African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12267

Full Length Research Paper

Microbiological and physico-chemical characteristic of Rwandese traditional beer “Ikigage”

F. Lyumugabe1, 2*, G. Kamaliza2, E. Bajyana2 and P. H. Thonart1
1Walloon Center of Industrial Biology, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liege, passage des déportés 2, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium. 2Faculty of Science, National University of Rwanda, B.P 117 Butare, Rwanda.
Email: [email protected], [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 21 May 2010
  •  Published: 31 July 2010


Samples of traditional sorghum beer Ikigage was collected in the southern province of Rwanda and analyzed for microbiological and physico-chemical contents.Ikigage contained total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (33.55 x 106 cfu/ml), yeast (10.15 x 106 cfu/ml), lactic acid bacteria (35.35 x 104 cfu/ml), moulds (4.12 x 104cfu/ml), E. coli (21.90 x 103 cfu/ml), fecal streptococci (22.50 x 103 cfu/ml),Staphylococcus aureus (16.02 x 103 cfu/ml), total coliform (32.30 x 103 cfu/ml),  ethanol, soluble protein, reducing sugars, total acidity, pH and Brix were 2.2% (v/v), 9.2 g/l, 2.3, 1.7%, 3.9 and 11.5 bx, respectively. The yeast was identified by API 20 C test and confirmed by PCR-Sequencing of ITS-5.8S region of rDNA. Seventy yeasts isolated in the samples were found to belong to either Saccharomyces cerevisaeCandida inconspicuaIssatchenkia orientalisCandida magnolia andCandida humilis. Lactic acid bacteria were identified using the API 50 CHL system. Ten different isolates of lactic acid bacteria belonged exclusively to the genus Lactobacillus: Lactobacillus fermentumLactobacillus buchneri, and Lactobacillussp. The micro-organisms of fecal origin are from the water and the operations post-fermentation process. The presence of potential pathogens emphasizes the importance of developing starter cultures with GRAS status for commercialization of ikigage.


Key words: Sorghum beer, Ikigage, alcohol fermentation, microbiology, physico-chemistry.