Wheat is one of the oldest and most important cereal crops. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and club wheat (T. compactum) are the most important wheat species. The low productivity is attributed to several factors in which biotic factors are among the major constraints in wheat productivity and production. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between grain yield and major stem rust biotypes (races) identified in the country. A total of twenty-five elite bread wheat lines were planted in lattice square design in three replications with a plot area of 1.2x2.5m. All the necessary data were collected for two consecutive years and the mean values of the variables were subjected for a correlation test. The same genotypes also screened in the greenhouse for stem rust resistance at seedling stages for major stem rust races: TTTTF, TKKTF, TTRTF, TKTTF. The result revealed, weak association observed between grain yield and the four dominant stem rust races. This is due to some genotypes which were susceptible at the seedling stage in the greenhouse have recessive additive genes. The p-values between the grain yield and the four races are greater than the significant level (?=0.05,) which is questionable about the significance of the association between the variables. Wheat cultivars with durable resistance to rust diseases are the best control strategy where their breeding program should have relied on it.
Keywords: Correlation, grain yield, seedling resistance, stem rust, wheat.