A study to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on 625 animals (140 local Arsi cattle breeds and 485 of their crosses with pure Holstein Friesians) randomly selected from four districts of Arsi Zone and West Arsi Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia, using comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIT) test. An overall individual animal prevalence of 12.16% was recorded under traditional animal husbandry system in the study area. The higher percentage of positiee results in tested animals was recorded in Arsi Zone (15.8%) and the lower percentage of positive results was found in the West Arsi Zone (8.9%). There was statistically significant difference (X2 = 5.44; P-value = 0.0196) in individual prevalence between the two Zones. Other epidemiological risk factors including age, sex, breed, and reproductive status of the animals were assessed for their contribution to the prevalence of the disease. Accordingly, a statistically significant (X2 = 4.49, P-value = 0.0340) difference was found only between the type of animal breeds and their reactivity to the tuberculin test but not for other epidemiological factors. This study therefore, showed that bovine TB was present in Arsi Zone and West Arsi Zone, Oromia. This calls for a further detail study on farmers’ awareness regarding its transmission and zoonotic potential; and the formulation of strategic control measures by the relevant animal health agencies to reduce the associated economic and zoonotic effects.
Key words: Bovine tuberculosis, Arsi zones – Oromia, comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIT) test, prevalence, risk factors.
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