Scientific Research and Essays

  • Abbreviation: Sci. Res. Essays
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-2248
  • DOI: 10.5897/SRE
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2758

SRE Articles

Investigation of thermal benefits of an extensive green roof in Istanbul climate

April 2013

Green roofs have become an ecological solution in cities with the environmental problems that have increased in recent years. Green roofs are used as aesthetic elements as well as their ecological benefits for the city and urban environment. Comparative measurements were performed through field study in Landscape Architecture Department, Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University, Green Roof Research Station (IUGRRS), to...

Author(s): Mert EKŞİ and Adnan UZUN

A property of meromorphic functions with Hadamard gaps

April 2013

In this paper, we obtain a sufficient and necessary condition for meromorphic function  on  with Hadamard gaps, that is, for  satisfying  for all  to belong to meromorphic Beov space on  The obtained results are characterizations of the weighted meromorphic  Besov-functions by the coefficients of certain lacunary series expansions in the unit...

Author(s): A. Kamal, and A. El-Sayed Ahmed,  

Studies on natural resources, trade and conservation of Kutki (Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth., Scrophulariaceae) from Kumaun Himalaya

April 2013

The present study deals with populations, trade and conservation aspect ofPicrorhiza kurroa. It is a rare and endangered medicinal plant useful in curing many diseases. The study reveals poor relative density of the species in almost all the populations, suggesting the need of careful and immediate conservation of the plant. It is dubious that the species can perform well ex-situ, due to its narrow ecological range, and...

Author(s): Deepshikha Arya, Deepika Bhatt, Ravi Kumar, Lalit. M. Tewari, Kamal Kishor and G. C. Joshi

Dietary supplementation with natural honey promotes growth and health of male and female rats compared to cane syrup

April 2013

The modern human diet contains refined sugars mainly fructose, with culpability in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. We investigated the effects of natural honey (NH) as a source of fructose on metabolism in growing animal models. This was to determine whether NH can substitute refined sugars, without adverse effects. Fifty-nine suckling rats were fed diets containing NH or cane syrup (golden syrup, GS)...

Author(s): Abdulwahid Ajibola, Joseph P. Chamunorwa and Kennedy H. Erlwanger

How green is bioenergy? A review on myths, challenges, biotechnology progress and emerging possibilities

April 2013

Bioenergy is a very heterogeneous aggregation of different feedstocks, conversion technologies and end-uses, and are often promoted as a "green" alternative to fossil fuels. In the case of fossil fuels, extraction energy costs would become higher than the actual energy yield due to increased energy costs for research, deep drilling, as well as to the lower quality and accessibility of the still available oil...

Author(s): Angelina González-Rosas, Juan Marcelo Miranda-Gómez, K.P. Padmasree and Fabián Fernández-Luqueño

Efficiency of applying a model for measuring key performance indicators in an industrial enterprise

April 2013

The paper presents the results of applying the developed models for measuring process key performance indicators (KPIs) in a complex industrial company, including analysis of the effectiveness of its implementation in the analyzed field. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the general approach and principles of organization and management of an industrial enterprise - based on the integration of its functions...

Author(s): Željko Đurić and Rado Maksimović

Chemical analyses of aqueous extract of Parkia biglobosa fruit husk collected from Northern Ghana

April 2013

Water and ethanol extracts of Parkia biglobosa fruit husk were compared and analysed. Methods used were Sohxlet extraction, phytochemical screening, high power liquid chromatography (HPLC), fractionation and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Water was identified as a more efficient solvent than ethanol for the extraction of P. biglobosa fruit husk. The storage period (after harvest) of husk...

Author(s): Abagale, S. A., Twumasi S. K. and Awudza J. A. M.

Application of Weibull distribution model in describing the pile salting of goat meat slices

April 2013

Application of Weibull model in the pile salting of goat meat slices was studied to predict the moisture and salt contents and determine the effective water diffusion coefficient (De). The high coefficients of determination (R2 > 0.99) and low mean relative error (< 10%) indicated the acceptability of Weibull model for predicting both the moisture and salt contents and determining De. Values of scale...

Author(s): Otoniel Corzo, Nelson Bracho and Jaime Rodríguez

Experimental investigation of heat transfer in oscillating circular pipes: High frequencies and amplitudes

April 2013

Heat transfer characteristics of oscillating turbulent air flow in a circular pipe heated at uniform heat flux were experimentally examined. The experiments were performed over range of Reynolds number 10 × 103 to 5 × 104 and oscillating frequencies from 5 to 100 Hz. Thermocouple, the temperature control system and the other measurement systems were installed on the...

Author(s): H. GÜL  

Enhancement of T-joints of Spruce wood reinforced by using glass-fiber composite laminate

April 2013

In this study, T-joints constructed from Spruce wood and reinforced with glass-fiber fabric have been investigated under bending moment experimentally. Five types of T-joint were investigated. One of them is unreinforced and the others are reinforced with glass epoxy composite laminate. The specimens were subjected to bending moment until the failure of the joint. Five specimens were tested for each...

Author(s): Nurdan Cetin Yerlikaya and Alaattin Aktas

Performance evaluation of technological innovation capabilities in uncertainty

April 2013

The evaluation of technological innovation capabilities (TICs) depends on determining multiple criteria and on building a performance and implementation plan. There are intensive studies on the issues of TICs which have been dealt with extensively by practitioners and academicians, however, studies on the implementation and performance evaluation are few. This study proposes the approach of adopting trapezoid fuzzy...

Author(s): Yuan-Hsu Lin, Ming-Lang Tseng, Yi-Li Cheng, Anthony S. F. Chiu and Yong Geng

Enzymatic bioconversion of kraft pulped and oxidative delignified sawdust from the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria into fermentable sugars

April 2013

The major obstacle during pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass centers mostly on the insufficient separation of lignin from cellulose that could further be converted into bioenergy and other useful chemicals. The choice of an optimum biomass pretreatment process depends on the digestibility of lignocellulosic material, cost-effectiveness and overall impact on the environment. Kraft pulp samples from sawdust wastes...

Author(s): N. A. Ndukwe, W. O. Okiei, B. I. Alo, J. P. H. van Wyk, T. M. Mamabolo and C. C. Igwe

A review on thermoelectric cooling modules: Installation design, performance and efficiency

April 2013

A thermoelectric cooling module (TECM) is defined as a solid-state heat pump and present advantages (for example, no moving parts and no harmful gasses) over other refrigeration technologies. However, to optimally use TECMs as high efficient heat pumps it is crucial to understand the factors that influence the performance and efficiency of these modules during the installation design phase. This paper therefore provides...

Author(s): Rupert Gouws and Houston Eilers

Crustal structure of the Northwestern part of the Arabian Shield in Saudi Arabia deduced from gravity data

March 2013

  The present-day tectonics of the Northwestern Region of Saudi Arabia is affected by the tectonics related to the Red Sea floor spreading. The tectonic movemets related to the Red Sea floor spreading creat great variations in the crustal structure and depth of Moho discontinuity through this region. Gravity data have been acquired from Earth Gravitional Model (EGM-2008) and analyzed to estimate the crustal...

Author(s):   Fnais M.S., El-Araby H. M., Kamal Abdel-Rahman, Elawadi I. and Al Soma A.

Magnetic field effect on phase separation process in a liquid mixture

March 2013

  In this work, the statistical properties of the frequency distribution curves and the autocorrelation functions of the scattered photons from a laser beam incident on a liquid mixture approaching its phase separation temperature under an applied magnetic field in a dynamic light scattering experiment were employed in the study of the physical behavior of the scattering centers within the samples and in the...

Author(s):   Kachain Dangudom  

Image authentication using perceptual hashing

March 2013

  This paper presents a review of image authentication methods, based on the perceptual image hashing approach. Firstly we analyze two algorithms, which have the capability of determining if an image is authentic or not, even if it has suffered content preserving distortions such as compression, filtering and other signal processing operations; as well as some malicious modification such as geometric...

Author(s):   Kelsey Ramirez-Gutierrez, Mariko Nakano-Miyatake and Hector Perez-Meana  

Determination of spatiotemporal distribution of Agricultural drought in Central Serbia (Å umadija)

March 2013

  Over the past several decades, extreme drought events have become increasingly frequent in Central Serbia and have affected vast areas of land. In agriculture, the impact of drought is dramatic, especially if the soils in the affected area are shallow, like in most of the Šumadija Region where field crops, fruits and grapevines are traditionally rainfed. Exceptionally dry years have a multiple-year...

Author(s):   Stričević Ružica and Djurović Nevenka

Storage of open-pollinated maize variety seeds in active cattle kraal to suppress maize weevils and improve seed quality and seedling vigour

March 2013

  Open-pollinated maize (Zea mays) varieties remain popular in marginal communities since seeds can be selected and stored for the next season. However, maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) is an economic post-harvest pest of maize grains, which is difficult to manage. Various indigenous seed storage technologies had been in use within marginal communities, with little empirically-based support of their...

Author(s):   Phatu W. Mashela and Kgabo M. Pofu 

Isolation of Bacillus sphaericus screening larvicidal, fecundity and longevity effects on malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

March 2013

  In India, the most important diseases transmitting mosquitoes belong to the genera Anopheles, Culex, Aedes and Mansonia. The indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides creates multifarious problems like environmental pollution, global warming, insecticide resistance and is hazardous to humans. In the present study, bacterial pesticide, Bacillus sphaericus a soil dwelling bacteria, isolated from...

Author(s):   A. Naresh kumar, K. Murugan, K. Shobana and D. Abirami   

Interaction between suspended and settled solid particles in cassava wastewater

March 2013

  Cassava (Manihot Esculenta, Crantz) is a very important staple food in most developing countries. During its processing into cassava flour or garri, wastewaters are generated and are indiscriminately discharged into the public sewers or into the environment and in some cases; the fermented wastewater is usually poured into latrines with the aim of degrading sewage. This study is aimed at finding out...

Author(s):   Olukanni D. O., Agunwamba J. C. and Abalogu R. U.

A preliminary study on characterisation of mechanical behaviour of hydrated cement treated crushed rock base using the disturbed state concept

March 2013

For road pavements in Western Australia, base layers are usually constructed using hydrated cement treated crushed rock base (HCTCRB) of which the mechanistic properties with the reliable material model are necessary for rational pavement analysis and design. The purpose of this study is to present the experimental results produced from the assessment of the mechanical behaviour of HCTCRB and the material modelling...

Author(s):   Pakdee Khobklang, Vanissorn Vimonsatit, Peerapong Jitsangiam and Hamid Nikraz

Evaluation of patient safety culture: Single-center, non-randomized, cross-sectional study, Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Turkey experience

March 2013

  This study aims to measure and analyze the patient safety culture in General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne-Turkey. A cross-sectional study, utilizing the Turkish version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and a demographic questionnaire was distributed to 125 health professionals including...

Author(s):   Tamer Sagiroglu, Serhat OÄŸuz, Mehmet Ali YaÄŸcı, Hilmi Tozkır and Tülin Yalta   

Assessment of soil erosion in the Ihsaniye watershed area, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey

March 2013

  This article discusses research in which the authors apply the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) to the mapping of the soil erosion risk in the Ihsaniye watershed, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. The rainfall-runoff erosivity (R) factor was developed from annual precipitation data and from previous studies. Soil maps and soil survey data were used to...

Author(s):   Ünal Yildirim and Tevfik Erkal  

Investigation of the final stages of a P4-like coliphage infection in Escherichia coli through scanning, transmission and nano-scanning-auger electron microscopy (NanoSAM)

March 2013

Enlargement of bacterial cells during bacteriophage replication has been observed in the past with T-even, Lambda and N4 bacteriophages by the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and light microscopy techniques and hypotheses explaining the enlargement of bacteriophage-infected cells have been postulated in literature. In this study, enlarged Escherichia coli cells were observed using scanning...

Author(s):   Wouter A. van der Westhuizen, Johan L. F. Kock, Elizabeth Coetsee, Pieter W. J. van Wyk, Hendrik C. Swart and Robert R. Bragg

Determination of the relative abundance and distribution of bacteria and fungi in Bonny light crude oil-contaminated sandy loam soil

March 2013

  This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Bonny light crude oil (specific gravity = 0.81; API gravity 43.20) on the numerical composition of soil bacteria and fungi and relative distribution of Gram positive and Gram negative soil bacteria. Eight different levels of the crude oil (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 or 20.0% v/w of soil) were used for the controlled pollution of soil samples...

Author(s):   Eze C. N., Ogbonna J. C., Anyanwu C. U. and Eze E. A.   

Diversity and abundance of insect species at Kota Damansara Community Forest Reserve, Selangor

March 2013

  A study was conducted on the diversity and abundance of insect species at Kota Damansara Community Forest Reserve in order to determine the richness of the forest insect fauna. A total of 774 insects from 13 Orders and 79 Families were recorded. This study shows that Coleoptera (42.63%), Hymenoptera (17.96%), Diptera (10.08%) and Orthoptera (10.85%) were the most dominant Orders in the Forest Reserve. The...

Author(s):   Khadijah A. R., Azidah A. A. and Meor S. R.  

Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Implementation of Lapped Biorthogonal Transform for JPEG XR Compression

March 2013

  This paper describes the hardware implementation of Lapped Biorthogonal Transform (LBT) on Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for JPEG XR Image compression. The implementation is based on dividing image into 128×128 dimension tiles with each tile processed independently. Two main operations that is, overlap pre-filtering and forward core transform are applied on each tile. The proposed...

Author(s):   Muhammad Riaz ur Rehman and Gulistan Raja 

A note on absolute summability factor theorem and almost increasing sequences

March 2013

  Quite recently Savas (2008) has proved a theorem on- summability factors of an infinite series. The present paper deals  with a further generalization of it.   Key words: Absolute summability, almost increasing, weighted mean matrix, summability factor.

Author(s):   Ekrem SavaÅŸ

Endogenous ethanol production in the larva of oil palm weevil (Rhynchophorus palmarum, coleoptera; curculionidae)

February 2013

  This study investigated the larva of oil palm weevil for the presence of endogenous ethanol. The body tissue fluid of the larva was made and its alcoholic content determined using the specific gravity method. The alcohol content as percentage by volume was estimated from the laboratory alcoholometry. For comparison, the alcohol contents of lager beer and red wine were also estimated. Results showed that the...

Author(s):   Kemka H. Ogbonda and David B. Kiin-Kabari        

A new conditional invariant detection framework (CIDF)

February 2013

  Software engineering included some different process such as designing, implementing and modifying of software. All these processes are done to have fast developed software as well as reach a high quality, efficient and maintainable software. Invariants help programmer and tester to do most steps of software engineering more easily. Invariants are mostly always true but of course with a specific confidence....

Author(s):     Hamid Parvin, Hamid Alinejad Rokny, Sajad Parvin and Hossein Shirgahi        

Non linear analysis of a functionally graded beam with variable thickness

February 2013

  The nonlinear analysis of a functionally graded beam under combined loads is investigated analytically in this paper. The point loads and moment is applied at the end of the beam. The area section is considered to vary continuously along the longitudinal axis of the beam. The most important idea for presentation of this paper is the application of the present method for a vast class of functionally graded and...

Author(s):   M. Arefi and G. H. Rahimi        

Impregnation of mosquito net with Neem seed (Azadirachta indica) oil and its insecticidal action

February 2013

  Malaria is a persistent health problem in Africa which requires multidimensional approaches to solve. Insecticide treated net has proved highly invaluable as one of the tools. Neem oil was extracted by solvent extraction in the present study and the oil was used to impregnate bednet. The result showed that the neem oil is a good mosquito repellant, in which its potential could be harnessed for further...

Author(s):   Adewole Adekanmi and Oderinde Abdulazeez        

Tissue effects of high dose atropine and 2-PAM on healthy rats: Examining their role in complications during treatment of organophosphate poisoning

February 2013

  The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high dose atropine and pralidoxime (2-PAM) on different tissues, and to evaluate the drugs’ probable roles in complications during organophosphate (OP) treatment, without using pesticides on healthy tissues. This study was designed as a randomized controlled experimental study consisting of three groups of 10 rats (the control group, the atropine...

Author(s):   Betul Gulalp, Derya Gumuldulu, Aysun Uguz, Zikret Koseoglu, Gulsah Seydaoglu, Kenan DaÄŸlıoÄŸlu and Ozgur Karcioglu   .    

Detection and tracking of ships using a stereo vision system

February 2013

  Maritime transportation continues to maintain the largest volume in the transportation sector, and this is increasing day-by-day. This means there is an ever-increasing demand for safe navigation. In this study, we propose a stereo vision system for detecting and tracking ships as a tool for increasing navigational safety. Ships are detected from obtained images by using an edge detection algorithm that uses...

Author(s):   Gazi Kocak, Shigehiro Yamamoto and Takeshi Hashimoto        

Effect of varied soil matric potentials on the zinc use efficiency of soybean genotypes (Glycine Max L.) under the calcareous soil

February 2013

  Lime content of soils is one of the most important factors limiting zinc (Zn) availability to crops. It is also known that there may be a close relationship between soil moisture levels and Zn use efficiency of plant species. Thus, further studies would be needed concerning these relationships under the varied soils. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted using calcareous soil by growing different...

Author(s):   M. RüÅŸtü Karaman, Ayhan Horuz, Ekrem TuÅŸat, Aydın AdiloÄŸlu and Fatih Er        

Ergonomical evaluation of manually operated weeder under wet land condition

February 2013

  Drudgery involved in weeding operation increases stress on the worker causing increase in heart rate and oxygen consumption. Ergonomic evaluation of weeding operations by different age group of workers at different working hours showed that the heart rates corresponding to cono- weeder and Mandava weeder were 154.54 beats/min and 140.17 beats/min, respectively. Oxygen consumption rate was 1.76...

Author(s):   A. Ashok Kumar, B. Haribabu, A. Srinivasa Rao and Ch. Someswararao        

Land use changes of the Balcova-Guzelbahce shore line investigated using geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique

February 2013

  This study investigated and determined land use changes resulting from economic pressure to develop the land which means development pressures, more specifically anthropogenic stresses, originate urbanization on agricultural land such as dam, swamp, highway, settlement and recreation area. The study, based on aerial photographs and satellite images, geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing...

Author(s):   Handan Cakar⊃ and Bahar Turkyilmaz⊃        

Classical and Bayesian estimation of parameters on the generalized exponentiated gamma distribution

February 2013

  In this paper, we offer generalized exponentiated gamma distribution. We consider the maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimators of unknown parameters and propose Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method to generate samples from the posterior distribution. The mean square error of estimations is computed and comparisons are made using Monte Carlo simulation.   Key words: Maximum...

Author(s):   Parviz Nasiri, Rasoul Lotfi and Hossein Veisipour        

Ring characteristics of 95-year old Japanese cedar plantation trees grown in Taiwan

February 2013

  The ring characteristics of 95 year old Japanese cedar plantation trees grown in Taiwan were explored. Significant differences in the average ring width (RW), earlywood width, latewood width, ring density (RD), earlywood density, latewood density, highest density, lowest density, and latewood percentage were observed among three tree diameter classes and three radial stages of ring numbers. The RW parameters...

Author(s):   Cheng-Jung Lin and Far-Ching Lin        

Failure load of corner joints, which are reinforced with glass-fiber fabric in case-type furniture

February 2013

  In this study, the failure load of L-type corner joints, which are reinforced with glass-fiber fabric, of the case-type furniture have been analyzed experimentally and statistically in laminated medium-density fiberboard (LMDF) material. The failure loads of corner joints have been analyzed experimentally under compression and tension loads. Dowels (D), dowel + glass fiber composite layer from the outside...

Author(s):   Nurdan Cetin Yerlikaya      

Many exact solutions for nonlinear dynamics of DNA model using the generalized Riccati equation mapping method

February 2013

  The objective of this paper is to apply the generalized Riccati equation mapping method for constructing the exact traveling wave solutions of a nonlinear partial differential equation describing the dynamics of DNA modeling. This model consists of two long elastic homogeneous strands connected with each other by an elastic membrane. Hyperbolic and trigonometric function solutions of this model are obtained....

Author(s):   Elsayed M. E. Zayed and Ahmed. H. Arnous      

Effect of irrigation and organic fertilization on oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) in forest nursery

February 2013

The aim of the paper was to determine the effect of microirrigation and organic fertilization on the structure of assemblages of oribatid mites in Silver birch and Scots pine cultivations under conditions of mulching with forest ectohumus. Investigations were conducted at Forest Nursery Białe Błota, Forest District in Bydgoszcz (Poland). Separate experiments in Scots pine and S. birch stands were established in 2003;...

Author(s): Andrzej Klimek, StanisÅ‚aw Rolbiecki, Roman Rolbiecki        

Hyers-Ulam stability of non-homogeneous Euler equations of third and fourth order

February 2013

  The aim of this paper is to prove the stability in the sense of Hyers-Ulam to non-homogeneous Euler equations of third and fourth order: and. It is shown that if fis an approximate solution of any of these equations, then there exists an exact solution of the equation considered near to f.   Key words:  Hyers-Ulam stability, Euler equation, third and fourth order.

Author(s): Cemil Tunç and Emel Biçer        

What factors influence the adoption of inorganic fertilizer by maize farmers? A case of Kakamega District, Western Kenya

February 2013

  This study identifies the factors that influence adoption of inorganic fertilizers by maize farmers in Kakamega District. A probit model was used to analyze data collected from 169 maize farmers. The results showed that growing of a cash crop, off-farm income, access to an agricultural extension agent and use of improved maize seed positively and significantly influenced adoption of inorganic fertilizer....

Author(s): Elizabeth Nambiro and Peter Okoth        

Transportation optimization model of oil products

February 2013

Transporting massive amounts of oil products, it is essential to optimize the total efforts from leaving origins (refineries) until reaching destinations (depots). In this paper, integer mathematical programming model were developed to satisfy this oil transportation optimization problem. Specifically, it is dedicated to obtain refineries -to-depots optimal assignments by setting distance and cost minimization as the...

Author(s): Waleed K. Abduljabbar      

Sexual orientation and the Nigerian society

February 2013

  The Alma-Ata declaration of the World Health Organization, written over three decades ago, clearly charted a new course for the health system of many countries. The historic meeting was the official launching of primary health care, whose principles are explicit equity, appropriate technology, integrated services, community participation and intersectoral collaboration. Nigerian had had her health system...

Author(s): Oluwafolahan Sholeye and O.T. Kuponiyi        

Preparation of nanocrystalline strontium titanate (SrTiO3) powder by sol-gel combustion method

January 2013

Nanocrystalline strontium titanate (SrTiO3, ST) powders were prepared by sol-gel combustion method. The influence of fuel content ratio (ratio of citric acid (CA) and total metal nitrate (MN); Ra = CA:MN) and calcination temperature were investigated on the structure, morphology, and crystallite size by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the Ra ratio of 3:1 is...

Author(s): Thanawat Klaytae, Piram Panthong and Sarawut Thountom,

Induction of cholangiocarcinoma cells apoptosis by an andrographolide analog

January 2013

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignant tumor derived from bile duct epithelial cells that has high incidence in the Northeastern area of Thailand. It is associated with the infection of liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini). Chemotherapeutic treatment of CCA is often ineffective due to its resistance to drugs. Therefore, new effective agents for treatment of CCA are urgently required. RSPP 050 analog is a modified...

Author(s): Narumol Bhummaphan, Jintapat Nateewattana, Kanoknetr Suksen, Rungnapha Saeeng, and Arthit Chairoungdua,

Effects of Bonny light crude oil contamination on the germination, shoot growth and rhizobacterial flora of Vigna unguiculata and Arachis hypogea grown in sandy loam soil

January 2013

This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of different levels of Bonny light crude oil contamination on the germination, shoot growth and rhizobacterial flora ofVigna unguiculata (cowpea) and Arachis hypogea (groundnut) grown in potted sandy loam soil samples in Nsukka, Nigeria. Crude oil at a level of 2.5% increased germination time in cowpea by 24 h but at higher doses (5 to 20%) germination of...

Author(s): Eze C. N., Maduka J. N., Ogbonna J. C. and Eze E. A.

Natural partial order on a semi group of self-E-preserving transformations

January 2013

Let T(X) denote the full transformation semigroup on a set X. For an arbitrary equivalence relation E on X, we consider a sub semi-group of T(X) defined by: TSE(X)={α∈T(X):(x,xα)∈E for each x∈X} which is called the self-E-preserving transformation semi-group on X. In this paper, we discussed a natural partial order on TSE (X) and...

Author(s): Chaiwat Namnak and Ekkachai Laysirikul

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