African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12227

Full Length Research Paper

Cobalt removal from wastewater using pine sawdust

Evans T. Musapatika1, Ruella Singh1, Krishnie Moodley1, Charles Nzila2, Maurice S. Onyango3 and Aoyi Ochieng4*
  1School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag X3 Wits 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa. 2Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Gent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent-Belgium. 3Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, Private Bag X680 Pretoria, 0001, South Africa. 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Vaal University of Technology, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark, 1900, South Africa.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 27 September 2011
  •  Published: 15 May 2012



Agricultural wastes can cause environmental problems if not well managed, but there is a lot of potential to use these wastes as raw material in other processes. In this investigation, pine sawdust was evaluated as an adsorbent in the treatment of wastewater containing cobalt ions. A two-level three-factor full-factorial experimental design with centre points was used to study the interactive effect of the operating parameters in order to achieve the best conditions for the batch adsorption of cobalt ions. A response surface analysis was also conducted to further understand the interactions amongst the factors such as adsorbent dose, solution pH and initial concentration. In addition, adsorption isotherms, namely the Freundlich and Langmuir, were used to characterize the removal of cobalt from the wastewater. It was observed that the combined effect of low adsorbent dose, high pH and high initial concentration of wastewater resulted in the highest adsorption capacity. The Freundlich isotherm provided a better fit to the experimental data than the Langmuir isotherm. Moreover, pine sawdust showed adsorption capabilities for cobalt, and hence it could be an option in the quest to use waste to treat wastewater.


Key words: Adsorption, cobalt, isotherm, sawdust, wastewater.

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