Diabetic nephropathy is a major sign of kidney dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. The identification of biochemical markers for the clinical course of kidney dysfunction in diabetes mellitus remains a major challenge in the disease management. We investigated the changes in 24 h urine excretion of biochemical indices of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We estimated 24 h urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, inorganic-phosphate, total protein, uric-acid, urea, creatinine, specific gravity, and Ph in 150 type 2 diabetic subjects and their age matched controls by standard methods. Plasma urea and creatinine were also estimated and creatinine and urea clearances calculated for both subjects. The demographic and anthropometric indices of the subjects were obtained from the case files. Results were analyzed statistically by standard statistical spss package version 11.0 to draw conclusion from the data generated. Urinary excretion of total protein, inorganic-phosphate, bicarbonate, urine volume and pH values were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the diabetics than in none diabetic controls, while urinary excretion of calcium, urea, creatinine, uric-acid, urea and creatinine clearances were significantly reduced (p<0.001, p<0.05 respectively) when compared with the controls. Urinary excretion of total protein and fasting glucose have significant direct correlation with the disease duration, while a significant inverse correlation exist between urea, inorganic-phosphate and the disease duration (P<0.05). Significant proteinuria becomes detectable in diabetes mellitus 1-5 years after diagnosis. Urine biochemical indices are altered in type 2 diabetes mellitus and the alterations correlate with the disease duration.
Key words: Diabetes mellitus, diabetes nephropathy, urinary excretion, biochemical indices, disease duration.
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