Acute Rheumatic Fever (ARF) and Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) remain significant noncommunicable diseases in developing countries and emerging economies. Part one of this five part series discussed general aspects of ARF and RHD. Part two focused on medical and interventional approaches and treatment. The present part three will focus on surgical aspects of RHD. This will highlight the history, indications, timing, and perioperative aspects of RHD. Emphasis will be placed on surgery in developing countries and emerging economies, where there are restrictions with relation to advanced technology, cost, access and availability of services, experience with repair techniques and care, as well as social and political constraints.
Key-words: Acute Rheumatic Fever - Rheumatic Heart Disease - Surgery