African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12191

Full Length Research Paper

Antifungal activities of selected Venda medicinal plants against Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from South African AIDS patients

A. Samie1*, T. Tambani1, E. Harshfield2, E. Green3, J. N. Ramalivhana4 and P. O. Bessong1
  1AIDS Virus Research Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Venda, Thohoyandou , South Africa. 2Department of Chemical engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA. 3Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa. 4College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of South Africa, Private bag X6, Florida, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Email: [email protected], [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 30 December 2009
  •  Published: 17 May 2010

Abstract

 

Infection with HIV leads to immunosuppression and up to 90% of HIV infected individuals contract fungal infections of which 10 - 20% die as a direct consequence of these infections. In the present study, 76 extracts from 30 plants used by Venda traditional healers for the treatment of fungal related ailments, were tested for their antifungal activities against clinical isolates of Candida albicansCandida krusei andCryptococcus neoformans using the agar diffusion and the microdilution methods. The minimum fungicidal concentrations as well as the time kill curves of the thee most active plants were also determined. Extracts from 25 plants (83.3%) were active against C. albicansC. krusei or C. neoformans. Thirty two extracts were active against C. neoformans, while 15 were active against C. albicans and 12 were active against C. kruseiWarburgia salutaris, Cassine transvaalensis, Piper capense, Maerua edulis, Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifolia, Berchemia discolorand Lippia javanica were not only inhibitory to fungal growth but also had fungicidal effects against one or all the 3 fungi tested (MIC/MFC between 0.11 and 7.5 mg/ml). Hexane extracts were also active indicating that many of the antifungal components of these plants are non-polar compounds. Time-to- kill experiments indicated an intense time-dependent fungicidal effect against C. albicans, achieving over a 5 h-period a 6 log10-unit decrease in CFU/ml at a concentration of 0.4 mg/ml for W. salutaris. The present study justifies the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of opportunistic infections in the region.

 

Key words: Candidiasis, Cryptococcosis, HIV/AIDS, medicinal plants, MIC, MFC, Venda, South Africa.