The use of propolis for the treatment of various ailments in which inflammation and pain is involved is cross-cultural. This report was designed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of propolis obtained from Gboko, Benue State using hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol solvents. Propolis sample obtained from beehives was homogenized, extracted and dried at 40°C. The dry extract was prepared in a solution of olive oil for pharmacological and toxicological tests. Acute toxicity of propolis in varying polarity was determined using albino rats. Oedema volume of albino rat’s paw was used to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of the sample. Analgesic property of the sample was investigated by measuring the number of acetic acid induced writhing in albino rats. Hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts of propolis were non-toxic at 1,000 mg/kg bodyweight. During anti-inflammatory investigation, sample at 300 and 200 mg/kg bodyweight showed better activity than the standard drug, indomethacin. Best anti-inflammatory activity was observed with ethanol fraction at 300 mg/kg bodyweight. Best analgesic activity (100%) was recorded at 200 mg/kg in hexane. These results show that both non-polar and polar extracts of propolis have anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities at various dosages.
Key words: Propolis, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, acetic acid, diclofenac, indomethacin, Nigeria, polarity.
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