African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6669


Malt barley commercialization through contract farming scheme: A systematic review of experiences and prospects in Ethiopia

Addisu Bezabeh Ali
  • Addisu Bezabeh Ali
  • Department of Rural Development and Agricultural Extension, Haramaya University, P. O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 22 February 2018
  •  Accepted: 17 April 2018
  •  Published: 31 December 2018


Abate GT, Francesconi GN, Getnet K (2013). Impact of agricultural cooperatives on smallholders' technical efficiency: evidence from Ethiopia, Euricse Working Paper 50:13.


Alemu D, Bishaw Z (2016). Commercial Behavior, Varietal Preferences and Wheat Seed Markets in Ethiopia. ICARDA Working Papers. ISBN: 92-9127 484 4.


Alemu D, Kelemu K, Lakew B (2014). Trends and prospects of malt barley value chains in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Alemu D, Lakew B, Kelemu K, Bezabih A (2015). Increasing the Income of Malt Barley Farmers in Ethiopia through More Effective Cooperative Management. Self Help Africa Consultants Report. Addis Ababa.


Amare B, Bekele H, Tafa J, Adamu Z, Tamene M, Haile D, Firehiwot G, Girma F, Wubishet A, Mengistu B, Tilahun B, Hiwot S (2016). Pre-scaling-up of malt barley technologies in Bale and West Arsi zones, Southeastern Oromia, Ethiopia: The experience of public-private partnership. Scientific Journal of Crop Science 5(3):73-89.


Annual Report on Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA) (2016). Annual Report on Agricultural Transformation Agenda in Ethiopia. Agricultural Transformation Agency, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Baglioni E (2015). Straddling contract and estate farming: Accumulation strategies of Senegalese horticultural exporters. Journal of Agrarian Change 15:17-42.


Barrett CB, Bachke ME, Bellemare MF, Michelson HC, Narayanan S, Walker TF (2012). Smallholder participation in contract farming: Comparative evidence from five countries. World Development 40(4):715-730.


Bellemare MF (2012). As you sow, so shall you reap: The welfare impacts of contract farming. World Development 40(7):1418-1434.


Bhattarai S, Lyne MC, Martin SK (2013). Assessing the performance of a supply chain for organic vegetables from a smallholder perspective. Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies 3(2):101-118.


Bolwig S, Gibbon P, Jones S (2009). The economics of smallholder organic contract farming in tropical Africa. World Development 37(6):1094-1104.


Casaburi L, Kremer M, Mullainathan S (2014). Contract farming and agricultural productivity in Western Kenya African Successes: Sustainable Growth. Chicago, United States: University of Chicago Press.


Collier P, Dercon S (2014). African agriculture in 50 years: Smallholders in a rapidly changing world. World Development 63:92-101.


Central Statistical Agency (CSA) (2014). Agricultural sample survey: area and production of major crops, meher season. Central Statistical Agency, Vol. I. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Da Silva CA, Rankin M (2013). Contract farming for inclusive market access: Synthesis and findings from selected international experiences. Rome, Italy: FAO.


Delelegne A, Bijman J, Maja A (2016). Agricultural Co-Operatives in Ethiopia: Evolution, Functions and Impact. Journal of International Development Published Online In Wiley Online Library.


Diwan I, Gaddah O, Osire R (2013). Looking like an Industry: Supporting Commercial Agriculture in Africa. Faculty Research Working Paper Series. Harvard Kennedy School.


Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2014). Food Balance Sheets. FAOSTAT, Food and Agriculture Organization. Rome. 



Fisher E, Qaim M (2012). Linking smallholders to markets: determinants and impacts of farmer collective action in Kenya. World Development 40(6):1255-1268.


Getaw T, Atle G (2015). Commercializing smallholder's through interlinked contracts: prospects and challenges in the rift valleys of Ethiopia Norwegian University of Life Sciences. Ås; Norway.


Heineken NV (2013). Heineken launches 4 year barley program in Ethiopia together with Dutch and Ethiopian Government. 



Holtland G (2017). Contract farming in Ethiopia: Concept and practice. Arnhem, The Netherlands: AgriProFocus. ISBN 978-94-91629-07-5.


International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) (2016). New Malt Barley Varieties Perk up Farmers and Malting Industry in Ethiopia. The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Press Release. Addis Ababa Ethiopia.


Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center (KARC) (2013). Malt Barley Value Chain: Constraints and Opportunities for Enhancing Production and Productivity: The case of Arsi and West Arsi highlands, Ethiopia. Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopian Institute Agric. Res.


Kifle SM (2016). Review on Barley Production and Marketing in Ethiopia. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 7(9):91‐100.


Levy J (2014). Heineken in Ethiopia. 



Little PD (1994). Contract Farming and the Development Question. In: Little, P. D. and Watts, M. J. (Eds.), Living Under Contract. University of Wisconsin Press


Maertens M, Minten B, Swinnen J (2012). Modern food supply chains and development: evidence from horticulture export sectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Development Policy Review 304:473-497.


Masakure O, Henson S (2005). Why do small-scale producers choose to produce under contract? Lessons from nontraditional vegetable exports from Zimbabwe. World Development 33(10):1721-1733.


Matenga CR, Hichaambwa M (2017). Impacts of land and agricultural commercialization on local livelihoods in Zambia: evidence from three models. Journal of Peasant Studies 44(3):574-593.


Michelson H (2013). Small Farmers, NGOs, & a Walmart World: Welfare Effects of Supermarkets Operating in Nicaragua. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 95(3):628-649.


Michelson H, Reardon T, Perez F (2012). Small farmers and big retail: Trade-offs of supplying supermarkets in Nicaragua. World Development 40(2):342-354.


Miyata S, Minot N, Hu D (2009). Impact of contract farming on income: linking small farmers, packers, and supermarkets in China. World Development 37(11):1781-1790.


Molla A (2016). Partial Substitution of Malted Barley by Raw Barley in Brewing Technology. MSc Thesis Addis Ababa University. Addis Ababa.


Muriithi B, Matz J (2014). Welfare Effects of Vegetable Commercialization: Evidence from Smallholder Producers in Kenya ZEF Discussion Paper on Development Policy No. 189. 2014 National agricultural advisory Services report (NAADS) inception report.


Narayanan S (2014). Profits from participation in high value agriculture: Evidence of heterogeneous benefits in contract farming in Southern India. Food Policy 440:142-157.


Nick P (2014). Optimize buyer-seller relationships between malt barley smallholder farmers and multipurpose primary cooperatives in the Arsi and West-Arsi zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia. MSc Thesis. Wageningen University & Research Center, Social Sciences Group.


Oya C (2012). Contract Farming in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Survey of Approaches, Debates and Issues. Journal of Agrarian Change 12(1):1-33.


Poulton C (2017). What is agricultural commercialization, why is it important, and how do we measure it, Agricultural Policy Research in Africa, Working Paper. WP-06.


Prowse M (2012). Contract Farming in Developing Countries - A Review. (A savoir; Vol. 12). Paris: AFD, Agence française de développement. 



Rashid S, Gashaw TA, Solomon L, James W, Leulsegged K, Nicholas M (2015). The Barley Value Chain in Ethiopia. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Washington DC.


Ruth H, Scoones I, Tsikata D (2017). Plantations, outgrowers and commercial farming in Africa: agricultural commercialization and implications for agrarian change. The Journal of Peasant Studies 44(3):515-537.


Samuel T (2016). Impact of Contract Farming on Smallholders in Ethiopia: The Case of Chickpea Growers. A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Commerce (Agricultural) at Lincoln University.


Sandra E (2016). Malt Barley: a short‐term cash crop or sustainable investment? A study on the impact of the CREATE project on the livelihood and food security of contracted smallholders in Ethiopia. Master Thesis. International Development Studies, University of Utrecht.


Singh S (2002). Contracting out solutions: political economy of contract farming in the Indian Punjab. World Dev. 30(9):1621-1638.


Sitko N, Jayne W (2014). Structural transformation or elite capture? The growth of 'emergent' farmers in Zambia. Food Policy 48:194-202.


Smalley R (2013). Plantations, contract farming and commercial farming areas in Africa: A comparative review. FAC Working Paper 55. Land and Agricultural Commercialization in Africa project. Brighton: Future Agricultures Consortium.


Steven G, Sam J (2016). Can commercial farming promote rural dynamism in sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from Mozambique. WIDER Working Paper 2016/120. Copyright © UNU-WIDER 2016 Information and requests: [email protected] ISSN 1798-7237 ISBN 978-92-9256-164-2


Tarekegn G (2016). The Role of Smallholder Farmers in the Import Substitution and Industrialization of Ethiopia: The Case of Malt Barley Producers in Arsi and Bale Areas, Ethiopia. MSc Thesis. Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). St. Mary's University (SMU), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Tefera A (2012). Ethiopia Grand and feed annual report. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service.


United States Agency for International Development (USAID) (2012).


Watabaji MD (2016). Value Chain Structure, Integration and Performance: The Malt barley Value Chain in Ethiopia. Doctoral dissertation, Ghent University.


Zhang Q (2012). The Political Economy of Contract Farming in China's Agrarian Transition. Journal of Agrarian Change 12(4):460-483.