African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12392


Imaging from anatomic to molecular and atomic resolution scales: A review

Kamweru, Paul Kuria
  • Kamweru, Paul Kuria
  • Department of Physical Sciences, Chuka University, P. O. Box 109-60400, Chuka, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 23 September 2016
  •  Accepted: 19 January 2017
  •  Published: 30 June 2021


Imaging may be referred to as the ‘eyes of science’ as it provides scientists with highly informative multi-dimensional and multi-parameter data usually invisible to the naked eye. As instrumentation technologies and genetic engineering advances, it’s possible in modern times to observe and image highly dynamic biochemistry processes. This paper reviews positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, visible light microscopy, bioluminescence (BLI) and fluorescence mediated tomography (FMT) imaging techniques, highlighting the principles behind the operation of each technique, their major strengths and drawbacks. With the enhancement of the existing techniques and evolution of new ones, the future possibility of refined view of systems invisible to naked human eye is promising. More so is when two or more techniques are combined in biological systems analysis.


Key words: Optical, imaging, microscopy, resolution, fluorescence.