Temperate fruits including pome fruits, especially apple are important fruit crops which mostly for fruit set needs the pollination of flowers and followed by pistil fertilization. Therefore, pollen viability and its germination capability are essential. For that reason, examination to optimize the pollen medium of apple and determination of the best medium was carried out with 16 types of culture medium containing different concentrations of boric acid (0 and 100 mg/1), calcium nitrate (0 and 300 mg/l), magnesium sulphate (0 and 200 mg/l), potassium nitrate (0 and 100 mg/l), sucrose (15%) and agar (1%) in the In vitro using random complete design with three replications. The results showed that maximum germination was in combination medium B2M1K1C2S (100 mg/l boric acid, 0mg/l sulphate magnesium, 0.0 mg/l potassium nitrate, 300 mg/l calcium nitrate, 15% sucrose and 1% agar) with 100%, and lowest germination medium in combination B1M2K2C1S (0.0 mg/l boric acid, 100 mg/l potassium nitrate, 200 mg/l magnesium sulphate, 0 mg/l calcium nitrate, 15% sucrose and 1% agar with 13.30% occurred. The viability of pollen of 4 apple cultivars, three and seven months after maintenance at 3 temperatures (4°C, -20°C and -80°C) showed that3 months after storage, maximum germination was in Primgold Pollen stored at -80°C with 96.21% and the lowest germination (58.33%) in Northern Spy pollen stored at 4°C, but 7 months after storage, maximum germination was in Primgold Pollen stored at -80°C with 90.66% and the lowest germination (36.67%) in Northern Spy pollen stored at 4°C.
Key words: In-vitro, pollen germination, apple.
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