African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6578

Full Length Research Paper

Effect of calcium fortification and steaming on chemical, physical and cooking properties of milled rice

Abid Ali Lone1*, Qazi Nissar Ahmed1, Shaiq A. Ganai1, Imtiyaz A Wani2, Rayees A. Ahanger3, Hilal A. Bhat3 and Tauseef A. Bhat4
1Division of Post Harvest Technology, Sher-e-kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar 191121, India. 2Division of Pomology, Sher-e-kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar 191121, India. 3Division of Plant Pathology, Sher-e-kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar 191121, India. 4Division of Agronomy, Sher-e-kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar 191121, India.  
Email: [email protected], [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 26 March 2013
  •  Published: 04 April 2013

Abstract

Milled rice of two varieties, Jehlum and Shlimar Rice-1 were subjected to seven chemical treatments and five steaming treatments for calcium fortification. Physic-chemical and organoleptic evaluations of each treatment were carried out before and after fortification. Jehlum proved superior in whiteness (L -value), starch and sugar content, volume expansion, elongation ratio and minimum cooking time, while Shalimar Rice-1 proved better in crude protein and calcium content. Fortification treatments resulted in an increase in yellowness (bvalue), water uptake, calcium content and calcium retention in cooked rice. However, significant decrease was noticed in whiteness (L- value) and redness (a- value) with increasing concentration of calcium in soaking solution. The highest calcium content (184.45 mg/100 g) was recorded in T(Ca lactate at 0.8% a.i. Ca) followed by 184.04 mg/100 g recorded in T6 (Ca gluconate at 0.8% a.i. Ca) samples, while the minimum (8.05 mg/100 g) was observed in T(control-water dip) samples. Steaming of rice resulted in an increase in total sugar, moisture and yellowness (b- values), as well as calcium retention in cooked rice, while as a significant decrease was observed in colour (L and a values), crude protein and starch content, volume expansion, elongation ratio and water uptake.

 

Key words: Calcium, chemical properties, cooking quality, fortification, physic-chemical properties, steaming and milled rice.