African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12213

Full Length Research Paper

Conversion of lignocellulose from palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit fibre and physic (Jatropha curcas) nut shell into bio-oil

Onifade, T. B.
  • Onifade, T. B.
  • Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.
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Wandiga, S. O.
  • Wandiga, S. O.
  • Institute for Climate Change and Adaptation, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
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Bello, I. A.
  • Bello, I. A.
  • Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.
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Jekanyinfa, S. O.
  • Jekanyinfa, S. O.
  • Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.
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Harvey, P. J.
  • Harvey, P. J.
  • Faculty of Engr and Science, University of Greenwich Central Avenue, Kent, United Kingdom.
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  •  Received: 27 March 2017
  •  Accepted: 13 June 2017
  •  Published: 15 November 2017

Abstract

Harmful gases are released into the atmosphere through burning of residues which is commonly practiced in Nigeria and can be attributed to climate change issues. Agricultural residues have the potentials to be used as energy and chemical source and meet its deficit in the country. This paper focuses on utilization of lignocellulosic materials obtained from two agricultural residues through renewable technology to produce bio-energy and chemical feedstock. The lignocellulosic materials were extracted from palm fruit (Elaeis guineensis) fibre and physic nut (Jatropha curcas) shell, and pyrolyzed under low temperature and pressure at various particle sizes. The main properties of solid (lignocellulosic) materials were tested and the bio-oil produced was analyzed using GC-MS. Results show proximate analyses (volatile, ash and fixed carbon contents) and ultimate analysis (carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc). The pH value of the bio-oil from both residues increased with increase in temperatures. The density, viscosity and calorific value of the palm and physic residue oil are 831.99 and 947.5 kg/m3, 0.695 and 1.58 cPa at room temperature, 22.33 and 14.169 kJ/g, respectively. Aromatics and other compounds are major dominant compounds in the palm fruit fibre oil which is characterized for bio-fuel production. Physic nut shell oil contains aromatic ethers, cyclic ethers, secondary amides and organic halogen compound which are important chemical feedstock. Conversion of these residues to useful products will alleviate the energy supply deficit, improve social and economic development, promote clean and healthy atmosphere of the nation and significantly contribute to global climate change mitigation.

 

Key words: Palm fruit fibre, physic nut shell, lignocellulose, pyrolysis, bio-energy, climate change.