The main cause of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is disturbed carbohydrate metabolism indicated by hyperglycemia. Insulin secretion is disturbed by inflammatory process in the body due to imbalanced diet, hormonal disturbance and genetics. The serum sialic acid has been investigated as a parameter to evaluate intensity of DM2. 200 individuals of both genders were included and were divided into four groups (50 each) which include; Group 1, the control; Group 2, diabetics without complications; Group 3, diabetics with renal complications and Group 4, diabetics with renal complication and retinopathy. All the blood components were estimated by using enzymatic kits. Body mass index (BMI) was also estimated. It was observed that serum sialic acid (mg%) showed significantly higher (P< 0.01) values in diabetics than control and all other risk factors. All other parameters revealed significantly higher differences than control group with diabetic complications. The present findings indicated that elevated serum sialic acid levels predict renal function disturbance. The serum sialic acid may be taken as a strong predictor of renal dysfunction in diabetes.
Key words: Sialic acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, nephropathy, retinopathy, body mass index (BMI).