Full Length Research Paper
In the evaluation of Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) techniques, little attention is paid to the rain water productivity of crops. The aim of this research work, is to assess the combined effects of SWC practices and soil fertility management on rain water productivity of maize hybrid. On-farm experiments were carried out in the districts of Houndé and Péni both located in the Hauts-Bassins region in Burkina Faso. The treatments were built as association of two SWC technologies combined with three fertilization options. The SWC combinations were: Stone rows and zaï pits (SR+Zaï), Grass strips and zaï pits (GS+Zaï), Earth bunds and contour ploughing (EB+CP). The fertilization options were: 5 t ha-1 organic fertilizer (OM), OM + 100 kg ha-1 urea (46% N), OM + 200 kg ha-1 NPK (14-23-14) + urea. The treatments were laid out in a randomized block design where each farmer constituted a replication. As result, the combination of GS+ Zaï+ OM+ NPK+ Urea gave 26% additional maize grain yield and maize rain water productivity of 4.51 kg ha-1 mm-1 in the South-Sudan agro-ecological zone. While the combination of SR+ Zaï+ OM+ NPK+ Urea increased maize yield by 106 % and water productivity of maize was 6.61 kg ha-1 mm-1 in the North-Sudan agro-ecological zone. To improve maize yields and water productivity in rainfed agriculture, the use of the combination of soil and water conservation techniques and optimum organic and mineral fertilizer application is recommended.
Key words: Crop, water use, nutrients, maize yield, harvest index, Burkina Faso.
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