African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6709

Full Length Research Paper

Moisture dependent physical properties of fennel seeds

S. Shafiee1*, A. Modares Motlagh2 and S. Minaei3
  1Msc student in Urmia University, Urmia, Iran. 2Agricultural Machinery Department, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Urmia University, Iran. 3Agricultural Engineering Center of Excellence, Recycling and Reduction of Losses of Agricultural Products, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 02 July 2010
  •  Published: 04 September 2010



Physical properties of fennel seeds were determined at five levels of moisture content. All dimensions of seed increased with increasing moisture content from 7.57 to 52.88% (dry base). At the same moisture range, sphericity, surface area and true density increased from 41.60 to 44.10%, 8.39 to 9.47 mm2, and 818.29 to 894.63 kg m-3, respectively. In this moisture range, bulk density decreased from 376.27 to 314.667 kg m-3 whereas the angle of repose and porosity increased from 36.33 to 48.66 and 54 to 64.8%, respectively. The static coefficient of friction of seeds increased linearly against surfaces of three structural materials, namely, glass, plywood, and galvanized iron.


Key words: Sphericity, surface area, angle of repose, static coefficient of friction, bulk and true densities.