Scientific Research and Essays

  • Abbreviation: Sci. Res. Essays
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-2248
  • DOI: 10.5897/SRE
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2758

SRE Articles

Verification of the analytical equation for power penalty measurement in OXADM device

December 2011

This paper presents a computational investigation of OXADM device for measuring power penalty. The OXADM are located in the nodes, which have more than two switching directions in ring networks. The function of OXADM is to flexibly switch the wavelengths among the different input and output ports. Because of the OXADM’s imperfect performance, the insertion loss and crosstalk are induced in the system. This paper...

Author(s): Mohammad Syuhaimi bin Ab-Rahman, Khoo Boon Kheng, Ili Yusof, Liang Xian Loong and Ng Si Hoong

Determination of the fundamental nutritional components in fresh and hot smoked spiny eel (Mastacembelus mastacembelus, Bank and Solander, 1794)

December 2011

In this study the nutritional components of spiny eel obtained from Atatürk Dam Lake within the borders of Turkey by using fishing nets was investigated when it was fresh and after smoking process. While the quantity of the raw protein, raw fat, raw ash and carbohydrates in fresh spiny eel were determined as 19.88 ± 0.18%, 2.10 ± 0.62, 1.38 ± 0.24%, 0.07 ±...

Author(s): Ä°lkan Ali OLGUNOÄžLU

A new mathematical model of peristaltic flow on esophageal bolus transport

December 2011

A new mathematical model is developed for peristaltic transport in the esophagus. Manometric measurements of luminal pressure have been obtained in the esophagus and interpreted both biological and mechanical point of view. Biological data analysis pointed out that pressure distribution has a polynomial form along the esophagus. However, it has been considered as sinusoidal in calculations by scientists. Therefore, a...

Author(s): Ethem Toklu

Characterization of virulence genes in typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

December 2011

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of diarrhea in infants and children in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of EPEC in children with diarrhea by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method targeting the eae gene. The presence of virulence gene including bfpA was also investigated by PCR, for the differentiation of typical and atypical EPEC strains....

Author(s): Khorshidi Ahmad, Motallebi Mitra, Rohani Mehdi and Piroozmand Ahmad

Meta-analysis on the relationship between genetic polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genetic polymorphisms and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese population

December 2011

We aimed to evaluate the association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism with ESCC. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Chinese Biomedical Database. All the articles searched were independently reviewed and selected by 2 evaluators according to the predetermined criteria. A total of 10 case-control studies published between 2001 and 2011 were included. When all the studies were pooled, the crude...

Author(s): HU Xue-bin, FENG Zhe, FAN Yu-cong, XIONG Zhi-yong and HUANG Qi-wei

Effect of eutrophication on cyanobacteria inhibition by Alternanthera philoxeroides

December 2011

The inhibition of harmful algal growth by alligator weed depends on its nutritional status. Aqueous extracts of Alternanthera  philoxeroides exhibited the strongest inhibition of the algae in oligotrophic conditions, moderate inhibition in mesotrophic conditions, and the lowest inhibition in eutrophic conditions. The phytotoxic effect of the culture filtrate decreased gradually in the order:...

Author(s): S. Zuo, H. Mei, L. Ye and M. Li

Analysis of support requirements for a tunnel portal in weak rock: A case study from Turkey

December 2011

In this paper, engineering geological properties of the entrance portal section of Konakönü Tunnel, located on Black Sea Coastal Highway, Turkey, is studied.Moderately weathered basaltic and andesitic tuffs orderly to be driven by the entrance portal section. Tunnel portal design in weak rock presents some special challenges to the designers, since misjudgements in the design of tunnel can lead to very...

Author(s): Ayberk Kaya, Fikri Bulut, Selçuk AlemdaÄŸ and Aytuna Sayin

Automatic Spike detection and correction for outdoor machine vision: Application to tomato

December 2011

The use of outdoor machine vision has become part of the technology used in industry, farming, and military. Applications include color recognition such as obstacle detection, road following, and landmark recognition. This study proposes a spike auto-detection and correction technique based on color modeling and surface reflectance to predict the color and correct the spike region apparent color on the tomato surface....

Author(s): Nasrolah Sahragard, Abdul Rahman Bin Ramli, Mohammad Hamiruce Bin Marhaban and Shattri Bin Mansor

The carotid artery calcification in type II diabetic patients on panoramic radiographs: An important marker for vascular risk

December 2011

The risk of stroke in diabetic patients is higher than other people. The most important cause of stroke is atherosclerotic plaque formation and detection of this defect is possible in panoramic radiography. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of carotid artery calcifications (CACs) in type II diabetic patients and healthy individuals based on panoramic radiographs (PRs). We evaluated 458 PRs taken...

Author(s): Maryam Tofangchiha, Maryam Foroozia, Mahin Bakhshi, and Hoorie Bashizade

Impact of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 polymorphism and environmental lead exposure on oxidative stress biomarkers

December 2011

Oxidative stress and genetic related to antioxidants could have influence on susceptibility to lead (Pb) toxicity. In this study, we aim to examine the effects of genetic variations of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene on oxidative stress alterations (by the measurements of malondialdehyde; MDA and glutathione; GSH) among general population. Real-time-PCR with Taqman probes was performed to analyze GSTM1, GSTT1 and...

Author(s): Nitchaphat Khansakorn, Waranya Wongwit, Prapin Tharnpoophasiam, Bunlue Hengprasith, Lerson Suwannathon, Krittaya Pethchpoung, Krongtong Yoovathaworn, Suwannee Chanprasertyothin, Thunyachai Sura, Sming Kaojarern, Piyamit Sritara and Jintana Sirivarasai

Game theory approaches for improving intrusion detection in MANETs

December 2011

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are wireless networks in which the mobile nodes exchange information without the help of any predefined infrastructure. In such networks also called spontaneous networks, the nodes collaborate to provide the basic network services. Due to their communication type and resources constraint, MANETs are vulnerable to diverse types of attacks and intrusions. One of the security mechanisms for...

Author(s): Mohammad Masoud Javidi and Laya Aliahmadipour

Online Quantitative feedback theory (QFT) -based self-tuning controller for grain drying process

December 2011

This paper presents a development of QFT-based self-tuning controller for a conveyor belt type grain dryer plant. Grain drying process is complex due to long time delay, presence of disturbances and plant uncertainty. QFT technique potentially has excellent solution towards this problem due to its well known capability to achieve robust performance regardless parameters variation and disturbances. The mathematical model...

Author(s): Hasmah Mansor, Samsul Bahari Mohd. Noor, Raja Kamil Raja Ahmad and Farah Saleena Taip

Correlation between pulse wave velocity and serum sLOX-1 in patients with acute cerebral infarction

December 2011

To investigate the relationship between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and serum lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) level in patients with acute cerebral infarction, a total of 58 patients with acute cerebral infarction occurring within 72 h and 30 subjects (control) without stroke receiving physical examination were recruited into the present study. The right carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV) was...

Author(s): Chao Lai, Cunfu Wang, Zhaohong Xie, Li Liu, Zhengyu Zhu and Jianzhong Bi

An overview on shifting cultivation with reference to Bangladesh

December 2011

Shifting cultivation is a form of land use among resource poor communities with a rotation of cultivation and fallow in the same unit of land. Millions of indigenous people are dependent on shifting cultivation practice, with majority households for subsistence living. This practice is in transition these days with rising population of shifting cultivators and demand for more food. Bangladesh...

Author(s): M. A. Hossain

Optimization strategy for air traffic flow in multi-airport network

December 2011

To avoid the airport congestion and reduce flight delays, the paper studied the airport traffic balance from a system perspective at the strategic level. By considering the single-airport approach and departure as well as the correlation between the multi-airport connecting flights, the paper proposed network system on traffic flow which is open and has a direction in multi-airport; the paper set up multi-airport open...

Author(s): Yu JIANG, Honghai ZHANG and Hongshan XIA

Selecting the best ABS sensor technology using fuzzy MADM

December 2011

In the competitive world today, maintaining and developing market share are of great importance to any business, and technology plays an important role here. Technology selection, influencing the competitive advantages of an enterprise or a country is a multi-criteria decision problem which can be improved by integrating different MCDM1 methods. Many different resources including financial, human and time are spent...

Author(s): Majid Elahi, Mohsen Alvandi, Hassan Khodaei Valehzagharad and Mostafa Memarzade

A simplified adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) controller trained by genetic algorithm to control nonlinear multi-input multi-output systems

December 2011

This paper presents a simplified adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) controller to control nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems. This controller uses only few rules to provide the control actions, instead of the full combination of all possible rules. Consequently, the proposed controller possesses several advantages over the conventional ANFIS controller especially the reduction in execution...

Author(s): Omar F. Lutfy, Samsul B. Mohd Noor and Mohammad H. Marhaban

Transient effects of heater on CO2 emissions in an automobile

December 2011

This study investigates the transient effects of heater on CO2 emissions in an automobile. In the evaluation of comfort in automobiles, in general temperature, humidity and air velocity measurements are taken. It is also important to assess the CO2 emission of the air inside a car. The aim of this study was to measure the CO2 emissions with different occupant numbers, different air velocities with...

Author(s): M. Özgün Korukçu and Muhsin Kiliç

Effect of temperature on the development of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

December 2011

An invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) has attacked cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seriously in Pakistan and India, and caused great loss in the production of cotton in recent years. This kind of pests can probably spread rapidly and would threaten cotton and other crops in many infested and non-infested countries. P. solenopsis has first been reported to...

Author(s): Yongyue LU, Xin GUAN and Ling ZENG

Evaluation of cagA tyrosine phosphorylation DNA motifs in Helicobacter pylori isolates from gastric disorder patients in West of Iran

December 2011

Cag Pathogenicity Island (cag-PAI)-containing Helicobacter pylori strains induces signal transduction pathways resulting in tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins adjacent to the site of bacterial adhesion on host gastric epithelial cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were designed to test the presence of three nucleotide sequences corresponding to tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs) A, B, and...

Author(s): Mohammad Kargar, Negar Souod, Sadegh Ghorbani-Dalini, Abbas Doosti and Abbas Ali Rezaeian

Research on balance of fuzzy cognitive map

December 2011

In order to evaluate better the conflicts in FCM (fuzzy cognitive map), the paper focuses on the research of the balance of FCM. We first further analyze the causal relationship in FCM and the balance of FCM. Based on these, key edge is essential factor to determine whether FCM balanced or not. Moreover, one new balance degree of FCM is used to measure the conflicts. Finally, a method of searching for key edge is given...

Author(s): Zhen Peng, and Bingru Yang

Utilizing non-iterative linear transformations between non-uniformly dilated 3D frames

December 2011

Linear transformations have been routinely applied in various field applications since they permit a straightforward geometric relationship between different coordinate systems. The most general form of linear transformations which is also referred to as the affine model allows coordinate transformations between non-uniformly dilated systems. This particular model is intrinsically useful for datum applications in...

Author(s): Jen-Yu Han, Tomás Soler and Jenny Guo

Comparative analysis of minimum inhibitory concentration of various brands of cephalosporin against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

December 2011

Staphylococcus aureus poses a serious global threat due to difficulty in treatment of its multi-drug resistant strains. One hundred and fifty isolates were collected from pathology laboratory of Nashtar Medical Hospital, Multan; out of which, 50% isolates were found resistant to erythromycin, 100% to carbenicillin and 97% to ampicillin. Vancomycin was comparatively most effective as compared to other antibiotics....

Author(s): K. Farzana, S. Noreen, B. Nasir, S. Azhar, A. Mumtaz, A. Sethi, M. H. B. Asad, B. A. Khan, S. A. Khan and G. Murtaza

Steer-by-switch system design for vehicles

December 2011

In this paper, design of a steer-by-switch system as a new technology to steer vehicles devoid of a steering wheel was described. In this method, steering of the vehicle was achieved by two push button switches which were related to the front wheels via an electro-hydro-mechanical system. The objective of this design was to eliminate the prejudicial effects associated with the utilisation of steering wheels in machines....

Author(s): Daryoush Safarzadeh, Shamsuddin Sulaiman, Faieza Abdul Aziz, Desa Bin Ahmad and Gholam Hossein Majzoobi

Exploring role of different floor, wall and roof details in energy efficiency of a bungalow house in Malaysia

December 2011

Energy has undeniable role in sustainable architecture. Building sections consume 15 to 60% of whole energy in different countries. Residential sector includes 19% of energy consumption in Malaysia. In this study, a bungalow house as a common low density house in Malaysia was simulated by Design Builder software based on Energy plus program. Then its different components including floor, wall, roof...

Author(s): Saber Sabouri, M. F.  M. Zain and M. Jamil

Isolation and characterization of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor peptides derived from porcine hemoglobin

December 2011

In China, porcine blood has a long history as a food with medicinal effects and for treating strokes, an obvious clinical consequence of hypertension. However, the active ingredients are still unknown and need to be clarified. This study described the isolation, characterization and animal experiments of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor peptides derived from porcine blood. The highly active...

Author(s): Yan Ren, De-Guang Wan, Xian-ming Lu, Lu Chen, Tian-e Zhang and Jin-Lin Guo,

Direct attacks on mobile phones by bluetooth for forensic analysis

December 2011

Nowadays users demand sophisticated applications and services on their mobile phones since they have become a basic necessity for everyday life. The Symbian operating system has the features outlined earlier and provides a security and data protection module, besides it is one of the world market leader in mobile phones. The attacks described here were made through ‘Bluetooth technology’, and its...

Author(s): Beatriz López Martínez, Marcos Arturo Rosales García, Gabriel Sánchez Pérez, Gualberto Aguilar Torres and Linda Karina Toscano Medina  

Hydrogen therapy may be a novel, safe and effective treatment for infertility patients with varicocele

December 2011

Hydrogen gas recently was discovered as a novel therapeutic medical agent in many biomedical fields. It has potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic protective effects on cells and organs. Increasing evidence showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in spermatogenesis dysfunction in patients with varicocele. Varicocelectomy and antioxidant treatment can improve the quality of...

Author(s): Jun Chen, Mingchao Li, Bin Zhang, Hengjun Xiao, Tao Qi, Xuejun Sun and Xiao Chen

Thirty-four new records and the diversity of the Rotifera in the Turkish part of the Tigris River watershed, with remarks on biogeographically interesting taxa

December 2011

A total of 175 morphospecies belonging to 47 genera of the monogonont Rotiferaare reported here, representing the highest rotifer biodiversity recorded from any body of water in Turkey; 34 of these species are new records for the Turkish fauna. The genera Donneria De Smet,...

Author(s): A. Bekleyen, B. Gokot and M. Varol

A study on thermal and electrical properties of high density polyethylene/high density polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride/montmorillonite/polypyrrole blend

December 2011

Conducting polypyrrole (PPy) was synthesized by chemical polymerization method. The synthesized PPy was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and its conductivity was measured by a resistometer. Then, PPy was incorporated into high density polyethylene/montmorillonite nanocomposites. PPy concentration varied in the range of 5 to 20% by weight in nanocomposites using melt mixing follow by...

Author(s): Khatereh Abron, Mat Uzir B. Wahit and Sobhan Bahraeian

Portal vein arterialization used in partial hepatectomy maintains liver regeneration

December 2011

Portal vein arterialization (PVA) has been used in some hepatobiliary surgeries and the liver transplants. There is considerable debate regarding the effect of PVA on the liver regeneration. This study was to investigate the effect of PVA on the liver regeneration. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into PVA group (rats received 68% hepatectomy, right nephrectomy and PVA) and control group (rats received 68%...

Author(s): Jun-Jing Zhang, Jian-Xiang Niu, Chao-Xuan Dong, and Xing-Kai Meng,

A comparison and normality test of some measures of association via simulation for rectangular doubly ordered cross tables

December 2011

Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficient, Gamma coefficient, Kendall's tau-b, Kendall's tau-c, and Somers’d are the most commonly used measures of association for doubly either square or rectangular ordered contingency tables. So far, there has been no existing study expressing a formal priority on those measures of association. The aim of this study is not only to compare these measures of association...

Author(s): Atila GöktaÅŸ and Öznur Ä°ÅŸçi

Symptomatic intracranial capillary telangiectasia in a patient with contralateral common carotid artery dissection

December 2011

Intracranial capillary telangiectasia (ICT) is a rare benign disease with few clinical reports, as most capillary telangiectasias locate in the brainstem, small, asymptomatic and angiographically invisibale. We present a case of intracranial capillary telangiectasia with seizure and hemiplegiahemiparesia. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies revealed right frontal ischemic lesion. Digital subtraction...

Author(s): Xiaoqin Huang, Chunqiu Fan and Yi Tang

Compton scattering of 662 keV gamma rays proposed by klein-nishina formula

December 2011

The free electron Compton scattering cross-section are given by klein-Nishima, calculated using photon with an energy of 662 keV scattered incoherently through angles from 0-120°. The Compton scattering effect was calculated producing a linear relationship between the reciprocal of the scattered photon energy and 1/E0as a function of (1-cos θ), where θ is the scattering angle. It was found that the...

Author(s): I. Hossain, N. A. B. Azmi, E. Hoque and K. K. Viswanathan

3D stereo reconstruction using sum square of difference matching algorithm

December 2011

In this study, the Sum Square of Difference (SSD) matching algorithm is introduced to solve the matching ambiguousness between pixels using Quickbird images. This method is tested with three different types of template sizes of 3 × 3, 5 × 5 and 7 × 7 to acquire the best correlation of patches to be correlated. The matching is implemented with two different locations in the Quickbird images. The result...

Author(s): Maged Marghany, Mohd Razlan Bin Md Tahar and Mazlan Hashim

Regression control chart for determination of Young’s modulus: A case study

December 2011

The fundamental problem while obtaining initial modulus (Young’s modulus) of concrete in experimental studies is to determine the region on stress-strain curve that will be used in calculations of initial tangent. In the present paper, an approach that depends on regression control chart - that is one of the statistical process control (SPC) tools - for determining the initial tangent and Young’s modulus is...

Author(s): Baris OZKUL and Aslan Deniz KARAOGLAN

A hybrid method for increasing the accuracy of software development effort estimation

December 2011

Since software development environments, methods and tools are changing rapidly, the importance of accurate estimations in software projects is increasing significantly. Inaccurate estimations can lead to unpleasant results in the software projects so that many projects are failed at the early stages of the project. During the recent years, numerous estimation methods have been proposed that most of which are based on...

Author(s): Vahid Khatibi B., Dayang N. A. Jawawi, Siti Zaiton Mohd Hashim and Elham Khatibi

Photocatalytic degradation of phenanthrene in nonionic-anionic surfactant using titania catalysts

December 2011

Photocatalytic degradation of phenanthrene by titania in nonionic-anionic surfactant micelles was investigated as a promising strategy for soil/sediment/groundwater remediation after using nonionic-anionic surfactant as solubilizing agents for removal of contaminants from soils/sediment/groundwater. All photocatalytic experiments were conducted using a 365 nm mercury monochromatic ultraviolet lamp in a photocatalytic...

Author(s): Yanlin Zhang,YuFang Wan, Peihong Liu, Jianzhang Fang and Fengqiang Sun

Effect of neutral mutation on HIV-1 drug resistance in highly active antiretroviral therapy

December 2011

Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance is a grave problem in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and neutral mutation is an important factor in the evolution of HIV-1. We consider the process of HIV-1 quasispecies transition in HAART to be transformation among three viral phenotypes: wild-type HIV-1, neutral-type HIV-1 and resistant-type HIV-1. A new model is proposed to study the transition...

Author(s): Guangyu HUANG, Min CHEN and Kaifa WANG

A three years study of the diversity and density of waterfowl and waders in Sorkhrud International Wetland (October 2007 – March 2010)

December 2011

A three year study of the seasonal changes in the biodiversity and the density of the waterfowl and wader were carried out in Sorkhrud International Wetland which is a part of Feridonkenar's intentional wetlands (registered in Ramsar Convention). Birds were counted through the total count method. The study included 119592, 140901 and 139160 waterfowl and waders were counted in the winter of 2007, 2008 and 2009...

Author(s): Mohsen Ahmadpour , Mohammad Hosein Sinka Karimi, Seyed Mahmoud Ghasempouri, Mousa Ahmadpour and Younes Yaghobzadeh

Application of access graphs and home culture: Examining factors relative to climate and privacy in Iranian houses

December 2011

In the recent past, access graphs have been applied as a space syntax technique to analyze the spatial configuration of buildings in correlation with the social concepts. The aim of this study is to show the deficiencies in the use of the space syntax method in the examining of spatial relation in traditional houses in Iran. Traditional Iranian houses consider climate and privacy as very important factors for generating...

Author(s): Gholamhossein Memarian and Arezou Sadoughi

A metamaterial inspired miniaturized phi-shaped high gain antenna for skin cancer detection

December 2011

This paper introduces a new low cost, robust miniaturized micro strip high gain antenna inspired with metamaterial split ring resonator structure (SRR). Because of metamaterials property, there has been considerable reduction in size. The overall antenna structure is phi shaped which is equivalently two SRRs placed back to back. This miniaturized phi shaped antenna (MPSA) thus obtained, has been simulated on EM solver...

Author(s): Vipul Sharma, S.S. Pattnaik, S. Devi and  Nitin

Investigation of flow and vacuum lifting force on a non-contact end effector for robotic handling of non-rigid material

November 2011

  This study identifies the need for a new range of end effectors suitable for non-rigid products and introduces a novel non-contact gripping device. The end effector operates on the principle of generating a high-speed fluid flow between the end effector and product surface thereby creating a vacuum which levitates the product. The lifting forces and conditions are discussed by using optimization methodology...

Author(s):   Ethem Toklu and Fehmi Erzincanli

Mobile data collector based routing protocol for wireless sensor networks

November 2011

  In the era of New Generation Networks (NWGN) many emerging and future enable technologies accomplish the requirements of ubiquitous communication networks. Mobile wireless sensor network (mWSN) is one of the rising and emerging technologies for various application of NWGN, the enormous concerns of these networks are data gathering with energy efficiency. Routing protocol act as middleware, which is...

Author(s):   Muhammad Arshad, Nasrullah Armi, Nidal Kamel and N. M. Saad

Impact of the new road traffic safety law on the number of traffic casualties in Serbia

November 2011

  In this research the analysis of the impact of the new road traffic safety law (new RTSL) in Serbia to the decrease of the number of killed in traffic accidents in Serbia is shown. The effects of a new legislation and larger enforcement made by new RTSL implementation to the decrease of the number of killed and injured in traffic have been analysed by comparing the number of killed and injured in traffic in...

Author(s):   Boris Antić, T. E., Milan Vujanić, T. E., Dragan Jovanović, T. E. and Dalibor Pešić, T. E.

Preparation, characterization and adsorption performance of the KOH-activated carbons derived from kenaf fiber for lead (II) removal from waste water

November 2011

  In this study, activated carbon was prepared from kenaf fiber (KF) by using physiochemical activation method consisting of potassium hydroxide (KOH) impregnation with carbon dioxide (CO2) gasification. Pore structure and physical characteristics of the prepared activated carbon were determined. Adsorption studies for divalent lead (Pb) were carried out to delineate the effect of contact time,...

Author(s):   Zaira Zaman Chowdhury, Sharifuddin Mohd. Zain, Rashid Atta Khan and Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf

Flow injection spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of candesartan cilexetil in pharmaceutical formulations

November 2011

  This article describes the development of flow injection methods for the determination of Candesartan Cilexetil using spectrophotometery and spectrofluorimetry in pharmaceutical formulations. The first method is based on the UV absorption at 270 nm in phosphate buffer containing cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and methanol at pH 6.5. The second method based on the fluorescence excitation and...

Author(s):   Ayisha Khalid, Amir Waseem, Iftikhar Afzal, Mohammad Yaqoob, Abdul Nabi and Mohammad Masoom Yasinzai

Analyzing the protection system’s risk in distribution networks after connection of distributed generation (DG)

November 2011

  Using distributed generation (DG) is an interesting topic that has drawn attention of electrical engineers in recent years. The presence of these generation units in distribution systems, although has many advantages and benefits, has to be applied after performing detailed studies and investigations due to their complexities in operation, control and protection of network. One of the major effects of DGs is...

Author(s):   S. A. M. Javadian and M. R. Haghifam

Co-integration analysis on all-variety Boro rice yields

November 2011

  The Boro rice is one of the most important rice in Bangladesh. It has three varieties namely: high yielding, local and Pajam. The all-variety Boro rice yield of Rajshahi and Rangpur districts have been selected for the period from 1985 to 2007 to measure the relationship between them. Our study shows a cointegrating relationship exist between the yields. The speed of adjustment coefficient of the error...

Author(s):   Provash Kumar Karmokar, and Mahendran Shitan,  

A comparative study for electricity generation in microbial fuel cell reactor with and without mediators

November 2011

A microbial fuel cell (MFC) reactor with two compartments has been constructed from cheap materials and used for electricity generation from artificial mineral glucose medium (MGM) and test the adding or not adding  the mediators during four separate experiment. The maximum voltages yield at external resistance 30 Ω on the mediator - less experiments was 401 mV, while when the mediators have been methylene...

Author(s): Al-Shehri, A. N., Ghanem, K. M., and Al-Garni, S. M.

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