African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12227

Full Length Research Paper

Anti-plasmodial and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of the fresh leaf of Lophira lanceolata (Ochnaceae)

Collins Azubuike Onyeto*
  • Collins Azubuike Onyeto*
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 410001, Enugu State, Nigeria.
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Peter Achunike Akah
  • Peter Achunike Akah
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 410001, Enugu State, Nigeria.
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Chukwuemeka Sylvester Nworu
  • Chukwuemeka Sylvester Nworu
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 410001, Enugu State, Nigeria.
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Theophine Chinwuba Okoye
  • Theophine Chinwuba Okoye
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 410001, Enugu State, Nigeria.
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Nkemakolam Austine Okorie
  • Nkemakolam Austine Okorie
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 410001, Enugu State, Nigeria.
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Florence Nwakaego Mbaoji
  • Florence Nwakaego Mbaoji
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 410001, Enugu State, Nigeria.
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Ifeoma Amarachukwu Nwabunike
  • Ifeoma Amarachukwu Nwabunike
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 410001, Enugu State, Nigeria.
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Nelson Okumah
  • Nelson Okumah
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 410001, Enugu State, Nigeria.
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Obinna Okpara
  • Obinna Okpara
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 410001, Enugu State, Nigeria.
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  •  Received: 06 February 2014
  •  Accepted: 31 March 2014
  •  Published: 16 April 2014

Abstract

This study was aimed at investigating the anti-plasmodial and antioxidant activities of the extract of the leaf of Lophira lanceolata, a traditional medicine recipe. The methanol extract (ME) obtained by 72 h cold maceration was evaluated for acute toxicity test (LD50) and phytochemical constituents. The suppressive and curative anti-plasmodial activities of the extract were investigated using rodent malaria model. Mice (20 to 34 g) infected with 1 × 107 Plasmodium berghei parasitized red blood cell were used to test for suppressive and curative anti-plasmodial activities after oral administration of ME (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) for four and seven days, respectively. The preliminary antioxidant activity of the extract (25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 μg/ml) was evaluated using in vitro 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and reducing (power) ability assays. The methanol leaf extract of L. lanceolata exhibited a dose-dependent suppression of parasitaemia up to 100% suppression at 400 mg/kg. The suppression produced by the extract was significantly (P< 0.05) higher than the chemo suppression produced by 20 mg/kg chloroquine (50.90%). Similarly, the extract at the same doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited significant (P<0.05) but non-dose-related decreases in parasitaemia in the curative model (60.90, 54.69 and 79.69%) which was comparable to the 82.80% decrease caused by chloroquine (20 mg/kg). Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, oils, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, acidic compounds, terpenoids and reducing sugar. The LD50   test caused no deaths in the treated mice up to 5,000 mg/kg body weight. The DPPH assay, for free radical scavenging effect of the methanol extract was significant (P<0.001) as the concentration increases. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging and reducing power assays showed concentration-dependent and significant (P<0.05) results. These findings suggest that methanolic extract of the leaf of L. lanceolata is safe up to a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight and possesses anti-plasmodial and anti-oxidant activities.

 

Key words: Lophira lanceolata, anti-plasmodial, anti-oxidant, plasmodium berghei, DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, albino mice.