Sugarcane is an important perennial, polyploidy crop. Based on the growing demand, it has now attracted great attention as cash crop. Tissue culture technique, an alternative method for solving production problem and increasing production, was used in this study. The work was carried out at the Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA), Tandojam, Pakistan. Standardization of protocol for proliferation of callus and induction of callus were established through in vitro culture using young meristem of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) as explants to enhance genetic variation in sugarcane varieties. Three varieties (NIA-2012, Gulabi-95 and NIA-105) were used. The shoot tips were supplemented with Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium modified with three auxins (2, 4-D, Picloram, NAA). All the auxins were applied in 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg L-1. MS basal medium was used as control free from concentration of auxins. Highly significant (p < 0.05) variations were observed in sugarcane varieties for all parameters of callus culture; while interactive effect of variety x treatment x concentration was non-significant for proliferation weight of callus. Among all the tested auxins 2, 4-D at 3.0 mgL-1 concentration proved to be the most effective auxin for callus proliferation and weight of all the sugarcane varieties. In light of the present research, it is concluded that auxins are preferable for future work in relation to in vitro callus induction for all varieties of sugarcane.
Key words: Saccharum officinarum, in vitro, callus induction, auxins, proliferation.
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