Urban agriculture is increasingly recognized in academic research, policy practice, and advocacy as rural land is increasingly shrinking for agricultural production; and is argued as pro-poor urban intervention. This study argued that previous researches focused on: (1) rural agriculture; (2) women’s economic empowerment; and (3) positive impacts of urban agricultural interventions on the poor. By observing 10 indicators of women’s empowerment in agriculture, the study administered household survey, interviews, and cases of beneficiary women. The study revealed that while 80% of beneficiary women were empowered (to the extent of 0.93 scores), the remaining 20% were not. When the evidence is disaggregated to intersectional differences among the women who claimed to be empowered, unintended impacts were visibly observable. Though urban agriculture contributes to women's empowerment, lack of tailored support and the use of program approach exclude segments of women’s beneficiaries. Thus, a right-based approach that considers holistic aspects of women’s empowerment is advised to inform interventions, and a feminist gender analysis is required to document the invisible and intersectional barriers to beneficiary targeting.
Key words: Program-based sustainable urban agriculture, women empowerment, rights-based targeting.
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