African Journal of
Pharmacy and Pharmacology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0816
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPP
  • Start Year: 2007

AJPP Articles in press

Article in Press

Old and Recent Advances in Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Prevention and Cure of Malaria Including Perspectives in Ethiopia

Malaria, caused by apicomplexan parasite, is an old disease and continues to be a major public health threat in many countries. This article aims to present different aspects of malaria including causes, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment in an articulate and comprehensive manner. Six Plasmodium species are recognized as the etiology of human malaria, of which Plasmodium falciparum is popular in East and Southern...


Article in Press


Introduction: Self-medication has become a common practice among pregnant women in many developing countries. However, the use of medication during pregnancy has also been related to many serious adverse effects, and several drugs are known to be contraindicated during pregnancy. In Libya, many prescription drugs are dispensed without prescription, but few studies have considered the practice of self-medication in this...


Article in Press


Trypanosomiasis is an important protozoan disease affecting domestic livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. Control of trypanosomiasis is by administration of antitrypanosomal drugs. Quinapyramine was widely used between 1950s and 1970s in Africa as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent in cattle. Trypanosome resistance to the drug developed rapidly and often associated with problems of toxicity. Administration of...


Article in Press

In vitro Anticoagulant Activity of Methanolic extracts of Artemisia herba alba Asso, Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk) Sch. Bip and Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad grown in Saudi Arabia

Previous studies had reported that medicinal plants possess anticoagulant activity, which opened a new window of hope for the treatment of people suffering from arterial and venous thrombotic disorders. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anticoagulant activity of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad (fruits), Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk) Sch. Bip (aerial parts) and Artemisia herba-alba Asso (aerial parts)...


Article in Press


Multidrug-Resistance Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is tuberculosis (TB) that is resistant to two first-line drugs; both isoniazid and rifampicin. Globally in 2015, there were an estimated 480, 000 new cases of multidrug-resistant TB. According to the anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey conducted nationwide in Ethiopia in 2012 among 804 newly diagnosed TB cases 1.6 % were found to be infected with MDR-TB. The continuous...


Article in Press

Pharmacognostic study of seeds of Iris hookeriana Foster. A wild plant from Himalaya, Pakistan.

The phytochemical analysis of seeds is very important commercially and has broad interest in pharmaceutical industries for the production of the new drugs discovery for curing of various diseases. Seeds of Iris hookeriana Foster. locally known as Gohray-gha, found in Himalaya regions and provides huge amount of seeds. In present study seeds were examined pharmacognostically to find out the phytochemical constituents. ...


Article in Press

Effect of Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Abstinence on Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 5 Binding in Brains of C57BL/6J Mice

Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) is involved in the transition of alcohol use to addiction by activating signalling pathways and inducing glutamate excitotoxicity. The objective was to investigate the effects of chronic alcohol treatment and withdrawal on mGluR5 binding in the brains of C57BL/6J mice. The study was a controlled experiment in which male C57Bl/6J mice were introduced to the alcohol liquid...


Article in Press

Prokinetic effect of ferulic acid ethyl ester on mice

Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are public health problem which affects 69% of the world's population. Among the disorders that cause gastrointestinal hypomotility is mainly constipation, but drugs available for the treatment of this disorder come with numerous adverse effects, among them the most common are abdominal pain and cardiotoxic potential. Ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) is a phenylpropanoid widely found in...

Author(s):Izabela Borges de Carvalho Lima

Article in Press

Synthesis, antibacterial and anticancer activities of some novel 2-substituted aminothiazoles

Amino group of thiazole moiety (26) was treated with various aromatic aldehydes its gave corresponding Schiff's bases (27-36). These Schiff's bases were reacted with benzyl in the presence of ammonium acetate (NH4OAc) to find corresponding novel 2-substituted aminothiazoles (37-46). Structures of all the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, mass spectral data and elemental analysis. The synthesized...

Author(s):Thiazoles, aminothiazoles, antibacterial activity, anticancer activity.

Article in Press

Effects of commercial herbal preparation (hp) used in Nigeria on lipid profile of acetaminophen-intoxicated rats

This study evaluated the protective effects of commercial herbal preparation (HP) on acetaminophen (APAP) induced lipid profile aberrations in rats. Twenty four male rats were divided into 6 groups of 4 rats each and treated orally as follows: Group 1 (normal control), group 2 (intoxicated and untreated), group 3 (pre-treated with 100 mg/kg b.w. of silymarin), groups 4, 5 and 6 (pre-treated with 1, 2 and 3 ml/kg b.w. HP)...

Author(s):Pharmacological Biochemistry Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Article in Press

Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling of Hybrid Compounds based on Different Fragments Clubbed with Pyrrole

The limitations of currently available drugs and emergence of multidrug and extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) stress the need of new candidates as antitubercular agents. Different 2,5-dimethyl pyrrole derivatives clubbed with coumarin, naphthyl, furyl, phenyl, fragment of ibuprofen, fragment of diclofenac were synthesized and evaluated for antitubercular activity. The structure of all...

Author(s):Apeejay Stya University, Haryana

Article in Press


Cruciferous vegetables constitute an important phytochemical that is Glucosinolate, it is an organic anionic compound containing sulphur, nitrogen and a group derived from glucose. Glucosinolates are abundantly present in the members of family Cruiciferae. The enzymes catalysing the hydrolysis of glucosinolates are known as myrosinases. The potentially beneficial activities of glucosinolates and their enzymatic hydrolysis...


Article in Press

Isolation and Antimicrobial Efficacy of Bergenia ciliate Using in vitro Models

Antimicrobial activities of five constituents isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of Bergenia ciliate were investigated. About all constituents exhibited antimicrobial efficacy on the tested microorganisms, including two human Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus) and four Gram-negative ones (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella Pneumonia). Of these...

Author(s):Collage of Material Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China

Article in Press

Film forming Gels: A Review

Film forming gels are a novel approach in this area that might present an alternative to the conventional dosage forms used on the skin, such as ointments,creams, gels or patches. The polymeric solution is applied to the skin as a liquid and forms an almost invisible film in situ by solvent evaporation. Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) can provide some desirable performances over conventional pharmaceutical dosage...

Author(s):department of pharmaceutical sciences, Kumaun University, Nainital

Article in Press

Phyto-Bioactive Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Jatropha multifida Leaves and its effect on Prostaglandin and Haematological Indices in Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions on Wistar Albino Rats.

The use of plants extract in traditional medicine continues to provide the therapeutic needs for greater percentage of the world’s population especially in developing countries. In this study, the phytochemical properties and biochemical responses of some haematological parameters and prostaglandin of gastric lesions to ethanol extract of Jatropha multifida leaves were investigated. The quantitative phytochemical analysis...

Author(s):Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Article in Press

Evaluation of hypoglycemic activity and safety of Carica papaya seed extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

Carica papaya which is widely spread all over the world has gained popularity in the treatment of many diseases viz stomach upsets, diarrhoea, bilharzia, diabetes. Very few studies have been carried out to confirm the safety and efficacy of Carica papaya seeds used as anti-hyperglycemic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and hypoglycemic potential of C. papaya seeds on alloxan induced diabetic mice....

Author(s):Paul S. Kagame, Nicholas Mwikwabe, Peter Mwitari and Moses Gichua

Article in Press

Antimicrobial activity of the Endemic Orchid Brachycorythis iantha (Wight) of Peninsular India, Kanyakumari district

The present study has been designed to examine the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of powdered pod, leaves and flowers of an endemic terrestrial orchid Brachycorythis iantha. The extracts of Brachycorythis iantha were tested against the bacterial pathogens via Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and fungus (Candida albicans). Antimicrobial...

Author(s):R. Mary Suja and B. Christudhas Williams

Article in Press

Nutritional management of diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a multifaceted unending disease and is a key source of death worldwide. It is responsible for more than a million amputations every year. It is anticipated that 400 million people worldwide will suffer from diabetes by 2030. The likelihood of developing diabetes depends on a blend of genetic factors, obesity, living style and environmental factors. There are two major types of diabetes: insulin...

Author(s):Usman Rashid Malik, Abid Mehmood Yousaf, Irfan Bashir and Muhammad Jamshaid

Article in Press

Isolation and characterization of betulinic acid from the stem bark extract of Glossonema Boveanum (Decne)

The ethyl acetate extracts through maceration extraction of stem bark of Glossonema boveanum (Decne.) (Asclepiadaceae) afforded one pentacyclic triterpene, betulinic acid, which is reported for the first time in this plant. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of 1D NMR (1H, 13C and DEPT), 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) and by comparison with reported data. The isolated compound was then...

Author(s):Mohammed Sani Sallau , Ahmed Jibrin Uttu , Hamisu Ibrahim Abdullahi Yunusa Idris and Habila James Dama

Article in Press

Development and invitro characterization of improved vesicular drug delivery system containing methotrexate

Conventional chemotherapy for the treatment of intracellular infections is not effective, due to limited permeation of drugs into cells. This can be overcome by use of vesicular drug delivery systems. Encapsulation of a drug in vesicular structures can be predicted to prolong the existence of the drug in systemic circulation, and perhaps, reduces the toxicity if selective uptake can be achieved. Proniosomes are dry powder...

Author(s):S. Chellaram, D. Dhachinamoorthi and K. B. Chandrasekhar

Article in Press

Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio of fixed dose highly active antiretroviral drugs using white rabbit

There is an increasing reliance on neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as a prognostic marker in certain diseases. Observations have suggested the effects of administering highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients to be beneficial as well as having its side effects. Hence, this study was designed to examine the relationship of NLR of fixed dose HAART. Twenty male white...

Author(s):OSIME Evarista Odaburhine and INNIH Silvanus Olu

Article in Press

A mixed-method approach to investigation of influencing factors on prescription behavior of physicians in the choice of brands chemotherapy drugs

Brands are considered as one of the most valuable assets of companies in the area of ever increasing competitions of markets, goods and various services. Physicians are actually the ultimate decision holder of which brand should be prescribed to their patients. Prescribing behavior of physicians affected by many factors. The present study investigates the factors which influence physician prescribing decisions. In order to...

Author(s):Mehdi Mohammadzadeh, Seyyed Abolfazl Abolfazli , Farzad Peiravian and Atefeh Hajiagha Bozorgi

Article in Press

Antihypertensive effects of ethanolic extract of Mucuna flagellipes seed on salt-induced hypertension on Sprague-dawley rats

The need to consider an ethnomedicinal alternative for the management of hypertension has become necessary due to the high cost associated with purchasing conventional antihypertensive drugs and the inability of patients to adhere strictly to the procedures of administration. A total of 40 acclimatized male Wistar rats were used for the study. Five rats were grouped as normotensive control (group A). 25 hypertensive rats...

Author(s):Egharevba E. Jovita, Celestine O. Ani, Igwe.C.Uzoma, Anyaeji S.Pamela, Onwuka C. Kelechi, Adeyomo M. Ayowumi and Nwachukwu C. Daniel

Article in Press

Evaluation of analgesic activity of the ethanolic extract of Pennisetum purpureum in albino mice

Pennisetum purpureum (Elephant or Napier grass) is being used in East Africa and some other parts of the world as animal feed and also in pulp industry. In some parts of South eastern Nigeria where it is popularly known as ‘’Achara‘’ it is a delicacy in some traditional dishes. In recent studies, its nutritional and non-nutritional components reveal that it contains flavoids, saponin, sterols, glycosides, tannins and high...

Author(s):Igbokwe E. E., Igbokwe G. O. and B. M. Agaie

Article in Press

Prediction of novel therapeutic indication for rosiglitazone based on its reported clinical side effects: Drug repositioning using pharmacovigilance approach

Repositioning of drug using pharmacovigilance approach is the primary objective of this study. Rosiglitazone is the target molecule for this pilot scale study. Rosiglitazone is an anti-diabetic drug of thiazolidinedione class. It works as an insulin sensitizer, by binding to the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma in fat cells and making the cells more responsive to insulin. Rosiglitazone has been...

Author(s):Mrugank Parmar and Shital Panchal

Article in Press

Analgesic properties of snake venom as compared to conventional analgesics

An analgesic is a drug that relieves pain by acting on the central nervous system or peripheral pain receptor mechanisms; while snake venom is a highly modified saliva containing zootoxins which facilitate the immobilization and digestion of prey and defense against threats. Snake venom is toxic but may also have therapeutic effects, e.g. captopril, an Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme inhibitor was developed from the Pit...

Author(s):Caroline Moraa Gesisa and Joseph Gikunju Kangangi

Article in Press

RP-HPLC method development and validation for the simultaneous estimation of atorvastatin, simvastatin and rosuvastatin in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form

This research was designed to develop and validate a precise, simple, rapid, reliable, more accurate, as well as least time consuming High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique for simultaneous and individual estimation of atorvastatin, rosuvastatin and simvastatin in whole and in various formulations. This separation was attained chromatographically using blend of methanol and trifluroacetic acid (0.1%) in...

Author(s):Bhuvnesh Kumar Singh, Neelanchal Trivedi, Abhishek Bharadwaj and K. K. Jha

Article in Press

Impact of three modes of cooking on anticholinesterase, antioxidant activities and polyphenols content of eggplant Solanum melongena (Adria variety)

Nowadays, the growing interest in consumption of fruit and vegetables raises the question of cooking impact on their nutritional benefits. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative damage caused by the β-amyloid peptide in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease may be hydrogen peroxide mediated. Many polyphenols, the most abundant dietary antioxidants, possess stronger neuroprotection against hydrogen peroxide.The...

Author(s):Imen Laib, Malika Barkat and Abdulselam Ertas Mustafa abdullah yilmiz

Article in Press

Pharmacognostic and toxicological evaluation of the leaves of Piper guineense Schum. and Thonn (Piperaceae)

The leaves of Piper guineense Schum. and Thonn (Piperaceae) are used in ethnomedicine for the management/treatment of various diseases. The objective of this study was to establish the pharmacognostic and toxicological profiles of P. guineense to help practitioners in making choices, and to assist scientists involved in the research of the Piper genus. The fresh leaves were examined for their macroscopic and microscopic...

Author(s):Tavs A. Abere ⃰, Mumuni Sumaila and Obi Ifeoma Stephanie

Article in Press

Scientific and technological prospect of Platonia insignis Mart (Clusiaceae)

The chemodiversity and pharmacological potential of the flora are uncounted and allow the study of native plants, such as Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae), an exotic plant in Piaui, Brazil. Investigations on the chemical composition of the plant of the family Clusiaceae have shown that they are mainly rich in polysoprenylated benzophenones and xanthones, which have been isolated not only from the resins, but also from...

Author(s):George L. S. Oliveira, Ana Paula dos Santos C. L da Silva, José Carlos C. L. da Silva Filho, Joaquim S. da Costa Júnior, Jorge M. David and Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

Article in Press

Neurohistological and immunohistochemical effects of prophylactic ethanolic leaf extract of Nauclea Latifolia and Artemether/Lumefantrine on the hippocampus of Plasmodium Berghei-infected mice

The prophylactic effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Nauclea latifolia, widely used in herbal malarial treatment, against the widely used drug Coartem® (Artemether/Lumefantrine) in Plasmodium-infected mice was investigated, and thereafter analysed for organosomatic index, parasitemia, histomorphological and immunohistochemical changes in the hippocampus. Twenty male mice about 6 to 8 weeks weighing 20 to 24 g were...

Author(s):Innocent A. Edagha, Inyang A. Atting and Moses U. Ekanemesang

Article in Press

24 h pre-incubation of EA.hy926 cells with angiotensin II regulates insulin-dependent activation of eNOS in a concentration-dependent manner

The rennin-angiotensin II system (RAS) and the insulin-PI3kinase signalling pathways cross-interact with important physiological and pathophysiological consequences for cells and the whole organism. Here, the effect of 24 h pre-incubation of EA.hy926 with two different concentrations of angiotensin II, on insulin-mediated activation of the PI3kinase-AKT-eNOS signalling was investigated. Quiescent EA.hy926 cells were...

Author(s):Ejebe D. E.

Article in Press

A review on chemical and pharmacological profile of a novel class of antihyperglycemic drugs: Dipeptidyl protease-4 inhibitors

The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a new class of anti hyperglycemic agents which were developed for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus by rational drug design, based on an understanding of the mechanism of action and knowledge of the structure of the target enzyme. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP 1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) are hormones secreted by the enteroendocrine cells of the gut in...

Author(s):Himanshu Joshi, Abdul Wadood Siddiqui, Zia Ur Rehman, Afrin Salma and Deepanshu Sharma

Article in Press


The objective of the present investigation was to formulate, evaluate and optimize oral film of Fexofenadine HCl using (Box Behnken) design. In the present investigation an attempt was made to develop mouth dissolving films of Fexofenadine HCl to achieve fast disintegration and dissolution characteristics with improved bioavailability by oral route. Oral films of Fexofenadine HCl were formulated using HPMC E15 premium...

Author(s):Bhusnure O.G

Article in Press

In vivo assessment of the antipyretic activity of tilmicosin

The aim of the present study was to assess the antipyretic activity of the macrolide antibiotic, tilmicosin, at dose levels of 20 and 40 mg/kg of body weight, subcutaneously, in Brewer's yeast-induced fever model in mice. Pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 20 mL/kg of 20% (w/v) Brewer’s yeast suspension into the animal’s scruff region. Eighteen hours later, feverish animals were treated with either tilmicosin...

Author(s):A. M. El-Mahmoudy, I. M. Gheith, A. A. Elmajdoub and S. K. Awidat

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