African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6863

Table of Content: 18 August 2011; 6(16)

August 2011

Explaining the links between capacity and action in response to global climate change: A local-level climate response Shift

Although, the development and  implementation of a global greenhouse gas reduction regime has dominated policy debates before the advent of the Kyoto Protocol (and remains a critical element of effective mitigation, communities have both direct control of critical sources of emissions and are the scale at which the potentially catastrophic impacts of climate change will play out). As this paper shows,...

Author(s): O. W. Olowa and O. A. Olowa

August 2011

An investigation of educational needs of Guilan- Iran's tea–planters

Agriculture has various roles on the development of Iran in different aspects. The most obvious roles are: food preparation, rural's migration prevention to urban areas, preservation of economical and political independence and material preparation for many industries. Tea is one of the crops among agricultural productions and is still confronted with a series of poor natural and managerial barriers and lack of...

Author(s): Mohammad Karim Motamed , Farisa Irannejad, M. Rezaei and Kurosh Rousta

August 2011

Technological innovations in Malaysia’s wooden furniture industry: Knowledge and linkages

This study seeks to explore the specific trends of technological innovation in Malaysia’s wooden furniture industry from two dimensions, namely knowledge and the process of learning as well as actors and linkages. In order to achieve this goal, empirical evidence for the study was derived from a case study of the Muar furniture cluster, which is known as the furniture capital of Malaysia. The main findings from...

Author(s): Boon-Kwee, Ng and Thiruchelvam, K.

August 2011

The moderating role of age groups on the relationship between social competencies and work performance

Although researches have shown that social competencies are related to work performance, relatively few studies have attempted to identify the moderating effect of biographical factors, which may affect the relationships between these two variables. This study examines the moderating effect of age groups on the relationship between social competencies and work performance. Data were gathered from 210 Malaysian employees...

Author(s): Neda Tiraieyari and Jegak Uli

August 2011

An investigation of the sericulture and extension status in Iran

The overall aim of this study was to investigate the sericulture and extension situation for revitalizing silkworm cocoon production in Iran. To achieve this aim, 316 sericulturists were selected through stratified random sampling and 58 extension agents of Iran Silkworm Rearing Corporation were studied by census. To run the appropriate analyses, SPSS software was employed. This study was descriptive and quantitative...

Author(s): Mehdi Charmchian Langerodi, Iraj Malakmohammadi, Mohammad Chizari and Alireza Seidavi

August 2011

Analysis of fertiliser use in potato production in Nakuru district, Kenya

This study aimed at estimating the farmers’ demand for fertiliser in the production of potatoes, and analysing the structure, conduct and performance of the fertiliser market in Nakuru district, Kenya.  250 farmers and 36 fertiliser traders selected using systematic and simple random sampling procedures, respectively, were interviewed between February and April 2001.  Two models (the...

Author(s): John B. O. Ogola, Milton W. Ayieko, Apollo O. Orawo and Fredah W. Kimani  

August 2011

Modelling responses of maize, millet and sorghum seedlings to crude extracts of Cucumis myriocarpus fruit as pre-emergent bio-nematicide

Biological indices generated using the CARD (curve-fitting allelochemical response data) model may be useful in crop-bio-nematicide interactions since they provide information related to the stimulation dosage of the material to the crops. The objective of this study was to determine: (1) Whether selected crops in the Gramineae family respond to crude extracts of Cucumis myriocarpus fruit in...

Author(s): T. P. Mafeo, P. W. Mashela, M. S. Mphosi and K. M. Pofu

August 2011

Salinity exposure modifies nutrient concentrations in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.)

Salinity is one of the most important abiotic factors limiting plant growth and yield. Salinization occurs naturally in arid and semiarid regions where evaporation is higher than rainfall. In this study, the effect of different concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM) on mineral ions content in various plant organs of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) was...

Author(s): Rüveyde TUNÇTÜRK

August 2011

Some mechanical and physical properties of corn seed (Var. DCC 370)

Physical and mechanical properties of food crops gain importance during design, improvement and optimization of separation and cleaning. In this study, some physical and mechanical properties of corn seeds were determined as a function of moisture content in the range of 5.15 to 22% d.b. The average length, width, thickness and arithmetic diameter were increased by 6, 2.2, 1.66, and 3.3%, with increasing moisture...

Author(s): Javad Tarighi, Asghar Mahmoudi, and Naser Alavi

August 2011

Determination of the yield response factor for field crop deficit irrigation

The irrigation network of Taleghan Dam Reservoir was used to determine yield response factor for maize (Zea mays), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hodeum vulgare) in the Qazvin Plain of Iran. Dependent variable actual crop yield and independent variables including climate data were obtained from Qazvin Plain Irrigation Company. Data were gathered from five fields in Qazvin province between 2002 to 2009....

Author(s): Najarchi, M., Kaveh, F., Babazadeh, H. and Manshouri, M.

August 2011

Occurrence and Pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. on the potato tubers in Malaysia

Dry rot of potato caused by Fusarium species is a common and commercially important disease of potato tubers found in all production areas of the world, including Malaysia. The objective of this study was to identify Fusarium species associated with wet market potatoes and their pathogenicity on potato tubers in Malaysia. In this survey, 65 Fusarium strains were...

Author(s): K. Chehri, N. F. Mohamed, B. Salleh and Z. Latiffah

August 2011

Evaluation of soil quality on the basis of chemical and microbial health for potential use in agriculture

The present study is a comparison of chemical and microbial status of wheat cultivated and non-cultivated soil from different localities. Soil samples were collected randomly and tested for soluble salts, pH, electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio and microbial population. Soil samples pH, mostly lied in range between 7.29-7.94 [H+]. The electrical conductivity (EC) of all soil samples except selected wheat...

Author(s): Justina Jane Tahira, Salik Nawaz Khan, Ruqia Suliman and Waheed Anwar

August 2011

Diagnostics of viruses infecting local farmer preferred sweetpotato cultivars in Kenya

Sweetpotato is an important starchy tuberous root crop grown in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world, with about 75% of African sweetpotato production occurring in East Africa. Its production is however, constrained by viral diseases particularly sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV), sweet potato chlorotic fleck...

Author(s): T. M. Kathurima, B. B. Bett, D. W. Miano and D. J. Kim,

August 2011

Impact of pesticides use on heavy metals pollution in cocoa soils of Cross-River State, Nigeria

The high incidence of phytophthora pod rot and mirids resulting from high rainfall and relative humidity in cocoa producing areas of Nigeria necessitated the use of fungicides and other pesticides on cocoa. This is causing increased worldwide concern about heavy metal contamination of the soil environment and cocoa beans. Thus the objective of this study is to evaluate the status of some heavy metals in selected cocoa...

Author(s): M. O. Ogunlade and S. O. Agbeniyi

August 2011

Effects of poultry droppings in soil on some heavy metals uptake potential of water leaf (Talinum triangulare) and fluted pumpkin (Teffairia Occidentalis)

This research was undertaken to assess the influence of poultry droppings in soil on the heavy metals uptake by fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) and water leaf (Talinum triangulare). Water leaf and fluted pumpkin leaves grown on a soil treated with poultry droppings have been analysed for four (4) heavy metals: Iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The...

Author(s): Ekop, A. S., Williams, I. J. and Daiko, T. C.

August 2011

Effects of rubber effluent, urea and rock phosphate on soil properties and rubber seedlings in an acid sandy soil

A field experiment was conducted to compare the effect of rubber effluent and urea/rock phosphate on the growth of rubber seedlings and soil chemical properties in an ultisol. A randomized complete block design was adopted with three treatment replicated three times. T1 received no soil amendment and served as the control, T2 received 5, 3330 L/ha of rubber factory effluent while T3 received 30 kg/ha...

Author(s): Y. Waizah, F. O. Uzu, J. R. Orimoloye and S. O. Idoko

August 2011

Change of pH, organic carbon (OC), electrical conductivity (EC), nickel (Ni) and chrome (Cr) in soil and concentration of Ni and Cr in radish and lettuce plants as influenced by three year application of municipal compost

In order to investigate the effects of applying municipal solid waste (MSW) on the  amount of pH, organic carbon (OC), electrical conductivity (EC), nickel (Ni) and chrome (Cr) in soil, as well as the concentration of Ni and Cr in lettuce and radish plants, a field experiment was conducted as split-plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2008. The main plot was...

Author(s): S. Rahimi Alashty, M. A. Bahmanyar and M. Ghajar Sepanlou

August 2011

Soil salinity in irrigated fields used for urban agriculture under a semi-arid environment of South Africa

The study quantified the salinity in profiles of urban agriculture soils irrigated using sprinkler, basin and drip methods for 15 years compared with rainfed conditions. The ANOVA showed significant influence (p < 0.05) of both irrigation methods and soil depth on the amount of soluble salts, pH and electrical conductivity (ECe) of the soils. Irrigation methods significantly increased (p < 0.05) the salt...

Author(s): S. A. Materechera

August 2011

Drought-resistance traits variability in Eragrostis tef X Eragrostis pilosa recombinant inbred lines

Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] occupies two million hectares of land each year, which accounts for 28% of the total acreage. However, its productivity is constrained by drought. Development of drought resistant variety through inter-specific conventional crossing is crucial. Twenty five recombinant inbred lines (RILs) ofE. tef var Kay Murii and Eragrostis pilosa were evaluated...

Author(s): Sintayehu Admas and Getachew Belay  

August 2011

Characterization of biometry and the chemical and morphological properties of fibers from bagasse, corn, sunflower, rice and rapeseed residues in Iran

The biometry, morphological properties and chemical composition of bagasse, corn, sunflower, rice, and rapeseed residues were analyzed. The results revealed there were significant differences among the agricultural residues in biometry and morphology properties and chemical composition. The greatest proportion of fiber length (1.32 mm) and cellulose (55.56%) was found in residues of bagasse, with a low ash (1.78%) and...

Author(s): Majid Kiaei, Ahmad Samariha and Jafar Ebrahimpour Kasmani

August 2011

Effects of selective medium on lipid accumulation of chlorellas and screening of high lipid mutants through ultraviolet mutagenesis

Two micro-algae Y019 and Y041 were isolated from tropical fresh water in Hainan, China. Throughphylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequences, they had been identified as Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Subsequently, both of them and C. vulgaris FACHB-31 were cultured respectively in four selective medium (SE, BG11, HSM1, DS) at 25°C, 230...

Author(s): Xiaodong Deng, Yajun Li and Xiaowen Fei,  

August 2011

Effects of salicylic acid and nitric oxide on antioxidant capacity and proline accumulation in Glycine max L. treated with NaCl salinity

The influence of salicylic acid (SA), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and their reciprocal effects (SA+SNP) on certain physiological parameters in soybean seedlings grown in saline and non-saline conditions was investigated. The changes of leaf area, shoot fresh, dry weights and content of photosynthetic pigments showed that the addition of 100 µM SA and/or 100 µM SNP markedly declined the oxidative damage to...

Author(s): Mehdi Simaei, Ramezan Ali Khavari-Nejad, Sara Saadatmand, Francoise Bernard and Hamid Fahimi

August 2011

Impact of changing crop rotation to continuous wheat on soil characteristics in semiarid areas

To evaluate the effect of crop rotation on soil structural properties and aggregate fractal dimension, three locations were selected in Maragheh and Hashtroud areas, northwest of Iran. Four crop rotations were implemented and several soil physical and chemical properties were evaluated. In wheat-chickpea and wheat-fallow rotation treatments (T2 and T4) average bulk density (BD) of 1.155 g cm-3 was...

Author(s): Mehdi Rahmati, Mohammad Reza Neyshabouri, Shahin Oustan, Mohammad Moghadam and Vali Feiziasl

August 2011

Development and release of indigenous maize hybrids to enhance maize yield in khyber-Pakhtoonkhua province of Pakistan

Maize (Zea mays L.) is the second most important summer cereal crop after wheat in Khyber Pakhtoonkhua province of Pakistan. It occupies more than 27% of the total cropped area of the province, however, with a very low yield as compared to the achievable potential of 10 t ha-1. Such a low average yield is primarily due to a widespread use of low-yielding open-pollinated maize cultivars by farmers in different areas...

Author(s): Kiramat Khan, Hassan Sher, Muhammad Iqbal and Fahad Al-Qurainy  

August 2011

Germination responses of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seeds to various salt–alkaline mixed stress

Salinization and alkalization in soil frequently co-occur in agriculture ecosystem, and directly affect plant production. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is important forage with good quality and high yield. Its production is markedly influenced by those attributes of soils, especially mixed salt-alkali stress. However, the knowledge on seeds germination linked to mixed salt-alkali stress received little attention, though...

Author(s): Gao Zhanwu, Zhu Hui, Gao Jicai, Yang Chunwu, Mu Chunsheng and Wang Deli

August 2011

Effects of planting depth and soiling time of the plant foot on the potato yield

To investigate the effects of soil depth and time of applying the soil (soiling time) of the plant foot, an experiment in a randomized complete block design at the research station of Islamic Azad University of Ardabil was conducted. The factors were the time of applying the soil of plant foot (bush height 15, 25 and 35 cm) and depth  of applying the soil in this pattern (or soil forming) (bush height 1/2, 1/3 and...

Author(s): Majid Khayatnezhad and Roza Gholamin

August 2011

The effect of sowing time on germination of twenty two Leguminosae species

Seeds of twenty two leguminous species were sown without any pretreatment in order to investigate the effect of sowing time on their germination in the forest nursery of EÄŸirdir, Turkey. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with four replications. The sowing times were from 1st February to 15th May 2008 with 15 days intervals. According to the analysis results, it was found out that there...

Author(s): Cengiz YücedaÄŸ and H. Cemal Gültekin

August 2011

Investigation of the effective factors on vegetation types in the margin of Dagh Sarah Kavir

The main objectives of this research were to study the effective factors on vegetation types, the qualitative and quantitative conditions and their relationship to soil characteristics at Ardestan County in the northern part of Isfahan province (Iran). After determining the playa area by aerial photographs and topographical maps, the key area was selected, and vegetation and soil investigations were conducted. Two line...

Author(s): Hossein Azarnivand, Mohammad Reza Hajihashemijazi, Korosh Shirani and Reza Kavandi  

August 2011

Participation of the local community in the tourism development of Imbros (Gokceada)

Planning is essential in order to ensure sustainable development of the regions where tourism starts to develop. Adoption of a participatory planning approach enables the community to benefit from the positive effects of tourism, while alleviating its negative effects. This paper aims to set forth the tourism potential of Gokceada, the largest island of Turkey, to determine the problems in relation with the development...

Author(s): Tulay Cengiz, Ferah Ozkok and Cigdem Kaptan Ayhan  

August 2011

Effect of effective microorganisms on growth parameters and serum cholesterol levels in broilers

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different administration methods of effective microorganisms (EM®) on the performance and serum cholesterol level of broilers at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. Uniform weight of mixed sex day-old-broilers of cobb-500 strain (n = 240) were randomly distributed to 4 treatment groups with 3 replications of 20. They were kept under a standard...

Author(s): Wondmeneh Esatu, Adey Melesse and Tadelle Dessie

August 2011

Microbiological properties of mechanically deboned poultry meat that applied lactic acid, acetic acid and sodium lactate

After the removal of the usual meat cuts, there is always an amount of meat which is firmly attached to the bones. Mechanically deboned meat is a product which is separated from the bones. During deboning process, microbial growth on the products is high. In our experimental trials, poultry chest bone samples were kept in 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5% concentrated lactic acid, 0.2 and 0.3% acetic acid; 1 and 2% concentrated sodium...

Author(s): C. HECER and B. H. ULUSOY SÖZEN  

August 2011

Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Arsi Zones of Oromia, Ethiopia

A study to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) was conducted on 625 animals (140 local Arsi cattle breeds and 485 of their crosses with pure Holstein Friesians) randomly selected from four districts of Arsi Zone and West Arsi Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia, using comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIT) test. An overall individual animal prevalence of 12.16% was recorded under traditional animal husbandry...

Author(s): Hunduma Dinka and Asmamau Duressa  

August 2011

Seed priming with phosphorus increased germination and yield of okra

In order to sort out the problem of uneven and poor germination in okra, a research work “the effect of seed priming on okra cv. Sabaz Pari with different sources of phosphorus and soaking durations” was carried out at Horticulture Research Farm, Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan, during summer 2008. The experiment was laid down in randomized complete block design with split plot...

Author(s): Abdul Raziq Shah, Neelam Ara and Gohar Shafi  

August 2011

Application of gamma radiation for controlling the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

The effect of gamma irradiation on different developmental stages of Tribolium castaneum Herbst and the doses required to prevent each of these developmental stages was investigated. The required dose to prevent larval emergence from irradiated 1-2 days old eggs was 150 Gray (Gy) and 100 Gy was required to prevent adult emergence from 15 day-old larvae. Also the dose of radiation required preventing...

Author(s): Hosseinzadeh Abbas and Shayesteh Nouraddin

August 2011

Forage yield and some quality attributes of millet (Pennisetum americannum L.) hybrid under various regimes of nitrogen fertilization and harvesting dates

The current cultivation practices have made the soils deficient in nitrogen and therefore, artificial application of nitrogen is critical to obtain substantial biomass production. A field trial to evaluate the effect of nitrogen levels viz., 75, 100 and 125 kg ha-1 and harvesting times i.e. 45, 60 and 75 days after sowing (DAS) on forage production and quality of millet hybrid (FH-50) was conducted at Agronomic Research...

Author(s): M. Tariq, M. Ayub, M. Elahi, A. H. Ahmad, M. N. Chaudhary and M. A. Nadeem

August 2011

The impact of seed gall nematode on grain yield, quality and marketing prices on durum wheat in Anatolia, Turkey

The objective of this study was to draw the attention for this under estimated pest in the South-east of Anatolia. Field studies were carried out in historically known infested farmer fields to assess the effects of seed gall nematode (Anguina tritici [Steinbuch]) on grain yield, quality and marketing price of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) in the wheat production region of ViranÅŸehir, Anatolia, Turkey...

Author(s): Irfan Ozberk, Siraç Yolcu, Abuzer Yücel, Mehmet Köten and Julie M. Nicol  

August 2011

Are Chinese soybean future markets efficient? A fractal analysis

China is the world's fourth-largest soybean producer and is also the biggest soybean importer. Although China has the largest non-genetically modified soybean futures markets, “whether Chinese soybean future markets are efficient or not” is always the matter at issue in academia. Through reviewing related literatures, we find that most of them adopt traditional econometric model. However, their...

Author(s): Yu Zhao, Yu Zhang and Xiaoming Zou

August 2011

An evaluation of the performance of small scale agribusinesses in Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa

The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of small scale agribusinesses to create employment and generate income. A total of 50 agribusinesses comprising 33 primary production businesses and 17 agro-processing businesses were randomly selected for the study. A set of both closed and open-ended questionnaires was used to collect data on agribusinesses. The results from the study revealed that primary...

Author(s): Maliwichi L. L., Oni S. A. and Sifumba L.  

August 2011

Sensorial and chemical differences between organic and conventional grown figs (Ficus carica L. Cv. Sarilop)

The aim of this research was to determine the differences between organic and conventional grown figs during storage for total sugar content, internal and surface color characteristics and sensorial properties. Total sugar contents of the treatments were significantly different (P < 0.05) at the end of the storage time. It was determined that organic grown figs have higher sugar content than conventionals after 4...

Author(s): Buket Erbay, OÄŸuz Dolgun and Birgül Ertan  

August 2011

Fatty acid composition of Camelina sativa as affected by combined nitrogen and sulphur fertilisation

Camelina (false flax) oil is an important source of linolenic acid (C18:3). As agronomic treatments such as fertilization may affect seed quality parameters in oilseeds, fatty acid composition and oil content ofCamelina sativa were investigated as affected by the combined application of nitrogen and sulphur in pot experiments. Nitrogen was applied as NH4NO3 at rates of 0.6 (N1), 0.9 (N2) or 1.2 (N3) g per pot....

Author(s): Markéta ŠÍPALOVÁ, Tomáš LOŠÁK, Jaroslav HLUŠEK, Johann VOLLMANN, Jozef HUDEC, Radek FILIPÄŒÍK, Michal MACEK and Stanislav KRÁÄŒMAR  

August 2011

Effect of nitrogen and iron fertilizers on seed yield and yield components of safflower genotypes

Nitrogen and Iron fertilizers are considered as important elements in plant nutrition. This experiment was carried out via factorial split plot design based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Nitrogen rates were arranged as the main factor with three levels (0, 75 and 150 kg/ha) and iron spraying (sulphate of iron) with two levels (1/1000 and 2/1000) (kg/1000 L H2O) along with 10 safflower...

Author(s): Sepideh Zareie, Pooran Golkar and Ghasem Mohammadi-Nejad  

August 2011

Selection of geo-synthetic filter materials as drain envelopes in clay and silty loam soils to prevent siltation: A case study from Turkey

Geo-synthetic envelope materials are used in subsurface drain pipes to prevent the entry of soil particles into drains commonly installed to reclaim waterlogged salt affected lands. In-spite of its expensive cost, generally in the world, gravel and sand are traditional envelope materials to prevent the siltation in drain pipes. For this purpose, tube permeameter laboratory research was conducted for comparing geotextile...

Author(s): Ahmet Ä°dris AÄžAR  

August 2011

The effects of some agricultural wastes composts on carnation cultivation

The wastes that come out as a result of agricultural productions are disposed randomly without being utilized in more beneficial ways. While the types and amounts of such wastes differ, it is calculated that each of them has a great volume. Cut flower carnation wastes and spent mushroom compost have a serious potential in Turkey and especially in Antalya, increase soil fertility and has economic benefits,...

Author(s): Ilker Sönmez and Mustafa Kaplan  

August 2011

Characterization of novel microsatellite loci for clam Moerella iridescens (Benson)

From the (CA)15 enriched genomic libraries of Moerella iridescens, eleven novel polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized in M. iridescens (Benson), an important species of marine economic shellfish. The mean number of observed alleles per locus was 18 (range 5 – 34). The observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.043 to 0.979 and from 0.162 to 0.966...

Author(s): Jian-xin Wang, Tian-jun Xu, Li Wei, Fan-xing Meng, Ge Shi and Ri-xin Wang  

August 2011

Impact of different spawn substrates on yield of Calocybe indica

Mushrooms have existed for millions of years and mankind has regarded them as a valuable food and at present, mushroom cultivation is the only economically viable biotechnology process where in waste materials or crop residues may be converted into valuable food. Paddy straw mushroom, Volvariella sp., and oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sp., could not perform better in the summer months because of their...

Author(s): Senthilnambi D., Balabaskar P. and Eswaran A.

August 2011

The effects of cover crown, percentage and slope aspect on the quantitative distribution of the Alder’s saplings in forests of north of Iran

Alder (Alnus subcordata) allocates itself to the 7.6% of Iran's northern forests and after the Beech, Hornbeam and Oak, is the fourth commercial tree of Iran. This tree is aborigine of northern parts of Iran and with itself and in a mixed form with the other tree species, forms a varied forest community. The Alder is a pioneer species, establishes in an open area of the forest, because it likes more lightness to...

Author(s): K. S. A. Mousavi,  G. Ali Roshani, S. G.  Jalali and A. Shahrdami