Climate change is seen as one of the most persistent problems in Zambia, affecting socio-economic development. The study’s main objective was to assess the effectiveness of farmers adaptation to climate extremes. Primary data was collected from 270 smallholder farmers using structured questionnaires. Descriptive analysis, showed some systematically different characteristics between adapters and the non-adapters. Also, results showed that majority of the farmers (43 %), adopted change crop variety as an adaptation strategy. Other adaptation strategies adopted were, soil conservation, crop diversification. Also, the results estimate of the endogenous switching regression model shows that farming experience, seed quantity and radio ownership were positive and statistically significant with adaptation. Some recommendations were made for policy such as; the need draw on knowledge and experience from local level institutions in policy formulation processes; planning and implementation of adaptation strategies should enhance and consider asset development; and farmers access to increased and affordable inputs.
Keywords: Adaptation, Climate Extreme, Smallholder Farmers, Zambia