African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6574

Full Length Research Paper

Cost efficient and practical design of water supply network using harmony search

Zong Woo Geem1, Jin-Hong Kim2* and Soon-Hyuk Jeong3        
  1Environmental Planning and Management Program, Johns Hopkins University, 11833 Skylark Road, Clarksburg, Maryland 20871, USA. 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heukseok-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, Korea. 3Department of Water Resources, Dongho, Incoporation, 1588-8 Gwanyang-dong, Dongan-gu, Anyang-si, Korea.  
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 30 May 2011
  •  Published: 04 July 2011



Water supply network is a key infrastructure in urban civilization and agricultural irrigation. In order to save the design cost of a network, which contains a nonlinear relationship between hydraulic energy loss and water flowrate, researchers have traditionally used mathematical optimization approaches. However, they have been more interested in meta-heuristic approaches recently because (1) these approaches directly provide commercial discrete diameters instead of impractical continuous ones; (2) they do not require complex gradient derivatives and free from divergence; (3) they do not require starting feasible vector and have more chance to find global optimum, etc. This study presents a new real-world example for the water network design, hoping to be a good literature. Furthermore, this study newly considers a more practical constraint (flow velocity range) that can avoid a critical problem of water hammer or pipe choking by sedimentation. Then, the numerical example is solved using a meta-heuristic algorithm named harmony search, and the results are compared with those from a mathematical approach.


Key words: Water distribution network, linear programming, harmony search, optimization, velocity constraint.