Emmer wheat (Triticum diccocum Schrank) belonged to the most frequent species of cereals in the past. Nowadays, it is grown in arid and montane areas in particular. Interest in this cereal species has increased, as it is tolerant to biotic and abiotic stressing factors. Therefore, yield parameters were evaluated in three-year (2007, 2008 and 2010) trials that were carried out in two different localities in the Czech Republic. Results of the research were compared to characteristics of four old and two top modern bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. The emmer wheat varieties were resistant to usual wheat diseases. They formed their yield by a quantity of productive tillers (2.5), whereas the varieties of bread wheat had less productive tillers (1.5) per one plant. The distribution of assimilates was worse in the emmer wheat plants and it provoked a lower harvest index (0.33) there. Grain yield of the emmer wheat varieties reached 58% of the yield level of the mean of control bread wheat varieties. High crude protein content in grain (17.91%) was an advantage of the emmer wheat varieties; the control bread wheat varieties reached 13.73%. Protein content was positively influenced (P < 0.01) by an ability of the emmer varieties to uptake as much nitrogen as possible from the soil during the flowering period. Adaptability to the land and climatic environmental conditions was another positive characteristic of the emmer wheat landraces in comparison with old and modern bread wheat varieties.
Key words: Emmer wheat, bread wheat, landraces, sustainable farming, yield formation.
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