African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6576

Full Length Research Paper

Efficacy of Xylopia aethiopica ethanolic and aqueous extracts on the control of Sitophilus oryzae in stored rice grain

Ekeh F. N.
  • Ekeh F. N.
  • Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
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Odo G. E.
  • Odo G. E.
  • Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
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Nzei J.
  • Nzei J.
  • Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
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Ngozi E.
  • Ngozi E.
  • Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
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Ohanu C.
  • Ohanu C.
  • Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
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Onuoha O.
  • Onuoha O.
  • Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
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  •  Received: 21 January 2018
  •  Accepted: 07 February 2018
  •  Published: 08 March 2018

Abstract

Stored product insects reduced the quantity, quality, nutritive value and viability of stored crops such as maize, sorghum, wheat and rice. These pests and many others threaten food security. The study investigated the efficacy of Xylopia aethiopica in the control of Sitophilus oryzae on stored rice. The extracts of this plant were made using ethanol and aqueous as solvent and prepared at the concentrations of 3, 6, 8 and 0 g. Zero gram is the untreated grain that served as the control. Five pairs of male and female each of a day old adult of S. oryzae were introduced into jars containing 20 g of rice each and were observed daily for 6 weeks for mortality, oviposition, developmental stages and natality. The phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed that alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoid and polyphenol which was moderately high and which exposes the active ingredient of the extracts. The phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed that alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, reducing compounds and polyphenols were present in the extracts in moderate quantities. The proximate analysis of the grain revealed that the carbohydrate content (83.45±0.1) of Oryza sativa followed by moisture (7.33±0.1), the least nutrient of proximate analysis was seen in ash (1.00±0.00). Out of the two extraction methods employed, the ethanol extract was a more effective method and thus recommended.
 
Key words: Xylopia aethiopica, ethanolic and aqueous, Sitophilus oryzae, rice grain.