African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12193

Full Length Research Paper

Composition and antioxidant and antifungal activities of the essential oil from Lippia gracilis Schauer

Caroline da S. Franco
  • Caroline da S. Franco
  • Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Pará, 66075-900 Belém, PA, Brazil.
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Alcy F. Ribeiro
  • Alcy F. Ribeiro
  • Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, Universidade Federal do Pará, 66075-900 Belém, PA, Brazil.
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Natale C. C. Carvalho
  • Natale C. C. Carvalho
  • Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, 65080-040 São Luis, MA, Brazil.
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Odair S. Monteiro
  • Odair S. Monteiro
  • Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, 65080-040 São Luis, MA, Brazil.
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Joyce Kelly R. da Silva
  • Joyce Kelly R. da Silva
  • Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Pará, 66075-900 Belém, PA, Brazil.
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Eloisa Helena A. Andrade
  • Eloisa Helena A. Andrade
  • Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, Universidade Federal do Pará, 66075-900 Belém, PA, Brazil.
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José Guilherme S. Maia*
  • José Guilherme S. Maia*
  • Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Pará, 66075-900 Belém, PA, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Naturais da Amazônia, Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, 68010-110 Santarém, PA, Brazil.
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  •  Received: 13 November 2012
  •  Accepted: 03 July 2014
  •  Published: 23 July 2014

Abstract

In this study, the oil constituents of Lippia gracilis were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant and antifungal activities were also evaluated. The leaf oil showed a yield of 3.7% and its main constituents were thymol (70.3%), p-cymene (9.2%), thymol methyl ether (5.4%) and p-methoxythymol (2.7%). The thin stem oil showed a yield of 0.4% and its major components were thymol (70.1%), thymol methyl ether (4.4%), p-methoxythymol (4.0%), p-cymene (3.8%), α-humulene (2.4%) and (E)-caryophyllene (2.1%). The aromatic monoterpenes found in the oils showed an average of 88%. The scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) for the leaf oil, expressed as half maximal effective concentration (EC50), was 35.7±3.3 µg/ml, indicating high antioxidant activity. The evaluation of fungicide activity for the leaf oil, using direct bioautography, showed also a significant value for lethal concentration (LC50 5.0 μg/ml) against Cladosporium sphaerospermum and C. cladosporioides fungi.

 

Key words: Essential oil composition, thymol and carvacrol, DPPH radical scavenging and bioautography