African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12193

Full Length Research Paper

Evaluation of alterations in the urine biochemical profiles of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Southwest, Nigeria

Oyebola Ganiyu Adeosun
  • Oyebola Ganiyu Adeosun
  • Department of Chemical Pathology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
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John Ibhagbemien Anetor
  • John Ibhagbemien Anetor
  • Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
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Jayeola O. Ogunlewe
  • Jayeola O. Ogunlewe
  • Department of Chemical Pathology and Immunology Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria
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Rosemary Temidayo Ikem
  • Rosemary Temidayo Ikem
  • Department of Medicine (Endocrinology &Nephrology units) Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Nigeria
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Babatope Ayodeji Kolawole
  • Babatope Ayodeji Kolawole
  • Department of Medicine (Endocrinology &Nephrology units) Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Nigeria
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Fatiu A. Arogundade
  • Fatiu A. Arogundade
  • Department of Chemical Pathology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
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Samuel O. Oyedeji
  • Samuel O. Oyedeji
  • Department of Chemical Pathology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
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  •  Accepted: 30 October 2013
  •  Published: 01 January 2014

Abstract

Diabetic nephropathy is a major sign of kidney dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. The identification of biochemical markers for the clinical course of kidney dysfunction in diabetes mellitus remains a major challenge in the disease management. We investigated the changes in 24 h urine excretion of biochemical indices of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We estimated 24 h urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, inorganic-phosphate, total protein, uric-acid, urea, creatinine, specific gravity, and Ph in 150 type 2 diabetic subjects and their age matched controls by standard methods. Plasma urea and creatinine were also estimated and creatinine and urea clearances calculated for both subjects. The demographic and anthropometric indices of the subjects were obtained from the case files. Results were analyzed statistically by standard statistical spss package version 11.0 to draw conclusion from the data generated. Urinary excretion of total protein, inorganic-phosphate, bicarbonate, urine volume and pH values were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the diabetics than in none diabetic controls, while urinary excretion of calcium, urea, creatinine, uric-acid, urea and creatinine clearances were significantly reduced (p<0.001, p<0.05 respectively) when compared with the controls. Urinary excretion of total protein and fasting glucose have significant direct correlation  with the disease duration, while  a significant inverse correlation exist between urea, inorganic-phosphate and the disease duration (P<0.05). Significant proteinuria becomes detectable in diabetes mellitus 1-5 years after diagnosis. Urine biochemical indices are altered in type 2 diabetes mellitus and the alterations correlate with the disease duration.

 

Key words: Diabetes mellitus, diabetes nephropathy, urinary excretion, biochemical indices, disease duration.