The genetic variability of strains of Pleurotus ostreatus expresses basidiomata with distinct morphological characteristics and responses of different production. Therefore, choosing the correct strain to be used is one of the factors limiting the cultivation of P. ostreatus. Thus, we evaluated the genetic variability (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)), coloring pileus and yield, four commercial strains of Pleurotus ostreatusgrown in the state of São Paulo (POS 98-38, POS 09-100, POS 09-101 and POS 09-102). Molecular characterization showed two different groups, with 69% similarity between them. Within the group that contains the three samples collected from mushroom growers, strains POS 09-100, POS 09-101, and POS 09-102 showed similarities of 93%, which showed pileus light gray color and yield statistically different (Tukey 5%) relative to the second group. The second group was only formed by strain POS 98-38, which showed staining of the pileus dark gray and lower yield in the first group. Therefore, the genetic variability between strains of P. ostreatus analyzed showed genetic differences, morphological and yield.
Key words: Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), strain, morphology, yield, number of clusters.
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