African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6578

Full Length Research Paper

Evaporation of soil water based on the quantity and uniformity of crop waste distribution in soil superficies

Daiane Cinque Mariano
  • Daiane Cinque Mariano
  • Department of Agronomy, State University of Maringa, AV. Colombo #5790, Maringá- PR, Brazil.
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Paulo Sergio Lourenco de Freitas*
  • Paulo Sergio Lourenco de Freitas*
  • Department of Agronomy, State University of Maringa, AV. Colombo #5790, Maringá- PR, Brazil.
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Rogerio Teixeira Faria
  • Rogerio Teixeira Faria
  • Department of Agronomy, State University of Maringa, AV. Colombo #5790, Maringá- PR, Brazil.
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Roberto Rezende
  • Roberto Rezende
  • Department of Agronomy, State University of Maringa, AV. Colombo #5790, Maringá- PR, Brazil.
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Rivanildo Dallacort
  • Rivanildo Dallacort
  • Department of Agronomy, State University of Maringa, AV. Colombo #5790, Maringá- PR, Brazil.
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Andre Luiz Biscaia Ribeiro da Silva
  • Andre Luiz Biscaia Ribeiro da Silva
  • Department of Agronomy, State University of Maringa, AV. Colombo #5790, Maringá- PR, Brazil.
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  •  Received: 08 July 2016
  •  Accepted: 20 October 2016
  •  Published: 17 November 2016

Abstract

Plant residues influence the energy balance and water vapor flux on the soil surface. The aim of this research was to quantify the effect of the amounts and distribution of crop mulching on evaporation of soil water. The study was carried out at the Instituto Agronômico do Paraná, located in Londrina City, State of Paraná, Brazil. In experiment 1,  soil water evaporation was determined according to the quantity of soybean and wheat residues applied (0, 2, 4 and 6 t ha-1); while in experiment 2,  soil water evaporation was determined based on the distribution of 4 t ha-1 residue of soybean and wheat, which was applied in 33, 66 and 100% as soil cover. Eight weighing lysimeters were used with two replications, and denominated cycles for each experiment period. The results showed that compared to bare soil, reduced evaporation at the end of the evaluations were 17% for  2 t ha-1, 28% with 4 t ha-1 and 25% for 6 t ha-1 of residues of soybeans, in the first cycle during winter. During spring cycle, evaporation reductions in cycle 1 were 10, 12 and 23% for 2, 4, and 6 t ha-1, respectively. Soil water evaporation decreased, compared to the bare soil, as soon as soybean residues rate increased. This showed the largest reduction (29 to 33%) when the residues were distributed uniformly over the lysimeters.

Key words: Lysimeter, water balance, soil moisture.