African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12318

Full Length Research Paper

Improving oxidative stability of ghee using natural oxidants from agri-industrial wastes

Kahled M. El-Zahar*
  • Kahled M. El-Zahar*
  • Food Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, 44519 Zagazig, Egypt; University of La Rochelle, Laboratory of Transfer Phenomena and Instantaneity in Agro-Industry and Building, Pôle Science and Technology. Av. Michel Crépeau 17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01, France.
  • Google Scholar
Gehan A. El-Shourbagy
  • Gehan A. El-Shourbagy
  • Food Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, 44519 Zagazig, Egypt.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 10 July 2014
  •  Accepted: 22 August 2014
  •  Published: 10 September 2014


Bioactive compounds found in peanut skin (PS), pomegranate peels (PP) and olive pomace (OP) cake were extracted using ethanol (80%), ethyl acetate and hexane. The ethanol extract showed slightly better antioxidant characteristics than ethyl acetate and hexane extracts. Extracts showed varying degrees of antioxidant potential in different test systems in a dose-dependent manner. In general, it was observed that extracts with higher antioxidant capacity were in parallel to their higher phenolic contents. Total phenolic compounds (as gallic acid equivalent, GAE) ranged between 0.89 to 16.6, 1.83 to 261 and 1.56 to 124 mg  GAE/g extract for OP, PS and PP, respectively. Ethanol extracts of different by-products were added to ghee at concentrations of 200, 400 and 600 ppm, respectively. BHA was also added to ghee at a concentration of 200 ppm. All samples were incubated at 63°C/21days. Ethanol extracts of PS, OP and PP gave good antioxidant activity during accelerated oxidative incubation of ghee. It could be concluded that ethanol extracts under study, at a concentration of 200 ppm, can retard fat auto-oxidation.


Key words: Ghee, agri industrial by-products, natural antioxidants, stability indices.