Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and remains a major global public health concern. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of drug resistance and the genetic variation among MTBC population in pulmonary tuberculosis patients co-infected with Malaria at Jamot Hospital in Yaoundé-Cameroon. This was a 12 months cross-sectional study that enrolled 336 participants aged 15 years and above. Following sputum culture on solid media, drug resistance was detected using the proportion method and later confirmed by the Line Probe Assay. Isolates were further subjected to molecular characterization using spoligotyping. Amongst the 336 TB patients registered in this study, there were 17 (5.05%) TB-Malaria co-infected patients. Overall, in 25 (12.88%) patients the bacteria were resistant to at least one anti-TB drug, of which, 3 (1.54%) were co-infected with malaria. Multidrug-resistance (MDR) was observed in 2 cases (1.02%), 1 (0.51%) of which was in a TB-Malaria co-infected patient. M. tuberculosis was the only species identified. The T1 (60%) and the LAM10_CAM (27.5%) families were the most prevalent genetic families both in TB-malaria co-infected and in mono-infected TB patients. The description of drug resistance prevalence and of the M. tuberculosis genetic diversity is expected to contribute to improving the TB case management in Cameroon.
Key words: Pulmonary tuberculosis, multidrug resistance, line probe assay, spoligotyping, genetic diversity, HJY, co-infection.
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