African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6562

Table of Content: 19 September; 6(19)

September 2011

Recent advances in plant tissue culture of the halophyte Leymus chinensis T. (Poaceae)

Halophyte Leymus chinensis (Trin.), a perennial grass in the Poaceae family, is widely distributed in Northern China, Mongolia and Siberia. Due to its intrinsic stress adaptation and agronomic properties, this grass has been used in artificial grassland construction, ecological environment improvement, grazing, and forage production. However, low fecundity and seed-set are huge problem facing this species, so...

Author(s): Cheng-Wu Jina, Yan-Lin Suna and Soon-Kwan Hong,

September 2011

Statistical optimization of medium components to improve the antibiotic activity of Streptomyces sp. 19G-317

In this paper, fermentation parameters for the production of antibiotics by Streptomyces sp.19G-317 to enhance the antibiotic activity were optimized using a sequential optimization strategy, including the single factor, Plackett-Burman (PB) design, steepest ascent experiment and response surface methodology (RSM). Firstly, the basic medium, suitable carbon and nitrogen sources were selected by single factor...

Author(s): Juntao Feng, Wugang Zhang, Lirong Han and Xing Zhang

September 2011

Assessing the impact of chlorpyrifos on growth, photosynthetic pigments and yield in Vigna radiata L. at different phenological stages

The application of an insecticide is a common practice in the cultivation of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.). It therefore seems important to test the changes that are occurring in this food crop under chlorpyrifos treatments in order to identify the extent to which it tolerates the insecticide application thereby making it an economical food crop. 20 day old seedlings were exposed to different concentrations ranging...

Author(s): Talat Parween, Sumira Jan, Mahmooduzzafar and Tasneem Fatma

September 2011

A survey on pest insect fauna of safflower fields in the Iranian Province of Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is an important oilseed crop and an essential component of cropping systems in the dry regions and marginal areas of the world. Since the identification of insect pests and their natural enemies is one of the most efficient methods for pest management, an attempt was made to investigate insect fauna in safflower fields of Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad Provinces, Iran. To accomplish...

Author(s): Karim Saeidi and Nur Azura Adam

September 2011

Effect of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria isolated from guinea grass on nutritional value of the silages

An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effects of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria on the nutritional values of guinea grass silages. The four epiphytic lactic acid bacteria, namely, Weissella confusa, Weissella paramesenteroides, Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum, and Lactococcus lactis ssp. hordniaewere individually applied in inoculation of guinea grass...

Author(s): M. Pasebani, H. Yaakub, A. R. Alimon and K. Sijam

September 2011

Effect of different cultivation beds on the vegetative growth of Polianthes tuberosa L.

Polianthes tuberosa L. is commercially grown as an ornamental and medicinal plant and as a source of secondary metabolites used in pharmaceutical and perfume industries. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of cultivation beds (sand, fine gravel, manure, perlite and clay) on leaf number, leaf length and days to germination. Results showed that the effect of cultivation beds on these traits were...

Author(s): Eshagh Poursafarali, Davood Hashemabadi, Behzad Kaviani and Abou-al-fazl Kholdi

September 2011

Enhancing farmers’ access to technology for increased rice productivity in Ghana

A two-year emergency rice (Oryza sativa L.) initiative was launched in 2009 in response to the global rice crises in 2008. The objective of this initiative in Ghana was to increase rice productivity in order to improve food security. Project activities included planning sessions, demonstrations, training courses and community seed production. The project made remarkable progress in enhancing access to quality seed...

Author(s): S. S. J. Buah, S. K. Nutsugah, R. A. L. Kanton, I. D. K. Atokple, W. Dogbe, Afia S. Karikari, A. N. Wiredu, A. Amankwah, C. Osei, Olupomi Ajayi and Kabirou Ndiaye

September 2011

Molecular study of PIT1 gene polymorphism in Holstein and Iranian native cattle

Pituitary transcription factor (Pit-1) has been shown to be a positive regulatory factor of growth hormone, thyrotrophin β - subunit (TSH- β), and prolactin in the mammalian pituitary. Pit1 gene structure consists of 6 exons and 5 introns. The objective of the present study was the identification of Pit1 genotypes in Holstein and Iranian native cattle. DNA was extracted from...

Author(s): Abbas Doosti, Asghar Arshi and Behnam Momeni

September 2011

Effects of super absorbent polymer and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on yield and yield components of maize under drought stress and normal conditions

In order to study the effects of super absorbent polymer and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield and yield components of maize (double cross 370), the experiment was done in Karaj region/ Iran in 2009. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with 4 replicates and in two separate experiments under drought stress and normal conditions. Seven different treatments have been...

Author(s): Zahra Moslemi, Davood Habibi, Ahmad Asgharzadeh, Mohammad Reza Ardakani, Abdollah Mohammadi and Azam Sakari

September 2011

Development of sorghum for bio-energy: A view from the stakeholders and priorities for breeding dual purpose varieties

Dual-purpose sorghum for both grain and bio-ethanol would be preferred to maize and sugarcane for energy production amid concerns for food insecurity and drought in southern Africa. Currently, such varieties are not available and stakeholder requirements have not been determined. Therefore, the views of stakeholders from the smallholder farming sector, industry and the academia were solicited as a first step towards...

Author(s): Itai Makanda, John Derera, Pangirayi Tongoona and Julia Sibiya

September 2011

Response of three Calligonum species to salinity at germination and seedling stages

In order to study the effects of salinity stresses on seed germination characteristics and seedling growth ofCalligonum, three species of Calligonum, namely, C. comosum, C. polygonoides and C. persicum were evaluated. Three separate experiments was carried out; Experiment 1: salinity in four levels of 0, 6, 12 and 18 dS/m NaCl, were applied and the traits; germination percent,...

Author(s): H. Dashti, H. Azarnivand, H. Shirani, M. A. Hajabbasi and S. H. Maddahosseini

September 2011

Selection based on tolerance of wheat against terminal drought: Focus on grain yield at the presence of liquid humic fertilizer

One of the most important strategies for wheat breeding in Mediterranean climates is to produce irrigated wheat genotypes, which are potentially capable of growing to yield satisfactorily in spite of experiencing terminal drought. On the other hand, breeders can use humic preparations as an effective stimulus for plant breeding. These natural materials are the fruit of modern humate producing technology. As a result of...

Author(s): Reza Shahryari, Mostafa Valizadeh and Vahid Mollasadeghi

September 2011

Effects of nitric oxide on some physiological characteristics of maize seedlings under waterlogging

Nitric oxide (NO), as a new signal molecular, is now proved to be involved in plant development and resistances to many biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, an experiment was conducted to assess the effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, on both morphological and physiological characteristics of maize under waterlogging stress. Results showed that SNP could increase height, dry weight and activities...

Author(s): Ben Wang, Hongfang Liu, Cuihua Li, Yong Zhu, Xiaohai Tian, Guohui Ma and Huawen Zou

September 2011

Effects of arsenic, cadmium and lead on growth and respiratory enzymes activity in wheat seedlings

The toxic effects of heavy metals, including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), on length and biomass of shoots and roots, their respiratory rate, the gene expression levels of cytochrome oxidase (COD),isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) isoenzymes were studied in the germination stage of wheat (var. ZhengZhou-9023). The results showed that both length and total dry biomass of wheat...

Author(s): Yun Shao, Li-na Jiang, Dai-jing Zhang, Li-juan Ma and Chun-xi Li

September 2011

Evaluation of seed size and genotype on nutrient uptake and growth characteristic of wheat seedling

In order to study the effects of seed size and genotype on nutrient uptake and growth characteristic of wheat, a field experiment was conducted in a split plot randomized block design with genotypes as main plots and seed size as subplots with four blocks at the Roseworthy Campus, the University of Adelaide in 2010. Two experiments were designed: (1) a pot experiment with three harvest times to determine the effect of...

Author(s): Mohsen Moussavi Nik, Mahdi Babaeian, Abolfazl Tavassoli and Ahmad, Asgharzade

September 2011

Measuring the productive efficiency of forest enterprises in Mediterranean Region of Turkey using data envelopment analysis

The purpose of this study is to measure proportionally the productivity of partial and total factors in state forest enterprises. As for partial productivity, land, capital and employee productivity measures are considered. The data envelopment analysis, which is a non parametric method has been used in the study. For the enveloping model, the BBC (Banker, Charnes, Cooper) models have been preferred as input-oriented....

Author(s): Mehmet KORKMAZ

September 2011

Demographic pressure impacts on forests in Rwanda

This paper examines the effects of deforestation and its associated consequences as a result of demographic pressure in Rwanda. It came out that demographic pressure led to forest clearance and  biodiversity disturbances in general, thereby leading to climate change. Using over 30 and 80 years of climatic variables and demographic data respectively, the analysis of the output of ORIGIN PRO 8.0 showed that the...

Author(s): Gabriel Habiyaremye, Ge Jiwen, Jean de la Paix Mupenzi, and Waheed O. Balogun

September 2011

Effects of nitrogen and organic fertilization on corn smut (Ustilago maydis (DC) Corda.)

Corn smut caused by Ustilago maydis occurs wherever conditions are suitable. Corn smut damages plants and reduces yields by forming galls on different parts of plants, including ears, tassels, stalks, and leaves.  It has not been known yet that any fungicide is effective against corn smut. Therefore, it is very important to be able to control the disease through different means. One of the effective means...

Author(s): M. Aydogdu and N. Boyraz

September 2011

Farmers’ perceptions and management of maize ear rots and their implications for breeding for resistance

Smallholder farmers’ perceptions and management practices of maize ear rots, and their implications in breeding for host plant resistance were investigated using a participatory rural appraisal in four maize growing locations in central Zambia: Barlastone, Kalimansenga, Kasaka and Mulabo. Focus group discussions and interviews were held with 90 randomly selected farmers on issues regarding major maize constraints,...

Author(s): Mweshi Mukanga, John Derera, Pangirayi Tongoona and M. D. Laing

September 2011

Evaluation of various fungicides for the control of gram wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium f.sp. ciceris

Fungitoxic effects of six fungicides, namely, Benomyl, Derosal, Ridomil, Cabrio Top, Vitavax and Prevent at four concentrations, 5, 10, 20 and 50 ppm were tested through poisoned food technique. There was a significant decrease in mycelial growth of the fungus with an increase in fungicidal concentration. The most effective fungicides in inhibiting the growth of the fungus, in descending order were Derosal, Benomyl and...

Author(s): Muhammad Nasir Subhani, Shahbaz Talib Sahi, Safdar Hussain, Anser Ali, Javaid Iqbaland Kiran Hameed

September 2011

Study on isolated pathogen of leaf blight and screening antagonistic bacteria from healthy leaves of Camellia oleifera

Leaf blight of Camellia oleifera is one of the major diseases in Camellia producing areas of China. The pathogen infects leaves of the host plants and causes leaves to drop, resulting in early defoliation and new treetops death and eventually yield reduction. The pathogen of leaf blight was isolated from the infected leaves ofC. oleifera (NO.CSUFT070160B). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS)...

Author(s): LI, He, ZHOU, Guoying, ZHANG, Huaiyun, SONG, Guangtao and LIU, Junang,

September 2011

Review of scientific research into the Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD) of coconut in Ghana

A comprehensive review of the literature on scientific research into the Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD) of coconut in Ghana was carried out for a three-fold objective: (1) to highlight past scientific research efforts and achievements; (2) so as to provide a reasonably objective basis for evaluating current research efforts at containing the menace of the disease in Ghana, with the view to making an informed...

Author(s): DANYO, G

September 2011

DNA cytosine methylation alterations associated with aluminium toxicity and low pH in Sorghum bicolor

Aluminium (Al) toxicity stress reduces crop yields in acidic soils. In this study, we investigated the level of DNA Cytosine methylation polymorphism caused by 150 μM Al3+ (89.97% free Al3+) induction, low pH (4.0) and continuous application of 150 μM Al3+ in Sorghum inbred lines using methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis (MSAP) and searched for homologies using the BLASTN program. We...

Author(s): Josphert N. Kimatu, Moussa Diarso, Congdi Song, Rebecca S. Agboola, Jinsong Pang, Xin Qi and Bao Liu

September 2011

In-vitro behavior of Trichoderma spp. against Phytophthora capsici Leonian

The antagonist effects of thirty one Trichoderma strains isolated from different regions of México onPhytophthora capsici Leonian were evaluated.  In this study, both fungal species were confronted on petri dishes with agar-potato-dextrose (PDA) medium. Thirteen out of thirty one Trichoderma strains showed a good competition level, covering the petri dish area completely....

Author(s):

September 2011

Effects of infiltration time on the calculated sorptivity with White method for a sandy loam soil

Sorptivity (S) is one of the important soil hydraulic parameters, which can be estimated by disc infiltration data at the early stage with one dimensional infiltration theory. With the purpose of understanding the effects of infiltration time (IT) on the estimated S, two sizes (radius of 5 and 2.5 cm) of disc infiltrometer were used to perform disc infiltration under five pressure heads (0, -3, -6, -9, -15 cm)...

Author(s): Wei Hu, Quanjiu Wang, Mingan Shao and Zhengshan Ju

September 2011

The effects of land use on biomass and catabolic diversity of soil microbial communities

An understanding of the factors influencing microbial diversity in soils is essential to predict the effects of current land use trends on diversity. In this study, the effects of soil management (high and low input systems and pasture) on microbial biomass and diversity was investigated. Respiration responses to specific substrate were used to measure soil microbial diversity. Catabolic evenness and richness of...

Author(s): Mohammad R. Asgharipour and Majid Rafiei

September 2011

Periodic flooding and land use effects on soil properties in Lake Victoria basin

Frequent periodic flooding and land use changes taking place in the Lake Victoria basin (LVB) in east Africa may cause soil deterioration and further exacerbating food insecurity. Surface (0 to 20 cm) soil samples were collected at three locations along Sondu Miriu (Kenya) and Simiyu-Duma (Tanzania) rivers. Samples were collected from fields that were periodically flooded (1-28 d) and those that never flood, either...

Author(s): Nancy Mungai W., Njue A. M., Abaya Samuel G., Vuai Said A. H. and Ibembe John D.

September 2011

Influence of salinity on the germination of Iranian alfalfa ecotypes

Nineteen ecotypes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) from Iran were evaluated for their salt tolerance based on responses of their seed germination with increasing salinity levels. Seeds of alfalfa were obtained from various parts of Iran under diverse climatic zones. The study was conducted at Putra Malaysia University during March 2008. Seeds were placed in petri dishes on filter papers immersed in solutions with six levels...

Author(s): M. Torabi, R. A. Halim, U. R. Sinniah and R. Choukan

September 2011

Effects of environmental factors and methanol on germination and emergence of Persian Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)

In this research, influences of environmental factors and methanol on seed germination and seedling emergence of Persian Fenugreek were studied. Optimum germination and emergence occurred within the constant temperature range of 20 to 24°C, pH range of 7 to 9, and planting depth of 1 cm, with light stimulating germination. The most water imbibition trend in time course was observed at 25°C. Germination was at...

Author(s): Ali Mehrafarin, Hassanali Naghdi Badi, Ghorban Noormohammadi, Eskandar Zand, Shamsali Rezazadeh and Ardeshir Qaderi

September 2011

The impact of land transfers in the different agricultural sectors of the North West Province

Imbalances and inefficiency fostered by the policies of the previous South African government necessitate changes to reduce the imbalance of the past and enhance the inclusiveness and competitiveness of the agricultural industry. Against this background, the policy of land reform was initiated. In theory, the agricultural land reform policy might appear effective; given that agriculture is a major contributor to rural...

Author(s): Philippus Christoffel Cloete, Herman Daniel van Schalkwyk and Ernst Former Idsardi

September 2011

Multicointegration analysis on the high yielding Boro rice of six selected districts in Bangladesh

Rice is the principal agricultural crop in Bangladesh and Boro rice is a special variety of rice. Production of Boro rice differs from district to district due to various factors like environment, geographical location, climatic changes, etc. In this article, our particular interest is whether or not cointegration/multicointegration exists amongst six major rice producing districts in Bangladesh. The six districts are...

Author(s): Provash Kumar Karmokar, Mahendran Shitan, and A. B. M. Rabiul Alam Beg

September 2011

Nanotheoretical studies on evaluation of anti cancer potential on mangosteen plant

In this research, we have studied the biological and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters for some atoms in paradole with different functional groups in the active site of mangosteen extract. These molecules are a series of chemical homologs differentiated by the length of their unbranched alkyl chains. In addition, the shogaols, another homologous series and the dehydrated form of the mangosteenols,...

Author(s): M. Monajjemi, V. Azizi, Sh. Amini and F. Mollaamin

September 2011

Photosynthetic, chlorophyll fluorescence and growth changes in hot pepper under deficit irrigation and partial root zone drying

There is increasing evidence that the spatial distribution of water within the root zone, as well as total soil water status, determines plant physiological and agronomic responses. To examine the response of photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and growth of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) to deficit irrigation (DI50, 50% of the control) and partial root-zone drying (PRD, with half of the root system exposed to...

Author(s): Shao Guang-cheng, Guo Rui-qi, Liu Na, Yu Shuang-en, and Xing Weng-gang,