Milled rice of two varieties, Jehlum and Shlimar Rice-1 were subjected to seven chemical treatments and five steaming treatments for calcium fortification. Physic-chemical and organoleptic evaluations of each treatment were carried out before and after fortification. Jehlum proved superior in whiteness (L -value), starch and sugar content, volume expansion, elongation ratio and minimum cooking time, while Shalimar Rice-1 proved better in crude protein and calcium content. Fortification treatments resulted in an increase in yellowness (bvalue), water uptake, calcium content and calcium retention in cooked rice. However, significant decrease was noticed in whiteness (L- value) and redness (a- value) with increasing concentration of calcium in soaking solution. The highest calcium content (184.45 mg/100 g) was recorded in T3 (Ca lactate at 0.8% a.i. Ca) followed by 184.04 mg/100 g recorded in T6 (Ca gluconate at 0.8% a.i. Ca) samples, while the minimum (8.05 mg/100 g) was observed in T0 (control-water dip) samples. Steaming of rice resulted in an increase in total sugar, moisture and yellowness (b- values), as well as calcium retention in cooked rice, while as a significant decrease was observed in colour (L and a values), crude protein and starch content, volume expansion, elongation ratio and water uptake.
Key words: Calcium, chemical properties, cooking quality, fortification, physic-chemical properties, steaming and milled rice.
Copyright © 2021 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0