This study analyzed climate change vulnerability and adaptation among smallholder farmers in Borno State, Nigeria. The study was conducted in Sudan and Guinea savannah Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZ) of the state. Survey research design was employed for the study. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting 360 farmers for the study. Descriptive statistics such as percentages, frequencies, means and livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) were used in analyzing the data. Overall, based on IPCC-LVI explanations of climate change vulnerability, Sudan savannah was found to be the most vulnerable AEZ with vulnerability index of -0.0104 against Guinea savannah with LVI of -0.0416. A few factors can explain this low adaptive capacity: A deteriorating ecological base, inadequate capacity building and enhancement programmes widespread poverty arising from dwindling economic and livelihood activities and ravages of insurgency among others. In both AEZs, farmers do adapt to climate change through various farm level practices. These adaptation strategies, however, do vary slightly among the two AEZs. The adaptation strategies practiced by respondents in Sudan AEZ were multiple cropping (98.9%), early planting (63.9%), mulching/use of cover crops (36.1%) and increased fertilizer application (25.00%). In Guinea AEZ, the most widely used adaptation strategies include multiple cropping (93.30%), use of new crop varieties tolerant to the new climate regime (72.20%), increased application of fertilizer (47.20%) and application of chemicals (25.00%). The study concludes that Sudan savannah AEZ is the most vulnerable AEZ among the AEZs considered in this study. Major adaptation strategies practiced were technologically based. The study, therefore, recommends that farmers’ adaptive capacity should be enhanced particularly in Sudan savannah zone.
Key words: Climate change, vulnerability, adaptation, Borno State, Nigeria.
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