African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6576

Full Length Research Paper

The efficiency of wheat yields by nitrogen dose and fractionation

Ana Paula Brezolin
  • Ana Paula Brezolin
  • Departament of Exact Science and Engineering, Regional Northwest University of Rio Grande do Sul (UNIJUÍ), 3000 Comércio Street, Ijuí, RS, 98700-000, Brazil.
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José Antonio Gonzalez da Silva
  • José Antonio Gonzalez da Silva
  • Department of Agrarian Studies, Regional Northwest University of Rio Grande do Sul (UNIJUÍ), 3000 Comércio Street, Ijuí, RS, 98700-000, Brazil.
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Fabricia Carneiro Roos Frantz
  • Fabricia Carneiro Roos Frantz
  • Departament of Exact Science and Engineering, Regional Northwest University of Rio Grande do Sul (UNIJUÍ), 3000 Comércio Street, Ijuí, RS, 98700-000, Brazil.
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Manuel Osorio Binelo
  • Manuel Osorio Binelo
  • Departament of Exact Science and Engineering, Regional Northwest University of Rio Grande do Sul (UNIJUÍ), 3000 Comércio Street, Ijuí, RS, 98700-000, Brazil.
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Antonio Carlos Valdiero
  • Antonio Carlos Valdiero
  • Departament of Exact Science and Engineering, Regional Northwest University of Rio Grande do Sul (UNIJUÍ), 3000 Comércio Street, Ijuí, RS, 98700-000, Brazil.
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Cristiano Mathias Zimmer
  • Cristiano Mathias Zimmer
  • Departament of Crop Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), 7712 Bento Gonçalves Avenue, Porto Alegre, RS, 91501-970, Brazil.
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Rubia Diana Mantai
  • Rubia Diana Mantai
  • Departament of Exact Science and Engineering, Regional Northwest University of Rio Grande do Sul (UNIJUÍ), 3000 Comércio Street, Ijuí, RS, 98700-000, Brazil.
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Anderson Marolli
  • Anderson Marolli
  • Departament of Exact Science and Engineering, Regional Northwest University of Rio Grande do Sul (UNIJUÍ), 3000 Comércio Street, Ijuí, RS, 98700-000, Brazil.
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Osmar Bruneslau Scremin
  • Osmar Bruneslau Scremin
  • Departament of Exact Science and Engineering, Regional Northwest University of Rio Grande do Sul (UNIJUÍ), 3000 Comércio Street, Ijuí, RS, 98700-000, Brazil.
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Gustavo Mazurkievicz
  • Gustavo Mazurkievicz
  • Departament of Crop Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), 7712 Bento Gonçalves Avenue, Porto Alegre, RS, 91501-970, Brazil.
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  •  Received: 23 May 2016
  •  Accepted: 17 August 2016
  •  Published: 08 September 2016

Abstract

The biomass productivity and wheat grains efficiency is determined by nitrogen dose adjustment (full or fractioned), environmental conditions, and cropping system. The aim of this study was to improve the efficiency of N-fertilizer usage on wheat to maximize the biomass productivity and grain yield by adjusting the full or fractioned nitrogen dose in favorable and unfavorable year conditions, in succession systems with high and reduced N-residual release. In this study, two experiments were conducted between 2012 and 2014. One was to quantify the biomass productivity rate and another to determine grain yield. The experimental design was a complete randomized block, with four replications, in a 4 × 3 factorial scheme to N fertilizer rates (0, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1) and supply forms of the nutrient [full dose (100%) in the V3 phenological stage (third expanded leaf); fractioned (70 and 30%) at the V3 and V6 phenological stages (third and sixth expanded leaf, respectively) and; fractionated (70 and 30%) at the V3 and E phenological stages (third expanded leaf and early grain filling), ] respectively, in soybean/wheat and maize/wheat cultivation systems. The nitrogen supply in wheat through single dose or fraction indicates linear tendency over the productivity biomass daily rate-1 with the increase of N-fertilizer, regardless of a favorable and unfavorable year and system of a succession of the high and reduced N-residual release. However, in favorable years, the use of full dose on V3 stage is indicated. In the maize/wheat system, the full dose at V3 stage is more efficient, especially with higher doses of the nutrient. For grain yield, the N-fertilizer fractioning was adjusted in intermediate cropping years, while the full dose became suitable at the V3 stage in favorable years. However, in unfavorable years, nitrogen investments should be minimized, regardless of the supply form and succession system.

Key words: Triticum aestivum L., succession system, optimization, regression.