African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12405

AJB Articles

Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils by lipopeptide producing Bacillus subtilis SE1

June 2019

Hydrocarbons released into ecosystems have led to environmental pollution and generated a serious threat to human health. Bioremediation is an effective method to break down hazardous hydrophobic environmental contaminants with avoiding economic and technical disadvantages. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Bacillus subtilis SE1, a lipopeptide biosurfactant producer isolated from a petrochemical...

Author(s): Subuntith Nimrat, Somruetai Lookchan, Traimat Boonthai and Verapong Vuthiphandchai

Capacity building for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection in West Africa: Identifying a circulating GMO maize variety in Mali

May 2019

DNA-based methodology employing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been successfully used to examine the incidence of genetically modified (GM) maize in Mali. This study aims to ascertain whether screening elements could also be used to detect GM maize. Fourteen maize varieties and one unknown dark color seeded variety from Mali were tested. DNA was extracted from three seeds of each variety. Three...

Author(s): Ibrahim Traoré, Diariatou Diagne, Ibrahim Keita, Hinda Doucouré, Mouhamadou Traoré, Niaba Témé, Mamadou Mory Coulibaly and Ousmane A. Koita  

Enhancing 15N-uptake in maize (Zea mays L.) by native Trichoderma spp. strains in Central Mexico

May 2019

A study was undertaken to evaluate the role of Trichoderma strains on 15N-uptake by maize under greenhouse and field conditions. The Trichoderma strains were isolated from different maize production systems in Guanajuato State, Central Mexico. A total of 39 Trichoderma isolates were obtained, 23 correspond to Trichoderma harzianum (Intra-Genic-Segment). Some colonized the endorhizosphere of maize better than others;...

Author(s): Vera-Núñez, J. A., Luna-Martínez, F., Barcos-Arias, M. S., Ávila-Miranda, M. E., Grageda-Cabrera, O. A. and Peña-Cabriales, J. J.  

Effect of 6-benzylaminopurine and α-naphthalene acetic acid hormonal supplements on the in vitro seed germination and seedling development of orchid Otochilus albus Lindl

May 2019

Otochilus albus Lindl is one of the important orchids especially used for the horticultural purpose and commercial use. It is listed as a rare and critically endangered species in Nepal. An attempt to preserve the important orchids was done by establishing an efficient in vitro regeneration protocol using seed. This study was carried out by using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and the MS medium supplemented with growth...

Author(s): Hira Adhikari and Bijaya Pant  

Chemical study of Peganum harmala seeds

May 2019

Peganum harmala belongs to the family Zygophyllaceae and is popularly known as "Arruda of Syria". It presents a broad therapeutic potential, highlighting the anti inflammatory, anticancer, analgesic, antiseptic and antibacterial activities. It is used in the preparation of religious rituals beverages with effects on the central nervous system as an inhibitor of the enzyme monoaminoxidase, whose action is due...

Author(s): Isabela Araujo e Amariz, Jacyara Pereira da Silva, Emanuella Chiara Valença Pereira, Nathália Andrezza Carvalho de Souza, José Marcos Teixeira de Alencar Filho, Renan Nunes Pereira, Ana Paula de Oliveira and Larissa Araújo Rolim

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for intermittent drought tolerance in BRB 191 × SEQ 1027 Andean Intra-gene cross recombinant inbred line population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

May 2019

Drought is a major constraint of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in Uganda where irrigation for the crop is very uncommon. This study aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying drought tolerance in 128 F5 RILs derived from an Andean intra-gene cross between drought-tolerant SEQ 1027 and BRB 191. Eighteen traits were evaluated under drought stress and non-stress conditions in the field for...

Author(s): M. Nabateregga, C. Mukankusi, B. Raatz, R. Edema, S. Nkalubo and B. M. E. Alladassi

Alginate microporous beads promote higher ethanol productivity than the normal beads in a repeated-batch ethanolic process involving Saccharomyces cerevisiae LC 269108

May 2019

Mass transfers pose significant challenge in fermentation due to wide diffusion gradient existing between the culture broth and the immobilized cells. In the present study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae LC 269108 was immobilized in a recently described microporous alginate beads. The new method was compared with the conventional calcium alginate gel beads in a repeated batch process for the production of ethanol. The...

Author(s): Charles O. Nwuche, Victor C. Igbokwe and Chukwudi O. Onwosi

Exploring the nutritional efficiency of genotypes of Coffea arabica L. from different parental lineages in contrasting environments for N availability

May 2019

The different responses of improved genotypes to alterations of the availability of nutrients indicate that it is possible to modulate the nutritional efficiency by exploring the interaction between the intrinsic response of a genotype and the level of nutrient supply. The objective of this research was to assess the response of genotypes of Coffea arabica L., from different parental lineages, to contrasting...

Author(s): Lima Deleon Martins, Daniel Soares Ferreira, Wagner Nunes Rodrigues, Tafarel Victor Colodetti, Sebastião Batista Brinate, Adan Dezan Côgo, Vanessa Maria de Souza Barros, Fábio Luiz Partelli, José Francisco Teixeira do Amaral and Marcelo Antonio Tomaz  

Dehairing of animal hides and skins by alkaline proteases of Aspergillus oryzae for efficient processing to leather products in Tanzania

May 2019

The leather industry is one among the most vital sectors for economic development contributing to high earnings. However, tanning of hides and skins is constrained by primitive technology and the use of hazardous chemicals that contribute to environmental pollution. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of alkaline protease on dehairing animal hides and skins under different conditions. Alkaline protease was...

Author(s): Never Zekeya, Cecilia China, Suleimain Mbwana and Madundo Mtambo

Establishment of a transformation protocol for Uganda’s yellow passion fruit using the GUS gene

May 2019

Horticulture is one of the fastest growing sectors in Uganda, exporting products worth US$100 million annually. Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) growing and export is one of the critical contributors to this sector employing over a million farmers. However, a number of biotic and abiotic constraints have initiated widespread enterprise abandonment by farmers. Passiflora improvement efforts by conventional breeding has...

Author(s): Samuel Tuhaise, Jesca L. Nakavuma, John Adriko, Kenneth Ssekatawa, and Andrew Kiggundu,  

Chemical composition of Cyperus esculentus nut and Phoenix dactylifera fruit

May 2019

This study investigated the chemical composition of Cyperus esculentus nut and Phoenix dactylifera fruit. The nuts and fruits were purchased as commonly sold in Wukari, Nigeria. They were cleaned, sorted for healthy parts, sun-dried and milled into fine powder. The AOAC, AAS and GC-MS methods were adopted for the proximate, mineral and phytochemical analysis, respectively. The results show that C. esculentus nut is...

Author(s): Chinedu Imo, Friday O. Uhegbu, Kayode A. Arowora, Chukwuma S. Ezeonu, Ifeoma J. Opara, Caleb J. Nwaogwugwu and Chigozie J. Anigbo

Uterotonic effect of aqueous extract of Launaea taraxacifolia Willd on rat isolated uterine horns

May 2019

Launaea taraxacifolia is used by the traditional health practitioners in Sokoto to ease labour pains and augment labour thereby facilitating child birth. This study examined the effect of the aqueous extract of the whole plant on isolated uterus from non-pregnant rats pre-treated with stilbestrol and from pregnant rats in late gestation. This was compared to the effects of uterine contraction agonists, namely; oxytocin,...

Author(s): Adebisi Mobolawa Iyabo and Alka Hauwa  

Antibacterial saponins from the leaves of Polyscias fulva (Araliaceae)

May 2019

Saponins are a major family of secondary metabolites that occur in a wide range of plant species. Bioassay - guided fractionation of extract of the leaves of Polyscias fulva led to the isolation of three known saponins named, 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin (1), 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl]-hederagenin (2) and...

Author(s): Winnie Cherotich Maritim, Isabel Nyokabi Wagara and Josphat Clement Matasyoh  

Transferability of microsatellite loci from Croton floribundus Spreng. to Croton urucurana Baill. (Euphorbiaceae)

May 2019

Croton urucurana, known as “sangra-d’água”, is a tree species with timber and beekeeping potential, and also with medicinal potential. The use of microsatellite markers, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) is efficient in population genetic studies, with high transferability rate between correlated species. The present study aimed to optimize the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol and to test...

Author(s): Fernanda Gliceria Alencar Motta, Leandro Skowronski, Jannaína Velasques da Costa Pinto, Milene Silvestrini, Carina Elisei de Oliveira, Paula Martin de Moraes and Reginaldo Brito da Costa,

Physicochemical, spectroscopic and tableting properties of microcrystalline cellulose obtained from the African breadfruit seed hulls

May 2019

This study evaluates the physicochemical, tableting and spectroscopic properties of microcrystalline cellulose obtained from the African breadfruit seed hulls. The seed hulls were dried, pulverized, sieved and digested with 2% w/v aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. The resultant pulp was further treated with 17.5% w/v NaOH solution and 2.5N hydrochloric acid to produce α-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose...

Author(s): Nwajiobi C. C., Otaigbe J. O. E. and Oriji O.  

Cellulase production and molecular identification of Xanthobacter flavus (IM32-90) isolated under eucalyptus plantation in the cerrado of Minas Gerais

April 2019

Lignocellulosic biomass has become a major ally for production of biofuels as a clean and renewable energy source. The manufacturing of cellulolytic enzymes capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulose and producing fermentable sugars has been, and still is a great challenge. There is a wide variety of microorganisms, both bacteria and fungi, capable of producing cellulolytic enzymes. These microorganisms can be grown by solid...

Author(s): Farley Souza Ribeiro Menezes, Maria Cecília Mota Docha, Any Caroliny Pinto Rodrigues, Jéssica Naiara Dos Santos, Gizelly Gomes da Cruz, Viviane Ferreira dos Anjos, Tarcisio Tomás Cabral de Sousa and Marcelo Luiz de Laia

Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by hydrocarbonaclastic bacteria

April 2019

Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by bacteria isolated from spent engine oil (SEO) contaminated soils was investigated using nitrogen limitation in the production medium. Out of ten isolates, three were selected as the best based on their ability to metabolize SEO effectively and fluoresce orange when stained with Nile Blue A dye. Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophometer was used as a confirmatory test for PHA...

Author(s): Mwamburi Samuel M., Mbatia Betty N., Remmy Kasili, Kirwa Edward M and Noah Naumih M.  

Early selection in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. progenies in Savanna, Brazil

April 2019

Genetic parameters were assessed and correlated to evaluate the feasibility of early selection for diameter at breast height (DBH) and total height (TH) in a half-sib progenies test of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The test is established in the Santo Antônio do Leverger municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, with 132 progenies, five blocks and three plants per plot at 3 x 2 m spacing. REML/BLUP procedure was...

Author(s): Mariana de Moura Queiroz, Daniele Aparecida Alvarenga Arriel, Antônio de Arruda Tsukamoto Filho, Oacy Eurcio de Oliveira, Paula Martin de Moraes, Leandro Skowronski and Reginaldo Brito da Costa,  

In silico prediction and segregation analysis of putative virus defense genes based on SSR markers in sweet potato F1 progenies of cultivars ‘New Kawogo’ and ‘Resisto’

April 2019

In sweet potato, an anti-virus defense mechanism termed reversion has been postulated to lead to virus freedom from once infected plants. The objectives of this study were to identify anti-virus defense genes and evaluate their segregation in progenies. Reference genes from different plant species were used to assemble transcript sequences of each sweet potato defense gene in silico. Sequences were used for evaluate...

Author(s): Alexander Ssamula, Anthony Okiror, Liat Avrahami-Moyal, Yehudit Tam, Amit Gal-On, Victor Gaba, Settumba B. Mukasa and Peter Wasswa  

Isolation and characterization of a lytic bacteriophage (VB_PAnP_PADP4) against MDR- Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from septic wound infections

April 2019

Resistance to multiple drugs by pathogens has become the sweltering problem for the treatment of bacterial infections. To overcome this problem of drug resistance, several diversified bacteriophages can be used as one of the alternatives and attractive approaches. The present study aimed to detect, isolate and partially characterize the bacteriophage used against MDR-Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from wound...

Author(s): Roja Rani Pallavali, Vijaya Lakshmi Degati, Narala Venkata Rami Reddy and Vijaya Raghava Prasad Durbaka

Genetic diversity of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces from South Western Kenya for resistance to Pythium root rot disease

April 2019

Common bean landraces represent an important source of genetic resources, which is under-exploited by Kenyan crop breeding programs. The objective of this study was to characterize 51 common bean landraces from South Western Kenya for resistance to Pythium root rot using 5 peroxidase gene (POX) markers. Following infection with Pythium spp., 11.77, 54.90 and 33.33% of the landraces were moderate-resistant, susceptible...

Author(s): Henry N. Anunda, Evans N. Nyaboga and Nelson O. Amugune

Genetic diversity among Fusarium species associated with sorghum stalk rot in Southern Ethiopia

April 2019

Fusaria are very diverse and destructive pathogens affecting different crops. However, their identity and diversity are unresolved in countries like Ethiopia, where various crop species are grown under differing environmental conditions. The objectives of this paper were to identify Fusarium spp. associated with sorghum stalk rot in Southern Ethiopia, and elucidate the genetic diversity within and between the species....

Author(s): Alemayehu Chala  

Copper (II) ions adsorption by untreated and chemically modified Tectona grandis (Teak bark): Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies

April 2019

In this study, untreated Tectona grandis (UTG) and citric acid- modified T. grandis (CAMTG) bark powder were used for the adsorption of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solution. The UTG and CAMTG were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption characteristics were carried out by determining the solution pH, initial concentration of Cu (II) ions, effect of time...

Author(s): Chijioke John Ajaelu, Lara Ibironke and Adedotun Bamidele Oladinni

Complete genomic sequence and recombination analysis of wheat yellow mosaic virus isolate from Zhouzhi in China

April 2019

Wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) is the causal agent of wheat yellow mosaic disease in China. WYMV was detected in wheat sample collected from Zhouzhi of Shanxi province. The nearly complete genomic sequence of Zhouzhi isolate (WYMV-ZZ) was determined; it was compared with six complete sequences of WYMV isolates (five Chinese isolates and one Japanese isolate). WYMV-ZZ and the other six different WYMV isolates shared...

Author(s): Zong-Ying Zhang, Cui-Ji Zhou, Yun-Feng Wu, Da-Wei Li, Jia-Lin Yu and Cheng-Gui Han  

Isolation of five type IIG restriction modification (RM) enzyme genes with different DNA recognition sites from a single environmental DNA sample

March 2019

A new method of screening type IIG restriction modification (RM) enzyme has been developed using REBASE, a database of all known and putative restriction enzymes and methyltransferases found throughout the bacterial genome sequences available in GENBANK. The in silico analysis of a group of putative type IIG RM enzymes in Microcystis aeruginosa showed a high sequence homology at both ends. This peculiarity allows for...

Author(s): Le Thi Kim Tuyen, Bach Khanh Hoa and Lam Nguyen-Ngọc

Ultra high dilutions: A review on in vitro studies against pathogens

March 2019

Multiple in vitro studies using homeopathic medicines are conducted for their effectiveness against various microbes. The reporting of results and the methodology in many studies are a query. The present review reveals the evidence based medicinal effects of homeopathic medicines on various plant and human pathogens in vitro with the help of quality studies. The studies showed positive outcome for homeopathic medicines....

Author(s): Aditya Dilipkumar Patil, Anuj Deepakrao Chinche, Atul Kumar Singh, Sana Parvej Peerzada, Snehal Ashok Barkund, Jay Nilesh Shah and Arun Bhargav Jadhav

Study of oxygen transfer processes improvement for domestic wastewaters treatment

March 2019

In aerated processes, the oxygen transfer was limited by the presence of the suspended matter as colloid and the dissolved matter, which might decrease the biological degradation effectiveness. In this publication, three series of tests were conducted to study possibilities to reduce these matters: bacterial adaptation which was conducted in a biological aerated filter, adsorption/biosorption conducted on a biological...

Author(s): Stenelvie Dajeavine NGALA, Ahmed SALIM, Sarah JERROUMI, Brahim LEKHLIF, and El Hassan MALIL  

Phytochemical analysis and antinociceptive activity of bitter ginger (Zingiber zerumbet) cultivated in Manaus/Amazonas

March 2019

The present work concerns the analgesic effects of zerumbona, obtained from Zingiber zerumbet L. Smith cultivated in Manaus/Amazonas. The compound has been studied for decades because it has potent cytotoxic activity against liver and prostate tumor cells, colon, and breast. The plant is rich in sesquiterpenes, glycosylated flavonoids that present important pharmacological activities; standing out cytotoxic activity...

Author(s): Carlos Cleomir de Pinheiro, Daniely Pinheiro Machado, Marcia Seixas de Castro, Carlos Danniel Freitas Pinheiro, Francisco Amadis Batista Ferreira, Élisson de Souza Leite, Isac Tayah and Alex Panizza  Jalkh  

Polymorphisms in IL-10 (-1082) and IFN-𝛾, (+874) cytokine genes associated with resistance or susceptibility to Schistosoma haematobium infection in primary school children of Mount Darwin, Zimbabwe

March 2019

The promoter region of human interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene is highly polymorphic while the first intronic region of interferon gamma (IFN-) gene is also highly polymorphic. These polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility or resistance to Schistosoma haematobium infection. Schistosomiasis is known to be a highly inflammatory disease that requires the delicate balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The...

Author(s): Tendai Makwikwi and Takafira Mduluza  

Simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker-based DNA fingerprinting of some varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) released in Nigeria

March 2019

Over time, precise, specific and rapid identification of variety have been achieved via fingerprinting with molecular markers. In this research, 13 out of 45 screened simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were employed to fingerprint 27 rice varieties (22 are commercially released while five are suspected duplicates from the hands of marketers with different names) in Nigeria. The SSR primer pairs (13) were polymorphic...

Author(s): Ishaq, M. N., Ehirim, B. O., Nwanyanwu, G. C. and Abubaka, R. I.  

Genetic diversity using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers in Tinospora cordifolia from the Rayalseema region in Andhra Pradesh

March 2019

Tinospora cordifolia is a highly important medicinal plant in India, with a rich source of different secondary metabolites. In the present study, 12 samples of T. cordifolia (collected from different areas of Rayalseema region,Andhra Pradesh) were studied for genetic diversity using 15 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and eight inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. Out of them, 10 RAPD and 5 ISSR primers...

Author(s): H. Fathima Nazneen, B. Arunkumar Naik, P. Ramesh, A. Chandra Sekhar and P. Chandramati Shankar  

Genetic diversity of antibiotic and plant extract resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from hospitalized patients in Ekiti State, Nigeria

March 2019

This study aimed to determine the genetic diversity of antibiotics and plants extract resistant Staphylococcus aureus using molecular technique. A total of 106 human clinical samples were collected from patients in three different hospitals within Ekiti State. Microbiological and molecular analyses were performed using standard methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility test with common antibiotics and plant leaves extracts...

Author(s): Egbebi Adeola Oluwagbemileke, Oyama Maslhanty Obem and Fadare Olalekan Shadrach  

Physicochemical and microbiological stability of muffins packed in actives edible coatings from cassava starch: Inverted sugar/sucrose and natural additives

March 2019

The aim of this study was to develop edible coatings containing natural additives incorporated to the matrix of cassava starch, for use in muffins, as well as to evaluate the efficacy of its use in the increase of shelf life and maintenance of the products characteristics. Seventeen film forming formulations were developed following a central composite experimental design (CCD). The influence of independent variables...

Author(s): Luana de Oliveira Melo Naponucena, Bruna Aparecida Souza Machado, Luciana Emanuella Ferreira Saraiva, Samantha Serra Costa, Rejane Pina Dantas Silva, Emanuelle Andrade Dantas, Roseane Santos Oliveira and Janice Izabel Druzian  

Stem bark of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloïdes a possible substitute of root bark for the conservation of the species in Burkina Faso

February 2019

Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloïdes (Lam.) is used for some health purposes in Burkina Faso. However, human action threatened this species in its native environment and its regeneration is difficult by the way of population. The main focus of this study is to discriminate samples of zanthoxyloïdes from different plant populations in order to find good specimens for traditional medicine and thus contribute to the...

Author(s): Lassané Ouédraogo, Aminata P. Nacoulma, Moussa Compaoré, Latifou Lagnika and Martin Kiendrebeogo  

Improvement of nutritional, sanitary and organoleptic qualities of liquid zoom-koom and instant flour zoom-koom using Lactobacillus fermentum starter culture

February 2019

Traditional fermented beverages occupy an important place in the diet of populations in Burkina Faso. Zoom-koom in particular remains one of the most consumed cereal-based drinks in cities like Ouagadougou. The drink zoom-koom is consumed primarily in the liquid form and to short scale in the reconstituted form called instant flour zoom-koom. Being able to diversify zoom-koom taste and aroma and to improve the...

Author(s): Soma M., , Kaboré D., Tankoano A., Compaoré C. S., Parkouda C., Toguyeni A. and Sawadogo-Lingani H.

Comparison of oil quality extracted from selected conventional and non conventional sources of vegetable oil from Malawi

February 2019

In this study, oil quality with respect to physicochemical and phytochemical characteristics extracted from nonconventional seed oil namely Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata, Parinari curatellifolia and Cajanus cajan and conventional seed oil namely soybean (Glycine max) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) was assessed and compared. Results showed that there were significant differences in various quality parameters...

Author(s): Lesten Eliez Chisomo Chatepa, Hankie Uluko and Kingsley Masamba  

Quantitation of differential expression of transcription factors under moisture deficit stress in sugarcane

February 2019

Moisture deficit stress, one of the abiotic stresses, affects sugarcane growth and development and reduces cane and sugar yields. Transcription Factors (TFs) are master regulatory proteins in all living cells which have the capability of activating or repressing transcription of stress responsive genes in order to activate the stress tolerance mechanism. Study of expression profiles of TF genes which regulate the...

Author(s): Manel Dapanage, and Sumangala Bhat,  

Analysis of the mitotic effect of Annona muricata leaf extracts on Allium cepa root tip cells

February 2019

There has been a growing interest in medicinal plants by the locals of the Pacific Islands since it is readily available. Annona muricata, commonly called soursop is one of such plants which is popular because it is being used to treat initial stages of cancer due to its antioxidant properties. This study investigated various extraction methods which could be used to compare and see the effectiveness of each on the...

Author(s): Rehana Bibi, Ketan Christi, Marta Ferreira, and Nwangburuka Cyril  

Genetic structure of cassava populations (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from Angola assessed through (ISSR) markers

February 2019

Eighteen ISSR primers (between Simple Repeated Sequences) were used to estimate the genetic diversity of Angolan cassava populations in order to identify genetic variabilities and their potential to be used in the diversification of cassava crops in Angola. In order to do so, three populations from three Angolan provinces were analyzed (Cuanza Norte, Uige and Malanje), which totaled 40 genotypes. In total, 116 bands...

Author(s): Sandra Domingos João Afonso, Ricardo Franco Cunha Moreira, Carlos Alberto da Silva Ledo, Cláudia Fortes Ferreira, Vanderlei da Silva Santos and Pascoal António Muondo  

Regulation of a dominant glutathione S-transferase and Na+/K+ by spermidine under salinity in onion

February 2019

Spermidine (Spd) is one of the most important polyamines (PAs) showing important roles in growth, development and stress responses in plants. The role of Spd in regulation of a dominant glutathione S-transferase (GST, E.C.2.5.1.18) and ionic balance of Na+ and K+ in onion leaves were examined. Onion GSTs were separated from fresh bulb tissue using DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Three GSTs were eluted at 56, 120 and 169...

Author(s): Tanjina Islam, Md. Rezwan Molla, Reshma Sultana, Md. Bazlur Rahman, Munshi Rashid Ahmad and Md. Motiar Rohman  

Enhancement of saponin accumulation in adventitious root culture of Javanese ginseng (Talinum paniculatum Gaertn.) through methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation

February 2019

Javanese ginseng (Talinum paniculatum) is an herb and one of the traditional medicinal plants in Indonesia which accumulate saponin in the root organ. However, slow root growth hampers the accumulation of the compound in this plant. Therefore, in vitro culture of adventitious roots offers an alternative way to increase the production of saponin. Furthermore, this study was performed to investigate the effect of methyl...

Author(s): Ahmad Faizal and Anggita Veningtia Sari  

Antioxidant, cytotoxic, and antidiabetic activities of Dendropanax morbifera extract for production of health-oriented food materials

February 2019

Antioxidant, cytotoxic and anti-diabetic effects of fermented and non-fermented Dendropanax morbifera extracts were compared to assess the potential utility of this species in the development of health-oriented food. The non-fermented extract (NFDE) was obtained from leaves and branches of D. morbifera and the fermented extract (FDE) was prepared by inoculation with Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis after...

Author(s): KiBeom Lee and Andy Kim  

Antimicrobial activity of Basidiomycetes fungi isolated from a Kenyan tropical forest

January 2019

Microbial diseases remain to be a major global public health challenge. Their devastating effects have been exacerbated by the development of drug resistant strains. On the other hand, the biodiversity of tropical Basidiomycetes fungi is well recognized as an untapped source of potential bioactive compounds for the development of novel antimicrobials. Thus, in the current study, Basidiomycetes’ fruiting bodies...

Author(s): Winnie Chemutai Sum, Stephen Abwao Indieka and Josphat Clement Matasyoh

Obtainment, applications and future perspectives of palm kernel

January 2019

Of African origin and with an estimated world production of 6.85 million tons, palm kernel oil contributes about 3% of the total world production of oils and fats. With such production, the world waste generation was about 10,026 × 103 tons in 2017, which represents an important environment issue. The present work aimed to review the literature on the main methods of extraction, applications, and future...

Author(s): Wanessa Almeida da Costa, Cinthya Elen Pereira de Lima, Fernanda Wariss Figueiredo Bezerra, Mozaniel Santana de Oliveira, Priscila do Nascimento Bezerra, Flávia Cristina Seabra Pires, Ana Paula de Souza e Silva, Jorddy Neves da Cruz, Sebastião Gomes Silva, Pedro Alam de Araújo Sarges and Raul Nunes de Carvalho Junior,  

In vitro regeneration of two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties from leaf explants

January 2019

The traditional way of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) propagation is time consuming and allows disease transmission from generation to generation. Moreover, it is difficult to improve this crop through conventional plant breeding methods. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop efficient in vitro regeneration protocol for ‘Canonannon’ and ‘Chenin Blanc’ varieties of grapevine using...

Author(s): Fikadu Kumsa and Tileye Feyissa  

Effect of cutting position and indole butyric acid (auxin) concentration on rooting response of Araucaria heterophylla

January 2019

The effects of cutting position (tip, middle and basal) and concentration of indole butyric acid (IBA) (0, 5, 7.5 and 11 g/L) on root and shoot growth of Araucaria heterophylla were evaluated to develop a method for vegetative propagation for this tree species. Leaf number, number of adventitious roots, root length and survival rates were measured. These parameters were significantly influenced by the interactive effect...

Author(s): Abera Tilahun, Begashaw Manahlie, Getachew Abebe and Genet Negash  

Is the introgression of Lobi/Baoulé cattle by zebuine genes in Burkina Faso Lobi cattle threatened?

January 2019

Burkina Faso livestock is made up of two main cattle population, namely Zebuine and Taurine. Transhumance and settlement of Zebu cattle breeders in tsetse challenged areas lead to cross-breeding Zebu and Taurine. Introgression of the Zebu cattle may have changed the structure of the trypanotolerant Lobi/Baoulé breed. The objective of the present study was to appreciate the introgression of Zebu genes into...

Author(s): Albert Soudré, Moustapha Gréma, Stéphane A. R. Tapsoba, Amadou Traoré, Salifou Ouédraogo-Koné, Maria Wurzinger, Simone Müller, Olivier Hanotte, Anicet Georges Ouédraogo and Johann Sölkner  

Plant biotechnology: A key tool to improve crop production in Rwanda

January 2019

Rwanda’s economy relies on agriculture; nevertheless, crop production remains insufficient for both local consumption and exportation. Overall, enough agriculture yields in Rwanda to ensure food security has not yet been achieved regardless of more than 87% population engaged in agriculture activities. In this context, this study aimed at gathering the information on Rwanda’s agriculture based on different...

Author(s): Leonce Dusengemungu, Clement Igiraneza and Sonia Uwimbabazi  

Haplotype analysis of Ethiopian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars and elite lines for yellow rust resistance genes using linked molecular markers

January 2019

Yellow rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important diseases of wheat in Ethiopia. Poor knowledge of resistance genes deployed in Ethiopian wheat cultivars is one major factor for recurrent epidemics of rust diseases. Molecular marker based gene identification showed the presence of Yr1, Yr4, Yr6, Yr7, Yr9, Yr10, Yr17 and Yr18 in various frequencies, whereas Yr8 was not detected in...

Author(s): Woubit Dawit, Ayele Badebo, Bekele Hunde, Daniel Kassa and M. S. Röder  

Evaluation of the morphological and quality characteristics of new papaya hybrid lines in Kenya

January 2019

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is among the most grown fruit crops worldwide with high economic and nutritional value. In Kenya, the papaya industry relies heavily on imported varieties and farmers’ selected seed whose quality is not known. Therefore, the morphological and quality characteristics of mature fruits of eight newly developed papaya hybrids and their control, Sunrise solo were assessed using papaya...

Author(s): Gaudence Nishimwe, Janet Chepng’etich Kosgei, Everlyn Musenya Okoth, George Ochieng’ Asudi, and Fredah Karambu Rimberia  

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