African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6656

Full Length Research Paper

Qualitative response of super basmati rice to different nitrogen levels under varying rice ecosystem

Shawaiz Iqbal
  • Shawaiz Iqbal
  • Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Punjab, Pakistan.
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Usama Bin Khalid
  • Usama Bin Khalid
  • Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Punjab, Pakistan.
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Tahir Hussain Awan
  • Tahir Hussain Awan
  • Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Punjab, Pakistan.
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Nadeem Iqbal
  • Nadeem Iqbal
  • Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Punjab, Pakistan.
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Muhammad Usman Saleem
  • Muhammad Usman Saleem
  • Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Punjab, Pakistan.
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Adila Iram
  • Adila Iram
  • Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Punjab, Pakistan.
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Mohsin Ali Raza
  • Mohsin Ali Raza
  • Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Punjab, Pakistan.
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Awais Riaz
  • Awais Riaz
  • Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Punjab, Pakistan.
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Tahir Latif
  • Tahir Latif
  • Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Punjab, Pakistan.
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Naeem Ahmad
  • Naeem Ahmad
  • Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Punjab, Pakistan.
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  •  Received: 23 October 2018
  •  Accepted: 16 January 2019
  •  Published: 28 February 2019

Abstract

Planting methods and nitrogen rates play pivotal role in the production and quality of fine grain rice. A field experiment was carried out at Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Pakistan during 2015 and 2016 using four planting methods namely drilling of dry seed in well prepared dry soil (DSR-drill), ridges made after broadcast of dry seed in dry soil (DSR-ridge), broadcast of dry seed in well prepared dry soil (DSR-broadcast), followed by irrigation and Puddled transplanted rice (PTR)-conventional transplanting. Four nitrogen levels viz. N0: control, N1: 133 kg N ha-1 (recommended), N2: 166 kg N ha-1 and N3: 199 kg N ha-1 were compared for a fine grain rice variety Super basmati. Data were collected on quality parameters namely brown rice (BR) %, total milled rice (TMR) %, head rice (HR) %, average grain length (AGL), length width ratio (LWR), cooked grain length (CGL) mm, bursting (%), elongation ratio (ER), amylose content %, protein content % and grain yield (t ha-1). Results indicated that planting methods behaved the same with respect to the parameters BR %, TMR %, AGL, LWR, amylose and protein content %. However, HR % was the highest in DSR-ridge sowing as compared to other planting methods. AGL, CGL, and ER were more in PTR-conventional transplanting followed by DSR-ridge sowing and bursting % was more in DSR broadcast method. Nitrogen affected positively all the parameters under study up to maximum level of its application. So it can be concluded that PTR-conventional transplanting and DSR ridge sowing with nitrogen at the rate of 199 kg ha-1 gave better quality compared to other DSR methods and nitrogen doses.

Key words:  Grain quality, Nitrogen levels, rice (Oryza sativa L.), sowing methods.