 2014

The present study estimated the diversity of seed storage salt-soluble proteins of Algerian populations of Medicago ciliaris species, for understanding biochemical and molecular features involved in response during plant stress adaptation. Eleven patterns of M. ciliaris populations with two moderate sensitive ecotypes to NaCl, two reference genotypes and seven prospecting populations near and far from a strongly salted...

Author(s): Moulaï Djilali, and Fyad-lamech Fatima Zohra

Effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on controlling shoot necrosis during micropropagation of primocane-fruiting raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars

November 2014

In vitro shoot necrosis is a quite widespread disorder affecting raspberry micropropagation. This study was conducted to investigate effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on shoot necrosis and dieback of raspberry shoots during micropropagation. Nodal segments of primocane-fruiting raspberry cultivars ‘Allgold’, ‘Erika’, and ‘Polka’ when cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS)...

Author(s): Fridia Amalia, Samir C. Debnath and Young Rog Yeoung

The influence of soil properties on the development of Cephalcia tannourinensis Chevin (Hym. Pamphiliidae) infesting the cedar forests in Lebanon

November 2014

The cedar web-spinning sawfly, Cephalcia tannourinensis (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae) is considered a major defoliator of the cedar forests in Lebanon. In the early 1990’s, a severe damage of the Tannourine Hadath El-Jebbeh cedar forest was caused by the sudden outbreak of this insect. The insect has a complex life cycle with two types of diapause: annual diapause and multiple years diapause. The present study aimed...

Author(s): Nabil NEMER, Marc EL BEYROUTHY, Charbel LAHOUD, Wissem MNIF, Issam BASHOUR and Nasri KAWAR

Changes in growth and nutrient uptake in response to foliar application of sodium and calcium chloride in cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

November 2014

In this study, the effects of NaCl and CaCl2 on growth and nutrients uptake of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cvs. Mouola GG; Mouola PG, Garoua GG, Garoua PG and Tsacre) were investigated. Three treatments [0 (unsprayed), 50 mM NaCl or 50 mM CaCl2] were adopted, with five replications. NaCl and CaCl2 were applied as foliar spray twice a week during 30 days after sowing. Application of NaCl resulted in significant...

Author(s): Victor Desire Taffouo, Serge Ekwel Sondi, Liliane Tekam Meguekam, Alphonse Ervé Nouck, Oscar Fotsop Wamba and Emmanuel Youmbi

Recycling of vinasse in ethanol fermentation and application in Egyptian distillery factories

November 2014

Vinasse production is one of the most significant and challenging issues in the industrial production of ethanol due to pollution problems. In this study, vinasse obtained from ethanol by fermentation of sugarcane molasses was used instead of water to prepare the fermentation medium. Saccharomyces cerevisiae F-727 was selected from 10 tested yeast strains. Nutritional requirements of nitrogen, phosphorous and magnesium,...

Author(s): Fadel, M., Abdel-Naser A. Zohri, M. Makawy, M. S. Hsona and A. M. Abdel-Aziz

The role of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in induced stroke

November 2014

Stroke is the third most common cause of death, and a leading cause of physical disability in adults. Recovery after a major stroke is usually limited, but cell therapy, especially by application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is emerging with fixed neurologic deficits. The aim of the current study was directed to isolation and cultivation of the bone marrow (BM) derived MSCs from young rats, as well as to study the...

Author(s): Intissar Numman Waheed, Anwar Abdul-Ameer Mohammed Karim and Mohammad Abdul-Hadi Gali

Nutritional characteristics of guava leaves and its effects on lipid metabolism in hypercholesterolemic rats

November 2014

The objective of this study was to evaluate antioxidant substances, dietary fiber and antioxidant activity of guava leaves, and evaluate their amelioration hypercholesterolemia in rats. The leaves were dried and crushed into granulated powder. The active ingredient of the leaf powder was extracted by an ethanol/acetone mixture and called ethanol/acetone extract flour. Dietary fiber, vitamin C, beta-carotene, phenolic...

Author(s): Juliana Mesquita Freire, Celeste Maria Patto de Abreu, Stella Maris da Silveira Duarte, Fernanda Borges Araújo de Paula, Adriene Ribeiro Lima, Rafaella Araújo Zambaldi Lima, Denise Alvarenga Rocha and Anderson Assaid Simão

Production of fructosyltransferase by Penicillium simplicissimum in batch culture

November 2014

Seventeen (17) strains of macro-fungi were screened for fructosyltransferase (FTase) production, of which Penicillium simplicissimum was selected for further work. FTase production was carried out in shake flask cultured at 30°C and 250 rpm for 48 h. For optimization of one factor-at-a-time method, effects of initial sucrose concentration, fermentation time, pH, inoculum size and agitation speed were studied on...

Author(s): Mashitah, M. D and Hatijah, S. M

Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure among exotic sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars in Ethiopia using simple sequence repeats (SSR) molecular markers

November 2014

The present study was performed to study genetic relationships and population differentiation of 90 introduced sugarcane accessions in Ethiopia by means of 22 SSR molecular markers. The 22 SSR markers amplified a total of 260 alleles, of which 230 were poly­morphic with a mean of 10.45 alleles per SSR locus. The range in allele number was 4–22. A high level of polymorphism with a mean of 60.51% polymorphic...

Author(s): Esayas Tena, Firew Mekbib and Amsalu Ayana

Evaluation of some handling and processing parameters for briquetting of guinea corn (Sorghum bi-color) residue

November 2014

Biomass materials require reduction and densification for the purpose of handling and space requirements. Guinea corn (Sorghum bi-color) is a major source of biomass material in the tropic regions. The densification process involves some measurable parameters, namely: pressure, particles size and binder ratio. Guinea corn residue was collected from the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal Polytechnic at Bida in...

Author(s): S. J. Bolufawi and A. I. Bamgboye

Effect of equation pro and kema zed fungicides on cellulase and pectinase enzymes produced by some phytopathogenic fungi of broad bean

November 2014

Two fungicides (equation pro and kema zed) were added to the medium in five doses (50,100, 200, 300 and 400 ppm active ingredient) to investigate the chemical control of cellulase and pectinase enzymes produced by some plant pathogens of broad bean. Alternaria alternata, Alternaria citri, Alternaria and Cochliobolus spicifer were isolated from diseased leaves of broad bean. The incorporation of these fungicides into the...

Author(s): A. Saleem, A. H. M. El-Said, T. A. Maghraby and M. A. Hussein

Production of amylase enzyme from mangrove fungal isolates

November 2014

The mangrove ecosystem serves as a bioresource for various industrially important microorganisms. The use of fungi as a source of industrially relevant enzymes led to an increased interest in the application of microbial enzymes in various industrial processes. Fungal colonies were isolated from sediments of five different mangrove ecosystems of Odisha such as Bhitarakanika, Dhamra, Mahanadi, Devi and Budhabalanga...

Author(s): K. Sahoo, N. K. Dhal and R. Das

Antimicrobial activity and chemical analysis of some edible oils (Clove, Kalonji and Taramira)

November 2014

Antimicrobial activity of oils of Syzigium aromaticum (Clove), Nigella sativa (Kalonji) and Eruca sativa Miller (Taramira) was checked against bacteria and fungi by agar well diffusion assay. It was found that Gram negative bacteria were more sensitive to these oils as compared to Gram positive bacteria. Klebsiella pneumonia, Aspergillus flavus and Cunninghamella were found to be more sensitive organisms showing large...

Author(s): Affhan Shoaib, Ghufran Saeed and Samia Ahmad

Cellulase activity of filamentous fungi induced by rice husk

November 2014

The objective of this study was to determine the potential of different filamentous fungi to degrade cellulose in rice husk pre-treated with steam explosion or alkaline hydrolysis. A preliminary test performed with carboxymethyl cellulose and nine fungi (Trichoderma 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; Trichoderma reesei; Aspergillus niger; Rhizopus oryzae and an isolated fungus from rice husk) allowed the selection of the fungi that can...

Author(s): Diego Fernando Oliveros, Nathalie Guarnizo, Elizabeth Murillo Perea, and Walter Murillo Arango,

Chitinolytic assay for Trichoderma species isolated from different geographical locations of Uttar Pradesh

November 2014

Chitin is the most commonly available polymer on the earth. Cell walls of most of the fungi are made up of chitin. As we all know that Trichoderma produces a wide variety of cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) such as chitinase, xylanase, glucanase and cellulase. Out of these CWDEs chitinase is of prime importance as it is the building block of fungal cell walls. For the detection of chitinase activity we used a simple...

Author(s): Sonika Pandey, Mohammad Shahid, Mukesh Srivastava, Antima Sharma, Anuradha Singh, Vipul Kumar and Shyam Jee Gupta

Comparative acute toxicity and oxidative stress responses in tadpoles of Amietophrynus regularis exposed to refined petroleum products, unused and spent engine oils

November 2014

The relative acute toxicity of refined petroleum (diesel, kerosene and petrol), unused and spent engine oils as well as their abilities to alter the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and cause lipid peroxidation in tadpoles of the common African toad, Amietophrynus regularis were evaluated.  After 48 h of exposures, kerosene was found to be the most toxic (LC50= 4930 mg/L) while the least toxic was unused...

Author(s): Amaeze, Nnamdi Henry, Onadeko, Abiodun and Nwosu, Chinwendu Comfort

Statistical optimization of lactic acid production by Lactococcus lactis strain, using the central composite experimental design

November 2014

The individual and interactive effects of a total inoculums size (% v/v), fermentation temperature and skim milk dry matter added (% w/v) on the lactic acid production by Lactococcus lactis LCL strain were studied by quadratic response surface methodology. The central composite design (CCD) was employed to determine maximum lactic acid production at optimum values for process variables and a satisfactory fit model was...

Author(s): Omar Hassaïne, Halima Zadi-Karam and Nour-Eddine Karam

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from leaf explants of Rumex vesicarius L.

November 2014

An attempt was made to study the somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from the in vitro leaf explants of Rumex vesicarius L. a renowned medicinal plant, which belongs to polygonaceae family. Effective in vitro regeneration of R. vesicarius was achieved via young leaf derived somatic embryo cultures. Embryogenic callus was induced from leaf explants on Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) medium supplemented with various...

Author(s): Lavanya Kakarla, Chakravarthy Rama, Mahendran Botlagunta, Krishna M. S. R and Pardha Saradhi Mathi

Noble silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesis and characterization of fig Ficus carica (fig) leaf extract and its antimicrobial effect against clinical isolates from corneal ulcer

November 2014

Nanotechnology is rapidly growing with nanoparticles produced and utilized in a wide range of pharmaceutical and commercial products throughout the world. In this study, fig (Ficus carica) leaf extracts were used for ecofriendly extracellular synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by treating an aqueous silver nitrate (1 mM) solution and using the plant F. carica leaf extracts as reducing agents. The...

Author(s): Yousef H. Aldebasi, Salah Mesalhy Aly, Riazunnisa Khateef and Habeeb Khadri

A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for rapid isolation of a new rbcS gene from Lemna minor

November 2014

This study developed a novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, ligation-mediated self-formed panhandle PCR, for gene or chromosome walking. It combined the advantages of ligation-mediated PCR in its specificity and of panhandle PCR in its efficiency. Self-formed panhandle PCR was used for a new rbcS gene walking to isolate 3’ downstream and 5’ upstream sequence; 1292 bp DNA rbcS gene was obtained via...

Author(s): Youru Wang, ,

Potentials of non-edible Abrus precatorius seed oil towards biodiesel production

October 2014

Abrus precatorius seed oil is not edible and possesses lethal toxicological properties; hence, alternative use as low cost feedstock for biodiesel production was investigated. The n-hexane extracted oil was characterized for its chemical and physical properties, and subsequently transesterified using 1% sodium hydroxide at 60°C to produce biodiesel. The biodiesel produced had acceptable quality following...

Author(s): Joseph C. Obetaλ, Chidozie Victor Agu,λ; Obioma U. Njoku, Christopher C. Okonkwo, and Emeka G. Anaduaka

Wheat stem rust in South Africa: Current status and future research directions

October 2014

Plant diseases are among the major causes of crop yield loss and food insecurity. In South Africa, stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici. Eriks. & E. Henn. (Pgt) is an important disease of wheat. Records of stem rust occurrence in South Africa date back to the late 1720’s, when it was first discovered in the south-western wheat growing areas of the Western Cape. Although growing stem rust...

Author(s): Sandiswa Figlan, Cobus Le Roux, Tarekegn Terefe, Willem Botes, Botma Visser, Hussein Shimelis and Toi John Tsilo

Methane and nitrous oxide emission from livestock manure

October 2014

Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas which contributes significantly to global warming and a significant proportion of atmospheric methane is produced by livestock. Livestock contribute 18% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Apart from enteric emission, decomposition of livestock manure under anaerobic conditions is also a source of methane. The later condition arises in confined management system. There is...

Author(s): Sonali Prusty, U. B. Sontakke and S. S. Kundu

Biocontrol efficacy of Wickerhamomyces anomalus in moist maize storage

October 2014

White maize cultivar ‘Kasai’ was harvested and stored moist, sealed in airtight plastic barrels, with and without inoculation of the biocontrol yeast, Wickerhamomyces anomalus. Microbes were enumerated at harvest and after 2, 5 and 8 months of storage. Moist storage of maize yielded a type of fermentation, in which high levels of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) naturally present on maize (108 cfu/g), were...

Author(s): Aziwo T. Niba, Su-lin L. Leong and Matilda Olstorpe

Concentrations of iodine and some environmental goitrogens in two selected water bodies - Adada and Akoru in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

October 2014

This study was designed to investigate the distribution of iodine and goitrogens in two selected rivers: Adada and Akoru in Enugu Sate, Nigeria. Iodine concentrations were found to be 0.109±0.001 and 0.108±0.001 ppm, respectively in both water bodies. The evaluated environmental goitrogens were as follows in Adada and Akoru Rivers: Calcium 109.333±16.0 and 74.667±7.67 ppm; sulphate...

Author(s): Enechi, O. C., Stephen Amarachi and Ugwu Okechukwu, P. C.,

Conditioners and significance of t-RFLP profile of the assemblage of prokaryotic microorganisms in crude oil polluted soils

October 2014

Following an increased interest in management practices designed to reduce posed phytotoxicity during phytoremediation experiments, crude oil polluted soil and variants from conditioners-aided phytoremediation experiment were subjected to terminal restriction fragment polymorphism (t-RFLP) to evalute the biodiversity of bacterial microflora of polluted soil and amendments conditions. Genetic fingerprinting showed that...

Author(s): Eucharia Oluchi Nwaichi, Magdalena Frac, D. E. Peters and B. O. Akpomiemie

Antiproliferative and antibacterial activity evaluation of red microalgae Rhodosorus marinus

October 2014

Antiproliferative activity of three extracts obtained from red microalgae Rhodosorus marinus was evaluated against cervical (HeLa), colon (HCT 116), lung (A549), prostate (22Rv-1) and breast (HCC38 and MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines. Antibacterial activity of these extracts was also tested against Salmonella choleraesuis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. All extracts were obtained from lyophilized...

Author(s): Garcia-Galaz, Alfonso, Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis E., Valdés-Covarrubias, Miguel A., Acedo-Félix, Evelia, Burgos-Hernández, Armando, López-Torres, Marco A. and María Guadalupe Burboa Zazueta

Plasmid profile of multi antibiotic resistant staphylococcus aureus isolated from diabetic wounds from patients at Nsukka, South-eastern, Nigeria

October 2014

Multi-drug resistant bacterial strains evolving worldwide has created a great public health problem that needs urgent attention; as such bacteria show resistance to the drug of choice for treatment as well as being resistant to newer and last line antibiotics. In this study, the antibiotic susceptibility, multi antibiotic resistance (MAR) index and plasmid profile of MDR Staphylococcus aureus isolated from diabetic...

Author(s): Badger-Emeka, L. I., Emeka, P. M. and Dibua, U. M. E.

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